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1.  Impact of Time Allocation Practices on Academic Outcomes for Students from a 2-Campus Pharmacy School 
Objective: To assess how students from 2 campuses spent their time during P1-P3 (first through third) years, and whether that time allocation impacted their APPE grades and NAPLEX performance.
Methods: Data from 2 graduating classes were gathered, including baseline student demographics, academic performance, licensing examination scores and pass rates, and an annual internal student survey. For the survey, students were asked how much time they spent each week on class attendance, watching recorded lectures, studying and course-related activities, school-sponsored extracurricular activities, and work. Data was analyzed by campus for the 3 years (P1-P3) and then evaluated separately as individual academic years.
Results: There were statistical differences between campuses in attending class, watching recorded lectures, and participating in school activities. However, there was no statistical difference between the 2 campuses in APPE grades, NAPLEX scores, or pass rates.
Conclusion: How students from these 2 campuses spent their time during pharmacy school was not predictive of academic success.
PMCID: PMC4315201  PMID: 25657366
distance education; satellite; time allocation
2.  The Status of US Multi-campus Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
To assess the current status of multi-campus colleges and schools of pharmacy within the United States.
Data on multi-campus programs, technology, communication, and opinions regarding benefits and challenges were collected from Web sites, e-mail, and phone interviews from all colleges and schools of pharmacy with students in class on more than 1 campus.
Twenty schools and colleges of pharmacy (18 public and 2 private) had multi-campus programs; 16 ran parallel campuses and 4 ran sequential campuses. Most programs used synchronous delivery of classes. The most frequently reported reasons for establishing the multi-campus program were to have access to a hospital and/or medical campus and clinical resources located away from the main campus and to increase class size. Effectiveness of distance education technology was most often sited as a challenge.
About 20% of colleges and schools of pharmacy have multi-campus programs most often to facilitate access to clinical resources and to increase class size. These programs expand learning opportunities and face challenges related to technology, resources, and communication.
PMCID: PMC2972518  PMID: 21088729
multi-campus; distance education; administration
3.  Impact of Hybrid Delivery of Education on Student Academic Performance and the Student Experience 
To compare student academic performance and the student experience in the first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program between the main and newly opened satellite campuses of the University of Maryland.
Student performance indicators including graded assessments, course averages, cumulative first-year grade point average (GPA), and introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) evaluations were analyzed retrospectively. Student experience indicators were obtained via an online survey instrument and included involvement in student organizations; time-budgeting practices; and stress levels and their perceived effect on performance.
Graded assessments, course averages, GPA, and IPPE evaluations were indistinguishable between campuses. Students' time allocation was not different between campuses, except for time spent attending class and watching lecture videos. There was no difference between students' stress levels at each campus.
The implementation of a satellite campus to expand pharmacy education yielded academic performance and student engagement comparable to those from traditional delivery methods.
PMCID: PMC2779633  PMID: 19960080
satellite campus; technology; assessment; distance learning
4.  Complex Issues Affecting Student Pharmacist Debt 
It is time for colleges and schools of pharmacy to examine and confront the rising costs of pharmacy education and the increasing student loan debt borne by graduates. These phenomena likely result from a variety of complex factors. The academy should begin addressing these issues before pharmacy education becomes cost-prohibitive for future generations. This paper discusses some of the more salient drivers of cost and student debt load and offers suggestions that may help alleviate some of the financial pressures.
PMCID: PMC4174373  PMID: 25258436
student loan; debt; tuition; higher education
5.  Pharmacy Student Debt and Return on Investment of a Pharmacy Education 
Objective. To describe the current landscape within the profession of pharmacy regarding student tuition, indebtedness, salaries, and job potential.
Methods. Pharmacy tuition and student debt data were obtained through the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Institutional Research website. Tuition was defined as average first-year tuition and fees for accredited schools. Debt was defined as the total average amount borrowed. Median salaries and numbers of jobs were obtained from the United States Department of Labor.
Results. In-state tuition at public schools rose an average of $1,211 ± 31 (r2 = 0.996), whereas out-of-state tuition at public schools rose significantly faster at $1,838 ± 80 per year (r2 = 0.988). The average tuition cost for pharmacy school has increased 54% in the last 8 years. The average pharmacist salary has risen from $75,000 to over $112,000 since 2002. The increase in salary has been nearly linear (r2 = 0.988) rising $4,409 ± $170 dollars per year. However, average salary in 2011 was $3,064 below the predicted value based upon a linear regression of salaries over 10 years. The number of pharmacist jobs in the United States has risen from 215,000 jobs in 2003 to 275,000 in 2010. However, there were 3,000 fewer positions in 2012 than in 2011. In 2011, average indebtedness for pharmacy students ($114,422) was greater than average first-year salary ($112,160).
Conclusion. Rising tuition and student indebtedness is a multifaceted problem requiring attention from a number of parties including students, faculty members, universities, and accreditation and government entities.
PMCID: PMC3930253  PMID: 24558273

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