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1.  An online positive affect skills intervention reduces depression in adults with type 2 diabetes 
Positive affect predicts improved glycemic control and longevity in adults with type 2 diabetes. We tested DAHLIA, a self-paced online intervention for type 2 diabetes that teaches positive affect skills such as savoring, gratitude, and acts of kindness. Participants (n=49) were randomized to the 5-week DAHLIA course or an emotion-reporting waitlist control. DAHLIA was understood and accepted by participants and showed good retention (78%). At post-intervention, DAHLIA participants showed a significantly greater decrease in depression than controls (−4.3 vs. +0.6 points on the CES-D, p =.05). Secondary analyses found that this effect was considerably stronger in intervention recipients recruited online than those recruited in person. Intervention recipients recruited online also showed significantly increased positive affect, reduced negative affect, and reduced perceived stress. There were no effects on measures of diabetes-specific efficacy or sense of burden, or preliminary measures of health behaviors. This successful feasibility and efficacy trial provides support for a larger trial focusing more specifically on health behavior.
PMCID: PMC4157680  PMID: 25214877
2.  A Positive Affect Intervention for People Experiencing Health-Related Stress: Development and Non-randomized Pilot Test 
Journal of health psychology  2011;17(5):676-692.
In this paper we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect and significant decreases in negative affect. This positive affect intervention can serve as a template for programs to be developed to help people experiencing health-related and other types of life stress.
PMCID: PMC3498769  PMID: 22021272
positive affect; stress; intervention; feasibility; chronic illness; HIV
3.  Open Hearts Build Lives: Positive Emotions, Induced Through Loving-Kindness Meditation, Build Consequential Personal Resources 
B. L. Fredrickson’s (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions asserts that people’s daily experiences of positive emotions compound over time to build a variety of consequential personal resources. The authors tested this build hypothesis in a field experiment with working adults (n = 139), half of whom were randomly-assigned to begin a practice of loving-kindness meditation. Results showed that this meditation practice produced increases over time in daily experiences of positive emotions, which, in turn, produced increases in a wide range of personal resources (e.g., increased mindfulness, purpose in life, social support, decreased illness symptoms). In turn, these increments in personal resources predicted increased life satisfaction and reduced depressive symptoms. Discussion centers on how positive emotions are the mechanism of change for the type of mind-training practice studied here and how loving-kindness meditation is an intervention strategy that produces positive emotions in a way that outpaces the hedonic treadmill effect.
PMCID: PMC3156028  PMID: 18954193
emotions; meditation; positive psychology; broaden-and-build; mindfulness
4.  Happiness Unpacked: Positive Emotions Increase Life Satisfaction by Building Resilience 
Emotion (Washington, D.C.)  2009;9(3):361-368.
Happiness – a composite of life satisfaction, coping resources, and positive emotions – predicts desirable life outcomes in many domains. The broaden-and-build theory suggests that this is because positive emotions help people build lasting resources. To test this hypothesis we measured emotions daily for one month in a sample of students (N=86) and assessed life satisfaction and trait resilience at the beginning and end of the month. Positive emotions predicted increases in both resilience and life satisfaction. Negative emotions had weak or null effects, and did not interfere with the benefits of positive emotions. Positive emotions also mediated the relation between baseline and final resilience, but life satisfaction did not. This suggests that it is in-the-moment positive emotions, and not more general positive evaluations of one’s life, that form the link between happiness and desirable life outcomes. Change in resilience mediated the relation between positive emotions and increased life satisfaction, suggesting that happy people become more satisfied not simply because they feel better, but because they develop resources for living well.
PMCID: PMC3126102  PMID: 19485613
happiness; life satisfaction; ego-resilience; broaden and build
5.  In search of durable positive psychology interventions: Predictors and consequences of long-term positive behavior change 
A number of positive psychology interventions have successfully helped people learn skills for improving mood and building personal resources (e.g., psychological resilience and social support). However, little is known about whether intervention activities remain effective in the long term, or whether new resources are maintained after the intervention ends. We address these issues in a 15-month follow-up survey of participants from a loving-kindness meditation intervention. Many participants continued to practice meditation, and they reported more positive emotions (PEs) than those who had stopped meditating or had never meditated. All participants maintained gains in resources made during the initial intervention, whether or not they continued meditating. Continuing meditators did not differ on resources at baseline, but they did show more PE and a more rapid PE response to the intervention. Overall, our results suggest that positive psychology interventions are not just efficacious but of significant value in participants' real lives.
PMCID: PMC3122474  PMID: 21709728
positive emotions; interventions; broaden-and-build; meditation; loving-kindness; adherence; long-term effects; positive emotion reactivity
6.  Rare Complications Following Colonoscopy: Case Reports of Splenic Rupture and Appendicitis 
Appendicitis and splenic rupture are 2 rare complications of colonoscopy reported in the literature. To our knowledge splenic rupture following colonoscopy has been reported 17 times in the English-language literature and is associated with excess traction on the splenocolic ligament. Appendicitis after colonoscopy has been reported only 9 times and is usually associated with obstruction of the appendiceal lumen with fecal matter during colonoscopy.
We present the case reports of 2 patients: a 76-year-old woman who presented in consultation 24 hours after a routine colonoscopy with massive hemoperitoneum secondary to splenic rupture, seen on computed tomographic (CT) scan, who then underwent splenectomy; the second, a 60-year-old male who presented to the emergency room 16 hours after colonoscopy with clinical and computed tomographic scan findings of acute appendicitis who underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy.
Treatment of both patients resulted in resolution of their complications, splenic rupture and appendicitis. They both had an uneventful postoperative course and are doing well several months postoperatively.
We report 2 rare complications of colonoscopy, splenic rupture and appendicitis. In the setting of a recent colonoscopy and abdominal pain, a high index of suspicion is needed for their diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3015657  PMID: 16709374
Colonoscopy; Splenic rupture; Appendicitis
7.  Antimicrobial Activities of Gatifloxacin against Nosocomial Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Measured by MIC and Time-Kill Studies 
We determined in vitro activities of gatifloxacin and seven other drugs against 100 isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia using the agar gradient diffusion (Etest) method. Percentages of susceptible isolates were as follows: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 90%; gatifloxacin, 71%; levofloxacin, 57%; ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, 54%; ceftazidime, 49%; ciprofloxacin, 29%; cefepime, 21%; and piperacillin-tazobactam, 20%. Time-kill studies of three isolates indicated that gatifloxacin was bactericidal at times as early as 3 h of incubation when tested at concentrations equivalent to twice the MIC (two isolates) and 4 times the MIC (one isolate).
PMCID: PMC90612  PMID: 11408235

Results 1-7 (7)