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1.  Inflammation and Uncoupling as Mechanisms of Periodontal Bone Loss 
Journal of Dental Research  2011;90(2):143-153.
Periodontal disease is characterized by both inflammation and bone loss. Advances in research in both these areas have led to a new appreciation of not only each field but also the intimate relationship between inflammation and bone loss. This relationship has resulted in a new field of science called osteoimmunology and provides a context for better understanding the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In this review, we discuss several aspects of the immuno-inflammatory host response that ultimately results in loss of alveolar bone. A proposal is made that periodontal inflammation not only stimulates osteoclastogenesis but also interferes with the uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption, consistent with a pathologic process. Furthermore, arguments based on experimental animal models suggest a critical role of the spatial and temporal aspects of inflammation in the periodontium. A review of these findings leads to a new paradigm to help explain more fully the impact of inflammation on alveolar bone in periodontal disease so that it includes the effects of inflammation on uncoupling of bone formation from resorption.
doi:10.1177/0022034510385236
PMCID: PMC3144100  PMID: 21135192
adaptive immunity; bone matrix; cytokine; innate immunity; IL-1; osteoblast; osteoclast; RANK ligand; TNF
2.  Mechanisms Regulating Increased Production of Osteoprotegerin by Osteoblasts Cultured on Microstructured Titanium Surfaces 
Biomaterials  2009;30(20):3390-3396.
Osteoblasts grown on microstructured Ti surfaces enhance osteointegration by producing local factors that regulate bone formation as well as bone remodeling, including the RANK ligand decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism by which surface microstructure and surface energy mediate their stimulatory effects on OPG expression. Titanium disks were manufactured to present different surface morphologies: a smooth pretreatment surface (PT, Ra<0.2μm), microstructured sandblasted/acid etched surface (SLA, Ra=3-4μm), and a microstructured Ti plasma-sprayed surface (TPS, Ra=4μm). Human osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on these substrates and the regulation of OPG production by TGF-β1, PKC, and α2β1 integrin signaling determined. Osteoblasts produced increased amounts of OPG as well as active and latent TGF-β1 and had increased PKC activity when grown on SLA and TPS. Exogenous TGF-β1 increased OPG production in a dose-dependent manner on all surfaces, and this was prevented by adding blocking antibody to the TGF-β type II receptor or by reducing TGF-β1 binding to the receptor by adding exogenous soluble type II receptor. The PKC inhibitor chelerythrine inhibited the production of OPG in a dose-dependent manner, but only in cultures on SLA and TPS. shRNA knockdown of α2 or a double knockdown of α2β1 also reduced OPG, as well as production of TGF-β1. These results indicate that substrate dependent OPG production is regulated by TGF-β1, PKC, and α2β1 and suggest a mechanism by which α2β1-signaling increases PKC, resulting in TGF-β1 production and TGF-β1 then acts on its receptor to increase transcription of OPG.
doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.03.047
PMCID: PMC2700751  PMID: 19395022
Osteoblast; TGF-β1; Osteoprotegerin; Titanium; Microtopography

Results 1-2 (2)