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1.  Modulation of Phytoalexin Biosynthesis in Engineered Plants for Disease Resistance 
Phytoalexins are antimicrobial substances of low molecular weight produced by plants in response to infection or stress, which form part of their active defense mechanisms. Starting in the 1950’s, research on phytoalexins has begun with biochemistry and bio-organic chemistry, resulting in the determination of their structure, their biological activity as well as mechanisms of their synthesis and their catabolism by microorganisms. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of numerous phytoalexins has permitted the use of molecular biology tools for the exploration of the genes encoding enzymes of their synthesis pathways and their regulators. Genetic manipulation of phytoalexins has been investigated to increase the disease resistance of plants. The first example of a disease resistance resulting from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant has concerned a phytoalexin from grapevine which was transferred to tobacco. Transformations were then operated to investigate the potential of other phytoalexin biosynthetic genes to confer resistance to pathogens. Unexpectedly, engineering phytoalexins for disease resistance in plants seem to have been limited to exploiting only a few phytoalexin biosynthetic genes, especially those encoding stilbenes and some isoflavonoids. Research has rather focused on indirect approaches which allow modulation of the accumulation of phytoalexin employing transcriptional regulators or components of upstream regulatory pathways. Genetic approaches using gain- or less-of functions in phytoalexin engineering together with modulation of phytoalexin accumulation through molecular engineering of plant hormones and defense-related marker and elicitor genes have been reviewed.
doi:10.3390/ijms140714136
PMCID: PMC3742236  PMID: 23880860
plant engineering; phytoalexins; transcriptional factors; hormones; elicitors; regulation
2.  Adaptation of Grapevine Flowers to Cold Involves Different Mechanisms Depending on Stress Intensity 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e46976.
Grapevine flower development and fruit set are influenced by cold nights in the vineyard. To investigate the impact of cold stress on carbon metabolism in the inflorescence, we exposed the inflorescences of fruiting cuttings to chilling and freezing temperatures overnight and measured fluctuations in photosynthesis and sugar content. Whatever the temperature, after the stress treatment photosynthesis was modified in the inflorescence, but the nature of the alteration depended on the intensity of the cold stress. At 4°C, photosynthesis in the inflorescence was impaired through non-stomatal limitations, whereas at 0°C it was affected through stomatal limitations. A freezing night (−3°C) severely deregulated photosynthesis in the inflorescence, acting primarily on photosystem II. Cold nights also induced accumulation of sugars. Soluble carbohydrates increased in inflorescences exposed to −3°C, 0°C and 4°C, but starch accumulated only in inflorescences of plants treated at 0 and −3°C. These results suggest that inflorescences are able to cope with cold temperatures by adapting their carbohydrate metabolism using mechanisms that are differentially induced according to stress intensity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046976
PMCID: PMC3468596  PMID: 23071684
3.  Expression and In Situ Localization of Two Major PR Proteins of Grapevine Berries during Development and after UV-C Exposition 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e43681.
In grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir, the Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins CHI4D and TL3 are among the most abundant extractable PR proteins of ripe berries and accumulate during berry ripening from véraison until full maturation. Evidence was supplied in favor of the involvement of these two protein families in plant defense mechanisms and plant development. In order to better understand CHI4D and TL3 function in grapevine, we analyzed their temporal and spatial pattern of expression during maturation and after an abiotic stress (UV-C) by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistolocalization. In ripening berries, CHI4D and TL3 genes were mainly expressed in the exocarp and around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. In UV-C exposed berries, CHI4D and TL3 gene expression was strongly induced before véraison. Corresponding proteins localized in the exocarp and, to a lesser extent, around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. The spatial and temporal accumulation of the two PR proteins during berry maturation and after an abiotic stress is discussed in relation to their putative roles in plant defense.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043681
PMCID: PMC3427166  PMID: 22937077
4.  Enhancement of Chilling Resistance of Inoculated Grapevine Plantlets with a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium, Burkholderia phytofirmans Strain PsJN▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2006;72(11):7246-7252.
In vitro inoculation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay explants with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, increased grapevine growth and physiological activity at a low temperature. There was a relationship between endophytic bacterial colonization of the grapevine plantlets and their growth at both ambient (26°C) and low (4°C) temperatures and their sensitivities to chilling. The major benefits of bacterization were observed on root growth (11.8- and 10.7-fold increases at 26°C and 4°C, respectively) and plantlet biomass (6- and 2.2-fold increases at 26°C and 4°C, respectively). The inoculation with PsJN also significantly improved plantlet cold tolerance compared to that of the nonbacterized control. In nonchilled plantlets, bacterization enhanced CO2 fixation and O2 evolution 1.3 and 2.2 times, respectively. The nonbacterized controls were more sensitive to exposure to low temperatures than were the bacterized plantlets, as indicated by several measured parameters. Moreover, relative to the noninoculated controls, bacterized plantlets had significantly increased levels of starch, proline, and phenolics. These increases correlated with the enhancement of cold tolerance of the grapevine plantlets. In summary, B. phytofirmans strain PsJN inoculation stimulates grapevine growth and improves its ability to withstand cold stress.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01047-06
PMCID: PMC1636148  PMID: 16980419
6.  Endophytic Colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia sp. Strain PsJN 
Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed leaves were inoculated with bacterial suspensions. Epiphytic and endophytic colonization patterns were then monitored by dilution plating assays and microscopic observation of organ sections. Bacteria were chronologically detected first on root surfaces, then in root internal tissues, and finally in the fifth internode and the tissues of the fifth leaf. Analysis of the PsJN colonization patterns showed that this strain colonizes grapevine root surfaces, as well as cell walls and the whole surface of some rhizodermal cells. Cells were also abundant at lateral root emergence sites and root tips. Furthermore, cell wall-degrading endoglucanase and endopolygalacturonase secreted by PsJN explained how the bacterium gains entry into root internal tissues. Host defense reactions were observed in the exodermis and in several cortical cell layers. Bacteria were not observed on stem and leaf surfaces but were found in xylem vessels of the fifth internode and the fifth leaf of plantlets. Moreover, bacteria were more abundant in the fifth leaf than in the fifth internode and were found in substomatal chambers. Thus, it seems that Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN induces a local host defense reaction and systemically spreads to aerial parts through the transpiration stream.
doi:10.1128/AEM.71.4.1685-1693.2005
PMCID: PMC1082517  PMID: 15811990

Results 1-6 (6)