The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 in the irradiated brain was examined to test how a single high dose radiation, similar to that used for intraoperative radiation therapy given to the normal cerebrum, can affect the vascular endothelium. After a burr hole trephination in the rat skull, the cerebral hemisphere was exposed to a single 10 Gy dose of gamma rays, and the radiation effect was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after irradiation. His-tological changes, such as reactive gliosis, inflammation, vascular proliferation and necrosis, were correlated with the duration after irradiation. Significant VEGF and FGF2 expression in the 2- and 8-week were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay quantification in the radiation group. Immunohistochemical study for VEGF was done and the number of positive cells gradually increased over time, compared with the sham operation group. In conclusion, the radiation injuries consisted of radiation necrosis associated with the expression of VEGF and FGF2. These findings indicate that VEGF and FGF2 may play a role in the radiation injuries after intraoperative single high-dose irradiation.
Radiotherapy; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; Radiation Injuries, Experimental
As a rare cerebrovascular disease, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is caused by various conditions including trauma, infection, oral contraceptive, cancer and hematologic disorders. However, iron deficiency anemia is not a common cause for CVT in adult. Posterior fossa infarction following CVT is not well demonstrated because posterior fossa has abundant collateral vessels. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old man who was admitted with complaints of headache, nausea, and mild dizziness. The patient was diagnosed with isolated lateral sinus thrombosis presenting as cerebellar infarction. Laboratory findings revealed normocytic normochromic anemia due to iron deficiency, and the patient's symptoms were improved after iron supplementation.
Cerebellar infarction; Lateral sinus; Thrombosis; Iron deficiency anemia
The prefabrication of customized cranioplastic implants has been introduced to overcome the difficulties of intra-operative implant molding. The authors present a new technique, which consists of the prefabrication of implant molds using three-dimensional (3D) printers and polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) casting.
A total of 16 patients with large skull defects (>100 cm2) underwent cranioplasty between November 2009 and April 2011. For unilateral cranial defects, 3D images of the skull were obtained from preoperative axial 1-mm spiral computed tomography (CT) scans. The image of the implant was generated by a digital subtraction mirror-imaging process using the normal side of the cranium as a model. For bilateral cranial defects, precraniectomy routine spiral CT scan data were merged with postcraniectomy 3D CT images following a smoothing process. Prefabrication of the mold was performed by the 3D printer. Intraoperatively, the PMMA implant was created with the prefabricated mold, and fit into the cranial defect.
The median operation time was 184.36±26.07 minutes. Postoperative CT scans showed excellent restoration of the symmetrical contours and curvature of the cranium in all cases. The median follow-up period was 23 months (range, 14-28 months). Postoperative infection was developed in one case (6.2%) who had an open wound defect previously.
Customized cranioplasty PMMA implants using 3D printer may be a useful technique for the reconstruction of various cranial defects.
Decompressive craniectomy; Reconstructive surgical procedure; Computer-aided design; Polymethyl-methacrylate
The aim of this study was to determine the role of intra-arterial (IA) nimodipine injections for cerebral vasospasm secondary to ruptured subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to investigate the factors that influence vasodilation and clinical outcomes.
We enrolled 29 patients who underwent aneurysm clipping for ruptured cerebral aneurysms between 2009 and 2011, and who received IA nimodipine after subsequently presenting with symptomatic vasospasm. The degree of vasodilation shown in angiography was measured, and the correlation between the degree of vasodilation and both the interval from SAH to cerebral vasospasm and the interval from clipping to cerebral vasospasm was determined. The change in blood flow rate after IA injection was assessed by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Multiple clinical parameters were completed before and after IA nimodipine injection to evaluate any improvements in clinical symptoms.
For eight patients, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores increased by two or more points. The regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between the change in GCS scores after IA nimodipine injection and the change in blood vessel diameter (p=0.025). A positive correlation was also observed between the interval from SAH to vasospasm and the change in diameter (p=0.040); and the interval from clipping to vasospasm and the change in diameter (p=0.022).
IA nimodipine injection for SAH-induced vasospasm led to significant vasodilation in angiography and improvement in clinical symptoms without significant complications. Our findings suggest that IA nimodipine injection should be utilized when intractable vasospasm develops despite rigorous conservative management.
Cerebral angiograms; Intra-arterial injection; Nimodipine; Ruptured aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm
We report here on a rare case of a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm that was successfully treated with coil embolization in the bilateral cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions with abnormal vascular networks from the posterior circulation. A 43-year old man with a familial history of moyamoya disease presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the bilateral ICAs at the proximal portion and a ruptured aneurysm at the basilar artery bifurcation. Each meningeal artery supplied the anterior cranial base, but most of both hemispheres were supplied with blood from the basilar artery and the posterior cerebral arteries through a large number of collateral vessels to the ICA bifurcation as well as the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries. The perfusion computed tomography (CT) scans with acetazolamide (ACZ) injection revealed no reduction of cerebral blood flow and normal cerebrovascular reactivity to ACZ. An abdominal CT aortogram showed no other extracranial vessel abnormalities. A ruptured basilar tip aneurysm was successfully treated with coil embolization without complications. Endovascular embolization may be a good treatment option with excellent safety for a ruptured basilar tip aneurysm that accompanies proximal ICA occlusion with vulnerable collateral flow.
Coil embolization; Bilateral proximal internal carotid artery occlusion; Basilar tip aneurysms; Ruptured; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Collateral circulation
In this report, we introduce an undetermined fibrous tumor with calcification occurring in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). A 51-year-old woman was admitted with a short history of dizziness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a 2×2×2 cm sized mass at the left CPA which was round and calcified. There was no dura or internal auditory canal involvement. At surgery, the tumor was located at the exit of 7th and 8th cranial nerve complex. It was very firm, bright yellow and well encapsulated. Histologic findings revealed that the tumor was predominantly composed of fibrous component, scant spindle cells and dystrophic calcification. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated positive for vimentin and negative for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), S-100 protein, CD34, factor XIIIa and smooth muscle actin. The diagnosis was not compatible with meningioma, schwannoma, metastatic brain tumors, and other fibrous tumors. Although the tumor was resected in total, long term follow-up monitoring is necessary due to the possibility of recurrence.
Calcification; Cerebellopontine angle; Immunohistochemistry; Tumor
In this study, the Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program was applied to patients presenting with depression and anxiety after surgery from spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the effects were assessed.
The subjects were patients admitted for cerebral aneurysm rupture and treated by means of surgery from March to December, 2007. More than 6 months had passed after surgery, without any special lesions showing up on computed tomography (CT), and the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) was 5 points. Among patients with anxiety and depression symptoms, 11 patients completed the program. The MBSR program was conducted once a week, 2.5 hours each, for 8 weeks. The evaluation criteria were : 1) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI): it measures the type and level of depression, 2) the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory : the anxiety state of normal adults without mental disorder, and 3) Heart Rate Variability (HRV) : the influence of the autonomous nervous system on the sinoarterial node varies continuously in response to the change of the internal/external environment.
The BDI value was decreased from 18.5 ± 10.9 to 9.5 ± 7.1 (p = 0.013) : it was statistically significant, and the depression level of patients was lowered. The state anxiety was decreased from 51.3 ± 13.9 to 42.3 ± 15.2; the trait anxiety was reduced from 50.9 ± 12.3 to 41.3 ± 12.8, and a borderline significant difference was shown (p = 0.091, p = 0.056). In other words, after the treatment, although it was not statistically significant, a decreased tendency in anxiety was shown. In the HRV measurement, standard deviation normal to normal (SDNN), square root of the square root of the mean sum of squared differences between adjacent normal to normal intervals (RMSSD), and total power (TP) showed significant increase, Physical Stress Index (PSI) showed a significant reduction, and thus an improvement in the homeostatic control mechanism of the autonomic nervous system was ween.
The MBSR program was applied to the patients showing anxiety and depression reaction after SAH treatment, and a reduction in depression symptoms and physiological reactions were observed. The application of the MBSR program may be considered as a new tool in improving the quality of life for patients after surgery.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Depression anxiety; Mindfulness based stress reduction program
To better understand the anatomic location of scalp nerves involved in various neurosurgical procedures, including awake surgery and neuropathic pain control, a total of 30 anterolateral scalp cutaneous nerves were examined in Korean adult cadavers. The dissection was performed from the distal to the proximal aspects of the nerve. Considering the external bony landmarks, each reference point was defined for all measurements. The supraorbital nerve arose from the supraorbital notch or supraorbital foramen 29 mm lateral to the midline (range, 25-33 mm) and 5 mm below the supraorbital upper margin (range, 4-6 mm). The supratrochlear nerve exited from the orbital rim 16 mm lateral to the midline (range, 12-21 mm) and 7 mm below the supraorbital upper margin (range, 6-9 mm). The zygomaticotemporal nerve pierced the deep temporalis fascia 10 mm posterior to the frontozygomatic suture (range, 7-13 mm) and 22 mm above the upper margin of the zygomatic arch (range, 15-27 mm). In addition, three types of zygomaticotemporal nerve branches were found. Considering the superficial temporal artery, the auriculotemporal nerve was mostly located superficial or posterior to the artery (80%). There were no significant differences between the right and left sides or based on gender (P>0.05). These data can be applied to many neurosurgical diagnostic or therapeutic procedures related to anterolateral scalp cutaneous nerve.
Anatomy; Auriculotemporal Nerve; Supraorbital Nerve; Supratrochlear Nerve; Zygomaticotemporal Nerve
Rhino-orbital-cerebral (ROC) mucormycosis is an uncommon, acute and aggressive fungal infection. It remains a challenging problem to clinicians despite aggressive debridement surgery and antifungal therapy. The authors describe a case of ROC mucormycosis with pericranial abscess occurring in a female patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. The infection initially developed in the right-sided nasal sinus and later progressed through the paranasal sinuses with the invasion of the peri-orbital and frontotemporal region, due to the delayed diagnosis and treatment. Numerous non-septate hyphae of the zygomycetes were identified by a punch biopsy from the nasal cavity and by an open biopsy of the involved dura. The patient was treated successfully with extensive debridement of her necrotic skull and surrounding tissues, drainage of her pericranial abscess and antifungal therapy, including intravenous amphotericin B for 61 days and oral posaconazole for the following 26 days. She returned to a normal life and has had no recurrence since the end of her treatment 15 months ago.
Mucormycosis; Neurosurgery; Amphotericin B; Posaconazole
We report a case of intracranial dissemination developing approximately 4 months after partial removal of a spinal cord anplastic astrocytoma in a 22-year-old male. He presented with paraplegia on initial admission at a local hospital. Spinal magnetic resonance (MR) images disclosed multiple intramedullary lesions at the T3-11. The tumor was partially removed. The final histologic diagnosis was anaplastic astrocytoma. Four months after the operation, he was admitted with the symptoms of headache and deterioration of consciousness. MR images showed enhanced lesions in the anterior horn of the left lateral ventricle, and septum pellucidum. He underwent computed tomography-guided stereotactic biopsy and histological appearance was consistent with anaplastic astrocytoma. The clinical course indicates that the tumor originated in the spinal cord and extended into the subarachnoid space, first the spinal canal and later intracranial.
Anaplastic astrocytoma; Spinal cord; Intracranial dissemination
Early delayed radiation effects are known to occur within several months after completing radiotherapy for brain tumors. We present marked changes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that occurred one month after radiotherapy in a patient with a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, which was eventually diagnosed as an early delayed radiation effect. Such an early development of dramatic MRI change has not been reported in patients treated with radiotherapy for pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas.
Blood brain barrier; Delayed radiation effect; Low grade glioma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma; Radiation therapy
We report a rare case of petroclival craniopharyngioma with no connection to the sellar or suprasellar region. MRI and CT images revealed a homogenously enhancing retroclival solid mass with aggressive skull base destruction, mimicking chordoma or aggressive sarcoma. However, there was no calcification or cystic change found in the mass. Here, we report the clinical features and radiographic investigation of this uncommon craniopharyngioma arising primarily in the petroclival region.
Craniopharyngioma; skull base; petroclival
This study was performed to elucidate the technical and patient-specific risk factors for postoperative ischemia in patients undergoing temporary arterial occlusion (TAO) during the surgical repair of their aneurysms.
Eighty-nine consecutive patients in whom TAO was performed during surgical repair of an aneurysm were retrospectively analyzed. The demographics of the patients were analyzed with respect to age, Hunt and Hess grade on admission, Fisher grade of hemorrhage, aneurysm characteristics, timing of surgery, duration of temporary occlusion, and number of temporary occlusive episodes. Outcome was analyzed at the 3-month follow-up, along with the occurrence of symptomatic and radiological stroke.
In overall, twenty-seven patients (29.3%) had radiologic ischemia attributable to TAO and fifteen patients (16.3%) had symptomatic ischemia attributable to TAO. Older age and poor clinical grade were associated with poor clinical outcome. There was a significantly higher rate of symptomatic ischemia in patients who underwent early surgery (p = 0.007). The incidence of ischemia was significantly higher in patients with TAO longer than 10 minutes (p = 0.01). In addition, patients who underwent repeated TAO, which allowed reperfusion, had a lower incidence of ischemia than those who underwent single TAO lasting for more than 10 minutes (p = 0.011).
Duration of occlusion is the only variable that needs to be considered when assessing the risk of postoperative ischemic complication in patients who undergo temporary vascular occlusion. Attention must be paid to the patient's age, grade of hemorrhage, and the timing of surgery. In addition, patients undergoing dissection when brief periods of temporary occlusion are performed may benefit more from intermittent reperfusion than continuous clip application. With careful planning, the use of TAO is a safe technique when used for periods of less than 10 minutes.
Temporary arterial occlusion; Intracranial aneurysm; Cerebral ischemia
To understand the anatomic characteristics of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches to build a foundation toward performing endovascular surgery safely.
A total of 25 formalin fixed Korean adult cadavers were used. The authors investigated : anatomical variations of the AA and its major branches; curvature of the AA; distance from the mid-vertebrae line to the origin of the major branches; distances from the origin of the major branches of AA to the origin of its distal branches; and the angle of the three major branches, the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT), the left common carotid artery (LCCA) and the left subclavian artery (LSCA) arising from AA.
The three major branches directly originated from AA in 21 (84%) of the cadavers. In two (8%) of remaining four cadavers, orifice of LCCA was slightly above the stem of BCT. In remaining two (8%) cadavers, the left vertebral artery (LVA) was directly originated from AA. Average angle of AA curvature to the coronal plane was 62.2 degrees. BCT originated 0.92 mm on the right of the mid-vertebrae line. LCCA and LSCA originated from 12.3 mm and 22.8 mm on the left of the mid-vertebrae line. Mean distance from the origin of the BCT to the origin of the RCCA was 32.5 mm. Mean distance from the origin of the LSCA to the origin of the LVA was 33.8 mm. Average angles at which the major branches arise from the AA were 65.3, 46.9 and 63.8 degrees.
This study may provides a basic anatomical information to catheterize AA and its branches for safely performing endovascular surgery.
Aorta; Cadaver; Brachiocephalic trunk; Common carotid artery; Subclavian artery; Atherectomy
In this report, we describe a case of multiple brain abscesses associated with diffuse congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Although the cases of brain abscesses associated with congenital PAVM are very rare, the brain abscess could be an initial clinical manifestation in asymptomatic PAVM as in the case presented in this report. PAVM may contribute to the development of a brain abscess by allowing easy bacterial access to systemic circulation through the right-to-left pulmonary vascular shunt, bypassing the filtering effect of the pulmonary capillaries. Hence, this association should be considered in cases with brain abscesses of undetermined etiologic factors.
Cytokines and growth factors are important regulatory proteins controlling the growth and differentiation of normal and malignant glial cells. In this study, we investigated the expression and origin of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in the subacute brain injury after a single high-dose irradiation using 60 Sprague-Dawley rats. The right cerebral hemispheres of rats were exposed to a single 10 Gy dose of gamma rays using Ir-192. The radiation effect was assessed at 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks after irradiation, and the results were compared with those in sham operation group. Histological changes characteristic of radiation injury were correlated with the duration after the single dose irradiation. The loss of cortical thickness also increased with the lapse of time after irradiation. The TNF-alpha expression in the irradiated cerebral hemispheres was significantly increased compared with that in the sham operation group. TGF-beta 1 expression was also increased in the irradiated hemispheres. Immunohistochemical study revealed that TGF-beta 1 was expressed predominantly by infiltrating macrophages and astrocytes around the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that TNF-alpha and TGF-beta 1 may play prominent roles in the radiation injuries after a single high-dose irradiation.
Total excision is a treatment of choice in preventing the relapse of craniopharyngioma, but for tumors involving an extensive area, it is often associated with an increased risk of complications. We have performed a partial or subtotal tumor removal followed by repeated injection of bleomycin into the remaining tumor through a subcutaneous reservoir as postoperative adjuvant therapy. A retrospective review of clinical, radiological, and surgical data was performed for 10 patients (5 males and 5 females; age, 3-65 yr; follow-up duration, 12-79 months) with cystic craniopharyngiomas. The measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level at each aspiration were performed. The shrinkage and/or stabilization of tumor was initially noted in all cases. The recurrence of tumor was seen in 4 cases (40%). The decreased or increased level of LDH was interpreted as tumor shrinkage or recurrence, respectively. The transient toxic reactions were observed in 3 patients (30%). Our study demonstrates that postoperative bleo-mycin injection for cystic craniopharyngioma, although does not appear to eradicate the tumor, decreases and stabilizes the tumor size, when used as an adjuvant therapy in young patients.
We examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) to investigate the pathophysiology and mechanism of communicating hydrocephalus compared to obstructive hydrocephalus.
We obtained CSF samples from 8 INPH, 10 SAH-induced hydrocephalus, and 6 unmatched patients with non-hemorrhagic obstructive hydrocephalus during their ventriculoperitoneal shunt operations. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and total tau in the CSF were analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The mean VEGF levels in the CSF of patients with SAH-induced hydrocephalus, INPH, and obstructive hydrocephalus were 239±131, 239±75, and 163±122 pg/mL, respectively. The total tau concentrations in the CSF of the groups were 1139±1900, 325±325, and 1550±2886 pg/mL, respectively. TNF-α values were 114±34, 134±38, and 55±16 pg/mL, respectively. TGF-β1 values were 953±430, 869±447, and 136±63 pg/mL, respectively. A significant difference in TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels was observed only between SAH-induced and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus, and between INPH and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus (p<0.01).
No significant differences in the 4 CSF biomarker levels were observed between INPH and SAH-induced hydrocephalus, whereas CSF TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels were increased compared to those in patients with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Post-SAH hydrocephalus and INPH are probably more destructive to neural tissues, and then stimulate the inflammatory reaction and healing process, compared with obstructive hydrocephalus.
cerebrospinal fluid; subarachnoid hemorrhage; normal pressure hydrocephalus; transforming growth factor-β1; tumor necrosis factor-α; vascular endothelial growth factor; total tau