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1.  Differential association between obesity and coronary artery disease according to the presence of diabetes in a Korean population 
Background
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cardiovascular complication in diabetic patients. Despite the significant association between obesity and diabetes, the majority of the diabetic subjects are not obese in an Asian population. This study evaluated the association between obesity and coronary artery disease (CAD) according to the diabetes status in a Korean population.
Methods
The association between obesity and CAD using the parameters of any plaque, obstructive plaque, and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) >100 according to the presence of diabetes was evaluated in 7,234 Korean adults who underwent multi-detector computed tomography for general health evaluations. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2.
Results
The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in diabetic subjects than in non-diabetic subjects, but the majority of the diabetic subjects were non-obese (48% vs. 37%, p <0.001). The incidence of any plaque (58% vs. 29%), obstructive plaque (20% vs. 6%), and CACS >100 (20% vs. 6%) were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic subjects (p <0.001, respectively). Incidence of any plaque (33% vs. 26%, p <0.001), obstructive plaque (7% vs. 6%, p = 0.014), and CACS >100 (8% vs. 6%, p = 0.002) was significantly higher in non-diabetic subjects with obesity than in those without obesity, but the incidence of all coronary parameters was not different in diabetic subjects according to the obesity status. After adjusting for confounding risk factors including age, gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, current smoking, and mild renal dysfunction, obesity was independently associated with increased risks of any plaque (OR 1.14) and CACS >100 (OR 1.31) only in non-diabetic subjects (p <0.05, respectively). Multiple logistic regression models revealed that diabetes was independently associated with all coronary parameters.
Conclusion
Despite a significantly higher prevalence of obesity in diabetic subjects than in non-diabetic subjects, obesity is associated with the presence of any plaque and severe coronary calcification only in subjects without established diabetes among Korean population.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-6-134
PMCID: PMC4271324  PMID: 25530810
Obesity; Diabetes; Coronary artery disease; Cardiac computed tomographic angiography
2.  Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Cardiac MRI in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function Is Related to Attenuated Improvement of Left Ventricular Geometry and Filling Pressure after Aortic Valve Replacement 
Korean Circulation Journal  2014;44(5):312-319.
Background and Objectives
We investigated echocardiographic predictors: left ventricular (LV) geometric changes following aortic valve replacement (AVR) according to the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and preserved LV systolic function.
Subjects and Methods
We analyzed 41 patients (24 males, 63.1±8.7 years) with preserved LV systolic function who were scheduled to undergo AVR for severe AS. All patients were examined with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), CMR before and after AVR (in the hospital) and serial TTEs (at 6 and 12 months) were repeated.
Results
The group with LGE (LGE+) showed greater wall thickness (septum, 14.3±2.6 mm vs. 11.5±2.0 mm, p=0.001, posterior; 14.3±2.5 mm vs. 11.4±1.6 mm, p<0.001), lower tissue Doppler image (TDIS', 4.4±1.4 cm/s vs. 5.5±1.2 cm/s, p=0.021; TDI E', 3.2±0.9 cm/s vs. 4.8±1.4 cm/s, p=0.002), and greater E/e' (21.8±10.3 vs. 15.4±6.3, p=0.066) than those without LGE (LGE-). Multivariate analysis show that TDI e' (odds ratio=0.078, 95% confidence interval=0.007-0.888, p=0.040) was an independent determinant of LGE+. In an analysis of the 6- and 12-month follow-up compared with pre-AVR, LGE- showed decreased LV end-diastolic diameter (48.3±5.0 mm vs. 45.8±3.6 mm, p=0.027; 48.3±5.0 mm vs. 46.5±3.4 mm, p=0.019). Moreover, E/e' (at 12 months) showed further improved LV filling pressure (16.0±6.6 vs. 12.3±4.3, p=0.001) compared with pre-AVR. However, LGE+ showed no significant improvement.
Conclusion
The absence of LGE is associated with favorable improvements in LV geometry and filling pressure. TDI E' is an independent determinant of LGE in patients with severe AS and preserved LV systolic function.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2014.44.5.312
PMCID: PMC4180608  PMID: 25278984
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; Echocardiography; Aortic stenosis; Late gadolinium enhancement
3.  Differential association between metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease evaluated with cardiac computed tomography according to the presence of diabetes in a symptomatic Korean population 
Background
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risks of diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite the controversial inclusion of established diabetes in MetS, the association between MetS and CAD according to diabetes status has not been elucidated in the Asian population.
Methods
We evaluated the association between MetS and CAD using the parameters including any plaque, obstructive plaque, and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) >100 according to diabetes status in 2,869 symptomatic Korean subjects who underwent cardiac computed tomographic angiography.
Results
The prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in the diabetic subjects than in the non-diabetic subjects (69% vs. 34%, P <0.001). The incidence of any plaque (64% vs. 43%, P <0.001), obstructive plaque (26% vs. 13%, P = 0.006), and CACS >100 (23% vs. 12%, P = 0.012) was significantly higher in diabetic subjects than in non-diabetic subjects. Among the MetS components, decreased high-density lipoprotein level was significantly associated with any plaque (odds ratio [OR] 1.35), obstructive plaque (OR 1.55), and CACS >100 (OR 1.57) in the non-diabetic subjects (P <0.01, respectively). However, none of the MetS components were associated with all the parameters in the diabetic subjects. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that MetS and the number of MetS components (MetSN) were independently associated with any plaque (MetS: OR 1.55, P <0.001; MetSN: OR 1.22, P <0.001), obstructive plaque (MetS: OR 1.52, P = 0.003; MetSN: OR 1.25, P <0.001), and CACS >100 (MetS: OR 1.46, P = 0.015; MetSN: OR 1.21, P = 0.004) only in the non-diabetic subjects, respectively.
Conclusions
MetS was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAD only in the non-diabetic subjects among the symptomatic Korean population.
doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-105
PMCID: PMC4236521  PMID: 25138993
Metabolic syndrome; Diabetes; Coronary artery disease; Coronary computed tomographic angiography
4.  Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Bridge Therapies for Invasive Dental Procedures in Patients with Mechanical Heart Valves 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;55(4):937-943.
Purpose
Bridge anticoagulation therapy is mostly utilized in patients with mechanical heart valves (MHV) receiving warfarin therapy during invasive dental procedures because of the risk of excessive bleeding related to highly vascular supporting dental structures. Bridge therapy using low molecular weight heparin may be an attractive option for invasive dental procedures; however, its safety and cost-effectiveness compared with unfractionated heparin (UFH) is uncertain.
Materials and Methods
This study investigated the safety and cost-effectiveness of enoxaparin in comparison to UFH for bridge therapy in 165 consecutive patients (57±11 years, 35% men) with MHV who underwent invasive dental procedures.
Results
This study included 75 patients treated with UFH-based bridge therapy (45%) and 90 patients treated with enoxaparin-based bridge therapy (55%). The bleeding risk of dental procedures and the incidence of clinical adverse outcomes were not significantly different between the UFH group and the enoxaparin group. However, total medical costs were significantly lower in the enoxaparin group than in the UFH group (p<0.001). After multivariate adjustment, old age (≥65 years) was significantly associated with an increased risk of total bleeding independent of bridging methods (odds ratio, 2.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-5.48; p=0.022). Enoxaparin-based bridge therapy (β=-0.694, p<0.001) and major bleeding (β=0.296, p=0.045) were significantly associated with the medical costs within 30 days after dental procedures.
Conclusion
Considering the benefit of enoxaparin in cost-effectiveness, enoxaparin may be more efficient than UFH for bridge therapy in patients with MHV who required invasive dental procedures.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.4.937
PMCID: PMC4075397  PMID: 24954321
Anticoagulation; bridge therapy; dental procedure; low molecular weight heparin; mechanical heart valve
5.  Combination of a peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐gamma agonist and an angiotensin II receptor blocker attenuates myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats 
Abstract
Aims/Introduction
We aimed to examine the effect of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), a peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor (PPAR)‐gamma agonist, and their combination on myocardial fibrosis and function in type 2 diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods
Five male Long‐Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats and 20 male Otsuka Long‐Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were used. OLETF rats were assigned to four groups (n = 5 per group) at 28 weeks‐of‐age: untreated, losartan‐treated, rosiglitazone‐treated and combination‐treated. The ARB, losartan, was administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day, and the PPAR‐gamma agonist, rosiglitazone, was administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 12 weeks. Urine and blood samples were collected, and two‐dimensional echocardiograms and strain rate imaging were obtained at 28 and 40 weeks. Cytokines were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and histological analysis was carried out at 40 weeks.
Results
At 40 weeks, the global radial strains of the losartan‐treated (55.7 ± 4.5%, P = 0.021) and combination‐treated groups (59.3 ± 6.7%, P = 0.001) were significantly higher compared with the untreated OLETFs (44.3 ± 10.5%). No difference was observed when compared with LETO rats. Although the rosiglitazone‐treated group showed a better metabolic profile than the untreated OLETF group, there was no difference in the global radial strain (49.8 ± 6.0 vs 44.3 ± 10.5, P = 0.402). The expression of pro‐inflammatory cytokines, and collagen type I and III were consistently attenuated in the losartan‐treated and combination‐treated OLETF groups, but not in the rosiglitazone‐treated group.
Conclusions
A combination of rosiglitazone and losartan attenuates myocardial fibrosis and dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats.
doi:10.1111/jdi.12153
PMCID: PMC4210065  PMID: 25411595
Angiotensin II receptor blocker; Diabetic cardiomyopathy; Peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor‐gamma agonist
6.  Aortic Aneurysm Screening in a High-Risk Population: A Non-Contrast Computed Tomography Study in Korean Males with Hypertension 
Korean Circulation Journal  2014;44(3):162-169.
Background and Objectives
Screening strategies for aortic aneurysm (AA) according to risk factors and ethnicity are controversial. This study explored the prevalence of AA and determined whether screening is necessary in a population of multiple risk factors.
Subjects and Methods
From June, 2012 to April, 2013, 542 consecutive elderly (≥65 years) male hypertensive patients without a history of AA were prospectively enrolled. After excluding 15 patients (2.8%) with aortic valve surgery, 30 patients (5.5%) with suboptimal computed tomography (CT) images, the remaining 496 patients (age 73±5 years) comprised the study population. Maximal diameters of the thoracic and abdominal aorta were measured using non-contrast CT.
Results
The prevalence of thoracic AA (TAA, diameter ≥40 mm) and abdominal AA (AAA, diameter ≥30 mm) was 36.5% (181/496) and 6.0% (30/496), respectively. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, determinants for TAA were age {odds ratio (OR) 1.059, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.018-1.101, p=0.005}, dyslipidemia (OR 0.621, 95% CI 0.418-0.923, p=0.018), body surface area (OR 11.92, 95% CI 2.787-50.97, p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.009-1.049, p=0.004) and AAA (OR 3.070, 95% CI 1.398-6.754, p=0.005). In contrast, AAA was independently associated with dysplipidemia (OR 2.792, 95% CI 1.091-7.143, p=0.032), current/past smokerfs (OR 4.074, 95% CI 1.160-14.31, p=0.028), and TAA (OR 3.367, 95% CI 1.550-7.313, p=0.002).
Conclusion
The prevalence of AA was significant and TAA was more prevalent than AAA in elderly Korean males with hypertension. Future research should establish distinct screening strategies for TAA and AAA according to risk factors and ethnicity.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2014.44.3.162
PMCID: PMC4037638  PMID: 24876857
Aorta; Aneurysm; Prevalence; Computed tomography
7.  Echocardiographic Investigation of the Mechanism Underlying Abnormal Interventricular Septal Motion after Open Heart Surgery 
Background
Abnormal interventricular septal motion (ASM) is frequently observed after open heart surgery (OHS). The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and temporal change of ASM, and its underlying mechanism in patients who underwent OHS using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE).
Methods
In total, 165 patients [60 ± 13 years, 92 (56%) men] who underwent coronary bypass surgery or heart valve surgery were consecutively enrolled in a prospective manner. TTE was performed preoperatively, at 3--6-month postoperatively, and at the 1-year follow-up visit. Routine TTE images and strain analysis were performed using velocity vector imaging.
Results
ASM was documented in 121 of 165 patients (73%) immediately after surgery: 26 patients (17%) presented concomitant expiratory diastolic flow reversal of the hepatic vein, 11 (7%) had inferior vena cava plethora, and 11 (7%) had both. Only 2 patients (1%) showed clinically discernible constriction. ASM persisted 3--6 months after surgery in 38 patients (25%), but only in 23 (15%) after 1 year. There was no difference in preoperative and postoperative peak systolic strain of all segments of the left ventricle (LV) between groups with or without ASM. However, systolic radial velocity (VRad) of the mid anterior-septum and anterior wall of the LV significantly decreased in patients with ASM.
Conclusion
Although ASM was common (74%) immediately after OHS, it disappeared over time without causing clinically detectable constriction. Furthermore, we consider that ASM might not be caused by myocardial ischemia, but by the decreased systolic VRad of the interventricular septum after pericardium incision.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2014.22.1.8
PMCID: PMC3992352  PMID: 24753803
Coronary artery bypass; Valve surgery; Ventricular septum; Echocardiography
8.  The Case of Isolated Double Atrial Septum with Persistent Interatrial Space 
Double atrial septum is very rare atrial septal malformation which has double layered atrial septum with persistent interatrial space between the two atria. Clinically, most cases of this anomaly are asymptomatic unless manifest as thromboembolic complications, such as stroke, or transient ischemic attack, that thrombus may be originated from this interatrial space. We report a case of a 69-year-old man who was diagnosed with isolated double atrial septum by transthoracic echocardiography.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2013.21.4.197
PMCID: PMC3894374  PMID: 24459570
Double atrial septum; Interatrial space
9.  Prediction of Hemorrhagic Transformation Following Embolic Stroke in Patients with Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis 
Background
Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) of stroke is a disastrous complication in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). In patients with mechanical heart valves complicated by IE, physicians struggle with the appropriateness of anticoagulation administration given the risk of thromboembolism and HT of stroke. In this study, we aimed to define predictive parameters of HT of stroke in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE).
Methods
This study was a multicenter, retrospective design. We recruited from 7 institutions a total of 111 patients diagnosed with PVE during May, 2011 to April, 2012.
Results
Complication of stroke was seen in 26/111 patients (23%), and HT of stroke was seen in 11/111 patients (10%). Most patients with HT (9/11, 82%) had supratherapeutic prothrombin times. However, there were no significant differences in clinical and laboratory values between PVE patients without stroke and those patients who had a stroke and with or without concurrent HT. Furthermore, echocardiographic parameters also did not show significant between-group differences.
Conclusion
Even though this was a multicenter study, a limited number of patients was identified and may explain the negative results seen here. However, a large number of PVE patients with stroke also developed HT. Therefore, further studies to define predictive parameters of HT should be implemented in a larger population.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2013.21.3.123
PMCID: PMC3816162  PMID: 24198918
Infective endocarditis; Embolization; Hemorrhagic stroke
10.  Automated Quantification of Mitral Regurgitation by Three Dimensional Real Time Full Volume Color Doppler Transthoracic Echocardiography: A Validation with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Comparison with Two Dimensional Quantitative Methods 
Background
Accurate assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity is crucial for clinical decision-making and optimizing patient outcomes. Recent advances in real-time three dimensional (3D) echocardiography provide the option of real-time full volume color Doppler echocardiography (FVCD) measurements. This makes it practical to quantify MR by subtracting aortic stroke volume from the volume of mitral inflow in an automated manner.
Methods
Thirty-two patients with more than a moderate degree of MR assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were consecutively enrolled during this study. MR volume was measured by 1) two dimensional (2D) Doppler TTE, using the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) and the volumetric quantification methods (VM). Then, 2) real time 3D-FVCD was subsequently obtained, and dedicated software was used to quantify the MR volume. MR volume was also measured using 3) phase contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (PC-CMR). In each patient, all these measurements were obtained within the same day. Automated MR quantification was feasible in 30 of 32 patients.
Results
The mean regurgitant volume quantified by 2D-PISA, 2D-VM, 3D-FVCD, and PC-CMR was 72.1 ± 27.7, 79.9 ± 36.9, 69.9 ± 31.5, and 64.2 ± 30.7 mL, respectively (p = 0.304). There was an excellent correlation between the MR volume measured by PC-CMR and 3D-FVCD (r = 0.85, 95% CI 0.70-0.93, p < 0.001). Compared with PC-CMR, Bland-Altman analysis for 3D-FVCD showed a good agreement (2 standard deviations: 34.3 mL) than did 2D-PISA or 2D-VM (60.0 and 62.8 mL, respectively).
Conclusion
Automated quantification of MR with 3D-FVCD is feasible and accurate. It is a promising tool for the real-time 3D echocardiographic assessment of patients with MR.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2013.21.2.81
PMCID: PMC3701783  PMID: 23837118
Mitral regurgitation; 3D echocardiography; Quantitative evaluation
11.  Prosthetic Mitral Valve Leaflet Escape 
Leaflet escape of prosthetic valve is rare but potentially life threatening. It is essential to make timely diagnosis in order to avoid mortality. Transesophageal echocardiography and cinefluoroscopy is usually diagnostic and the location of the missing leaflet can be identified by computed tomography (CT). Emergent surgical correction is mandatory. We report a case of fractured escape of Edward-Duromedics mitral valve 27 years after the surgery. The patient presented with symptoms of acute decompensated heart failure and cardiogenic shock. She was instantly intubated and mechanically ventilated. After prompt evaluation including transthoracic echocardiography and CT, the escape of the leaflet was confirmed. The patient underwent emergent surgery for replacement of the damaged prosthetic valves immediately. Eleven days after the surgery, the dislodged leaflet in iliac artery was removed safely and the patient recovered well.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2013.21.2.96
PMCID: PMC3701786  PMID: 23837121
Cardiac valve prosthesis; Prosthesis failure; Cardiogenic shock
13.  Prognostic Estimation of Advanced Heart Failure With Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Wide QRS Interval 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(10):659-667.
Background and Objectives
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been known to improve the outcome of advanced heart failure (HF) but is still underutilized in clinical practice. We investigated the prognosis of patients with advanced HF who were suitable for CRT but were treated with conventional strategies. We also developed a risk model to predict mortality to improve the facilitation of CRT.
Subjects and Methods
Patients with symptomatic HF with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and QRS interval >120 ms were consecutively enrolled at cardiovascular hospital. After excluding those patients who had received device therapy, 239 patients (160 males, mean 67±11 years) were eventually recruited.
Results
During a follow-up of 308±236 days, 56 (23%) patients died. Prior stroke, heart rate >90 bpm, serum Na ≤135 mEq/L, and serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL were identified as independent factors using Cox proportional hazards regression. Based on the risk model, points were assigned to each of the risk factors proportional to the regression coefficient, and patients were stratified into three risk groups: low- (0), intermediate-(1-5), and high-risk (>5 points). The 2-year mortality rates of each risk group were 5, 31, and 64 percent, respectively. The C statistic of the risk model was 0.78, and the model was validated in a cohort from a different institution where the C statistic was 0.80.
Conclusion
The mortality of patients with advanced HF who were managed conventionally was effectively stratified using a risk model. It may be useful for clinicians to be more proactive about adopting CRT to improve patient prognosis.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.10.659
PMCID: PMC3493802  PMID: 23170093
Heart failure; Prognosis; Cardiac resynchronization therapy
14.  Visceral Obesity of the Heart: Extensive Lipomatous Hypertrophy of Interatrial Septum 
doi:10.4250/jcu.2012.20.3.161
PMCID: PMC3498316  PMID: 23185662
Obesity; Lipomatous hypertrophy; Cardiac imaging
15.  Prediction of Left Atrial Fibrosis With Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Mitral Valve Disease: A Comparative Study With Histopathology 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(5):311-318.
Background and Objectives
Left atrial (LA) fibrosis is a main determinant of LA remodeling and development of atrial fibrillation. However, non-invasive prediction of LA fibrosis is challenging. We investigated whether preoperative LA strain as measured by speckle tracking echocardiography could predict the degree of LA fibrosis and LA reverse remodeling after mitral valve (MV) surgery.
Subjects and Methods
Speckle tracking echocardiography and LA volume measurements were performed in 50 patients one day before MV surgery. LA tissues were obtained during the surgery, and the degrees of their interstitial fibroses were measured. LA volume measurements were repeated within 30 days after surgery (n=50) and 1-year later (n=39).
Results
Left atrial global strain was significantly correlated with the degree of LA fibrosis (r=-0.55, p<0.001), and its correlation was independent of age, underlying rhythm, presence of rheumatic heart disease and type of predominant MV disease (B=-1.37, 95% confidence interval -2.32 - -0.41, p=0.006). The degree of LA fibrosis was significantly correlated with early (r=-0.337, p=0.017) and 1-year (r=-0.477, p=0.002) percent LA volume reduction after MV surgery, but LA global strain was not significant.
Conclusion
Left atrial strain as measured by speckle tracking echocardiography might be helpful for predicting the degree of LA fibrosis in patients with MV disease.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.5.311
PMCID: PMC3369962  PMID: 22701133
Echocardiography; Fibrosis; Left atrium
16.  High Serum Advanced Glycation End-Products Predict Coronary Artery Disease Irrespective of Arterial Stiffness in Diabetic Patients 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(5):335-340.
Background and Objectives
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether serum AGEs are related to the presence or severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), and explored the association between serum AGEs and arterial stiffness according to diabetes status in patients suspected of having CAD.
Subjects and Methods
The measurement of serum AGEs and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were performed in 145 consecutive patients (63±9 years, 58% men) who received a coronary angiogram for evaluation of CAD.
Results
Forty-four diabetics and 101 non-diabetics were classified into three subgroups based on the number of diseased vessels with obstructive CAD: 0, 1, and 2 or more vessel diseases (VDs). Serum AGEs were significantly higher in diabetics with obstructive CAD than in those without obstructive CAD (2.16±0.29 vs. 1.85±0.29 mU/mL, p=0.010) and were significantly correlated with the number of VDs only in diabetics (r=0.504, p<0.001). Serum AGEs were not significantly correlated with baPWV in diabetics or non-diabetics. In receiver operating characteristics analysis, the cut-off value of serum AGEs as a predictor of obstructive CAD was 1.98 mU/mL, with 64% sensitivity and 63% specificity in diabetics. In multiple regression analysis, serum AGEs independently predicted obstructive CAD and were associated with the number of VDs in diabetics.
Conclusion
Serum AGEs independently predict obstructive CAD and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis irrespective of arterial stiffness only in diabetics. Evaluation of PWV and serum AGEs together may be more effective to identify the risk of CAD in diabetic individuals.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.5.335
PMCID: PMC3369965  PMID: 22701499
Advanced glycation end-products; Coronary artery disease; Pulse wave velocity; Diabetes mellitus
17.  Plasma Adiponectin Concentration and Its Association with Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Heart Failure 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;53(1):91-98.
Purpose
Plasma adiponectin concentrations are inversely related with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and MetS is associated with increased risk for heart failure (HF). However, the relationship between adiponectin and MetS in HF remains undetermined. Therefore, we tested whether MetS was associated with the degree of plasma adiponectin concentrations in HF patients.
Materials and Methods
One hundred twenty eight ambulatory HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction of <50% (80 males, 61.8±11.9 years old) were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. Echocardiographic measurements were performed, and plasma concentrations of adiponectin, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apoB, apoA1) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured.
Results
Adiponectin concentrations in HF patients with MetS (n=43) were significantly lower than those without MetS (n=85) (9.7±7.0 vs. 15.8±10.9 µg/mL, p=0.001). Higher concentrations of apoB (p=0.017), apoB/A1 ratio (p<0.001), blood urea nitrogen (p=0.034), creatinine (p=0.003), and fasting insulin (p=0.004) were observed in HF patients with MetS compared with those without MetS. In HF patients with MetS, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with hsCRP (r=-0.388, p=0.015) and positively correlated with the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity, E/E' (r=0.399, p=0.015). There was a significant trend towards decreased adiponectin concentrations with an increasing number of components of MetS (p for trend=0.012).
Conclusion
Our study demonstrated that adiponectin concentrations decreased in HF patients with MetS, and that relationship between adiponectin, inflammation and abnormal diastolic function, possibly leading to the progression of HF.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.1.91
PMCID: PMC3250329  PMID: 22187237
Adiponectin; metabolic syndrome; heart failure
18.  Hemorrhagic Transformation of Ischemic Stroke: Severe Complications of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(8):490-493.
Ischemic stroke is a common complication of infective endocarditis (IE), occurring in 20-40% of left side IE cases. In these subsets, anticoagulation therapy may provoke hemorrhagic transformation (HT) of ischemic stroke, and complications of this magnitude deteriorate the clinical course for IE patients. However, in cases of IE complicated with a mechanical prosthetic valve, the physician can be concerned over the maintenance of anticoagulation due to the risk of thrombotic complication. According to our retrospective review, HT of ischemic stroke in prosthetic valve endocarditis occurred 13.8% (4/29) of the time in a variety of situations. Some of these even arose in patients with a subtherapeutic range of prothrombin time.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.8.490
PMCID: PMC3173673  PMID: 21949537
Heart valve prosthesis; Endocarditis; Stroke; Cerebral hemorrhage; Anticoagulants
19.  Transient Right Ventricular Dysfunction After Pericardiectomy in Patients With Constrictive Pericarditis 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(5):283-286.
Pericardiectomy is the standard treatment in patients with chronic constrictive pericarditis who have persistent symptoms. However, myocardial atrophy with prolonged pericardial constriction and abrupt increase in venous return can lead to heart failure with volume overload after pericardial decompression, especially in the right ventricle (RV). We experienced a 44 year old male patient who developed transient RV failure after pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis. Echocardiography revealed a markedly dilated RV with decreased peak systolic velocity of the tricuspid annulus, suggesting severe RV dysfunction. After treatment with inotropics and diuretics, a follow-up echocardiography revealed an improved systolic function with decreased RV chamber size. This case demonstrates the importance of volume overload and RV dysfunction in patients with constrictive pericarditis undergoing pericardiectomy.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.5.283
PMCID: PMC3116109  PMID: 21731572
Right ventricular dysfunction; Constrictive pericarditis; Pericardiectomy
20.  Clinical and Echocardiographic Findings of Newly Diagnosed Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in Elderly Patients 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;52(1):33-38.
Purpose
Elderly patients (pts) (EPs; ≥ 65 years old) with newly diagnosed-acute decompensated heart failure (ND-ADHF) have not yet been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate clinical characteristics, including echocardiographic findings and prognosis, for EPs with ND-ADHF and to compare those with non-elderly pts (NEPs).
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively investigated 256 pts (144 males, 63.0 ± 14.8 years old) who were admitted to our hospital between January 2005 and March 2009 with ND-ADHF. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed in EPs (n = 135, 58 males) and NEPs (n = 121, 86 males).
Results
In intergroup comparison, female gender, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke and hypertension were more common in EPs. Body mass index (22.3 ± 4.5 vs. 24.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2), estimated glomerular filtration rate (54.8 ± 24.3 vs. 69.2 ± 30.7 mL/min/m2), C-reactive protein (28.5 ± 46.9 vs. 7.6 ± 11.6 mg/dL), hemoglobin (12.3 ± 2.1 vs. 13.6 ± 2.3 g/dL) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level (10,538.2 ± 10,942.3 vs. 6,771.0 ± 8,964.7 pg/mL) were significantly different (p < 0.05 for all). Early mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') was significantly higher in EPs than in NEPs (21.2 ± 9.4 vs. 18.0 ± 8.9, p < 0.05). During follow-up (44.7 ± 14.5 months), there were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality, re-hospitalization and cardiovascular mortality between EPs and NEPs (p = NS for all).
Conclusion
EPs with ND-ADHF have different clinical characteristics and higher LV filling pressure when compared with NEPs. However, the clinical outcomes for NEPs with ND-ADHF are not necessarily more favorable than those for EPs.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2011.52.1.33
PMCID: PMC3017705  PMID: 21155032
Acute heart failure; elderly patients; echocardiography
21.  Abnormal left ventricular longitudinal functional reserve in patients with diabetes mellitus: implication for detecting subclinical myocardial dysfunction using exercise tissue Doppler echocardiography 
Heart  2007;93(12):1571-1576.
Background
Sublinical myocardial dysfunction occurs in a significant number of patients with type 2 diabetes. Assessment of ventricular long‐axis function by measuring mitral annular velocities using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) is thought to provide a more sensitive index of systolic and diastolic function. We hypothesised that augmentation of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal contraction and relaxation during exercise would be blunted in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
Mitral annular systolic (S′) and early diastolic (E′) velocities were measured at rest and during supine bicycle exercise (25 W, 3 min increments) in 53 patients (27 male, mean age 53±14 years) with type 2 diabetes and 53 subjects with age and gender‐matched control. None had echocardiographic evidence of resting or inducible myocardial ischaemia.
Results
There were no significant differences in mitral inflow velocities at rest between the two groups. E′ and S′ at rest were also similar between the groups. However, S′ (7.1±1.3 vs 8.3±1.8 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.0021; 8.1±1.5 vs 9.1±2.0 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.026) and E′ (8.5±2.3 vs 9.9±3.1 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.054; 9.1±2.1 vs 10.9±2.5 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.0093) during exercise were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared with controls. Longitudinal systolic and diastolic function reserve indices were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared with that of controls (systolic index, 0.6±0.70 vs 1.2±1.5 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.029; 1.2±1.2 vs 2.1±1.6 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.009; diastolic index, 1.9±1.2 vs 2.5±2.2 cm/s at 25 W, p = 0.07; 2.3±1.3 vs 3.2±2.2 cm/s at 50 W, p = 0.031).
Conclusion
In conclusion, unlike resting mitral inflow and annular velocities, changes of systolic and diastolic velocities of the mitral annulus during exercise were significantly reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with the control group. The assessment of LV longitudinal functional reserve with exercise using TDE appears to be helpful in identifying early myocardial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.101667
PMCID: PMC2095774  PMID: 17449503
22.  Constrictive Pericarditis Accompanied by Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Infection 
Korean Circulation Journal  2010;40(10):539-542.
Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) is caused by a new strain of the influenza virus. The disease has spread rapidly and was declared a pandemic in April, 2009. So far, however, there is a scarcity of information regarding the complications of swine influenza. A report of the disease in the winter of 2009 in the Southern Hemisphere found that the most common manifestations of influenza A virus infection are upper respiratory tract infection and pneumonia. Although there may be an association between fulminant myocarditis and Swine influenza, cardiovascular complications resulting from swine Influenza A infection are exceedingly rare. We report a case of acute constrictive pericarditis in a healthy subject infected by the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2010.40.10.539
PMCID: PMC2978299  PMID: 21088760
Pericarditis, constrictive; Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus
23.  Targeted Ultrasound Imaging of Apoptosis with Annexin A5 Microbubbles in Acute Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity 
Background
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of targeted ultrasound imaging on apoptosis with annexin A5 microbubbles (A5MB) in acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.
Methods
Avidinated and octafluoropropan-filled phospholipid microbubbles were conjugated with biotinylated annexin A5. To confirm the specific binding of A5MB, flow cytometry was performed with hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis in rat aorta smooth muscle cells incubated with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled annexin A5 and A5MB. Adult male rats were injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg doxorubicin weekly for 3 weeks (n = 5). Control rats were injected with normal saline (n = 5). At 24 hours after the final treatment, triggering imaging was performed 15 min after an intravenous bolus injection of A5MB for washout of freely circulating microbubbles. After echocardiography, the heart was isolated for histological detection of apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay.
Results
In the in vitro tests, fluorescence intensity was low for healthy cells and high for apoptotic cells when incubated with FITC-labeled annexin A5 and A5MB. Rats treated with doxorubicin showed significant contrast opacification of the myocardium on contrast echocardiography using A5MB. However, no opacification was observed in control rats. Apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assay in doxorubicin treated rats.
Conclusion
Acute doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy based on early apoptosis can be assessed and imaged with targeted ultrasound imaging using A5MB in rats.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2010.18.3.91
PMCID: PMC2955339  PMID: 20967156
Cardiomyopathy; Apoptosis; Annexin A5; Microbubbles; Echocardiography
24.  Association of Plasma Retinol-Binding Protein 4, Adiponectin, and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin with Insulin Resistance in Non-Diabetic Hypertensive Patients 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(3):375-384.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to determine whether retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), adiponectin and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic parameters in non-diabetic hypertensive patients. Also, we sought to compare the predictive values of these adipocytokines for IR in non-diabetic hypertensive patients.
Materials and Methods
Analyses of RBP4, adiponectin, and HMW adiponectin were performed on 308 non-diabetic hypertensives (148 males, age 58 ± 10 years, 189 non-metabolic syndrome and 119 metabolic syndrome). The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index for IR, lipid profiles, and anthropometric measure-ments were assessed.
Results
There was no significant difference in RBP4 levels according to the presence of metabolic syndrome, although adiponectin and HMW adiponectin were significantly lower in metabolic syndrome. Correlation analysis of log RBP4 with IR and metabolic indices revealed that there was no significant correlation of RBP4 with waist circumference (r = 0.056, p = 0.324), HDL cholesterol (r = 0.005, p = 0.934), ApoB/ApoAI ratio (r = 0.066, p = 0.270), and the HOMA index (r = 0.017, p = 0.756). However, adiponectin and HMW adiponectin showed significant correlations with the HOMA index (r = - 0.247, p < 0.001; r = - 0.296, p < 0.001) and metabolic parameters. With IR defined as HOMA index ≥ 2.5, HMW adiponectin did not demonstrate a superior predictive value for IR compared to adiponectin (AUC = 0.680 vs. 0.648, p = 0.083). The predictive value of RBP4 for IR was minimal (AUC = 0.534).
Conclusion
RBP4 was not associated with IR or metabolic indices and the predictive value for IR was minimal in hypertensives. HMW adiponectin didn't have a superior predictive value for IR compared to adiponectin. Therefore, we can suggest that RBP4 and HMW adiponectin don't have more additive information than adiponectin in non-diabetic hypertensives.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2010.51.3.375
PMCID: PMC2852793  PMID: 20376890
Retinol-binding proteins; adiponectin; hypertension; insulin resistance
25.  Recovery and recurrence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy 
The Canadian Journal of Cardiology  2009;25(5):e147-e150.
BACKGROUND:
Some patients with nonischemic left ventricular (LV) systolic failure recover to have normal LV systolic function. However, few studies on the rates of recovery and recurrence have been reported, and no definitive indicators that can predict the recurrence of LV dysfunction in recovered idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCMP) patients have been determined. It was hypothesized that patients who recovered from nonischemic LV dysfunction have a substantial risk for recurrent heart failure.
METHODS:
Forty-two patients (32 men) with IDCMP (mean [± SD] age 56.9±8.7 years) who recovered from systolic heart failure (LV ejection fraction [LVEF] of 26.5±6.9% at initial presentation) to a near-normal state (LVEF of 40% or greater, and a 10% increase or greater in absolute value) were monitored for recurrence of LV systolic dysfunction. Patients with significant coronary artery disease were excluded. Patients were monitored for 41.0±26.3 months after recovery (LVEF 53.4±7.6%) from LV dysfunction.
RESULTS:
LV systolic dysfunction reappeared (LVEF 27.5±8.1%) during the follow-up period in eight of 42 patients (19.0%). No significant difference between the groups with or without recurrent heart failure was observed in the baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics. However, more patients in the recurred IDCMP group than those in the group that maintained the recovery state had discontinued antiheart failure medication (62.5% versus 5.9%, P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
LV dysfunction recurs in some patients with reversible IDCMP. The recurrence was significantly correlated with the discontinuation of antiheart failure drugs. The results suggest that continuous medical therapy may be mandatory in patients who recover from LV systolic dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC2707172  PMID: 19417864
Congestive heart failure; DCMP; Prognosis

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