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1.  Exposure to Music and Noise During Pregnancy Influences Neurogenesis and Thickness in Motor and Somatosensory Cortex of Rat Pups 
Purpose
Prenatal environmental conditions affect the development of the fetus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of exposure to music and noise during pregnancy on neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups.
Methods
The pregnant rats in the music-applied group were exposed to 65 dB of comfortable music for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. The pregnant rats in the noise-applied group were exposed to 95 dB of sound from a supersonic sound machine for 1 hour, once per day, from the 15th day of pregnancy until delivery. After birth, the offspring were left undisturbed together with their mother. The rat pups were sacrificed at 21 days after birth.
Results
Exposure to music during pregnancy increased neurogenesis in the motor and somatosensory cortex of rat pups. In contrast, rat pups exposed to noise during pregnancy showed decreased neurogenesis and thickness in the motor and somatosensory cortex.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that music and noise during the developmental period are important factors influencing brain development and urogenital disorders.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.3.107
PMCID: PMC3797889  PMID: 24143288
Music; Noise; Neurogenesis; Motor cortex; Somatosensory cortex
2.  Effects of Tamsulosin on Urinary Bladder Function and Neuronal Activity in the Voiding Centers of Rats with Cyclophosphamide-induced Overactive Bladder 
Purpose
The overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is characterized by urgency usually with frequency and nocturia. Tamsulosin, α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is widely used to reduce symptoms of urinary obstruction and prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin can across the blood-brain barrier. We investigated the effects of tamsulosin on the symptoms of OAB in relation to neuronal activity using rats.
Methods
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250±10 g (9 weeks old), were used in this study. The animals were divided into five groups (n=8 in each group): control group, OAB-induced group, OAB-induced and 0.01 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, OAB-induced and 0.1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group, and OAB-induced and 1 mg/kg tamsulosin-treated group. OAB was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg) every third day for 10 days. The rats in the tamsulosin-treated groups orally received tamsulosin once a day for 14 consecutive days at the respective dose of the groups, starting 1 day after the induction of OAB. Cystometry for bladder pressure determination, immunohistochemistry for c-Fos, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemistry for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the neuronal voiding centers and western blot for inducible NOS in the bladder were conducted.
Results
Cyclophosphamide injection enhanced contraction pressure and time, representing the induction of OAB. Contraction pressure and time were significantly suppressed by tamsulosin treatment. c-Fos and NOS expressions in the neuronal voiding centers were enhanced by induction of OAB. OAB-induced c-Fos and NOS expressions were suppressed by tamsulosin treatment.
Conclusions
Tamsulosin exerts inhibitory effect on neuronal activation in the neuronal voiding centers of OAB. The present results suggest the possibility that tamsulosin is effective therapeutic modality for ameliorating the symptoms of OAB.
doi:10.5213/inj.2012.16.1.13
PMCID: PMC3321398  PMID: 22500249
Overactive bladder; Cyclophosphamide; Tamsulosin; Rats
3.  Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts with mirodenafil on the relaxation of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle and the potassium channel activity of corporal smooth muscle cells 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2011;13(5):742-746.
In this study, we investigated the effects of a combination of Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors on the muscular tone of the corpus cavernosum and potassium channel activity of corporal smooth muscle cells. Strips of corpus cavernosum from male New Zealand white rabbits were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension studies. After contraction with 1×10−5 mol l−1 norepinephrine, GBE (0.01–1 mg ml−1) and mirodenafil (0.01–100 nmol l−1) were added together into the organ bath. In electrophysiological studies, whole-cell currents were recorded by the conventional patch-clamp technique in cultured smooth muscle cells of the human corpus cavernosum. The corpus cavernosum was relaxed in response to GBE in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.64%±8.35% at 0.01 mg ml−1 to 52.28%±11.42% at 1 mg ml−1). After pre-treatment with 0.03 mg ml−1 of GBE, the relaxant effects of mirodenafil were increased at all concentrations. After tetraethylammonium (TEA) (1 mmol l−1) administration, the increased effects were inhibited (P<0.01). Extracellular administration of GBE increased the whole-cell K+ outward currents in a dose-dependent fashion. The increase of the outward current was inhibited by 1 mmol l−1 TEA. These results suggest that GBE could increase the relaxant potency of mirodenafil even at a minimally effective dose. The K+ flow through potassium channels might be one of the mechanisms involved in this synergistic relaxation.
doi:10.1038/aja.2010.184
PMCID: PMC3739598  PMID: 21478894
calcium-activated potassium channels; erectile dysfunction; Ginkgo biloba; phosphodiesterase inhibitors; smooth muscles
4.  Development and Validation of the Korean Version of Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite: Questionnaire Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life after Prostate Cancer Treatment 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(9):601-612.
Purpose
Although the quality of life (QoL) of prostate cancer (PCa) patients is a major issue, there is no unified and useful methodology for assessing QoL. The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) is a globally used tool to measure QoL after PCa treatment that comprises urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal domains. Acknowledging the need for such a tool applicable to Korean PCa patients, we translated EPIC into Korean and validated the new version.
Materials and Methods
The Korean version of EPIC was devised by translation, back-translation, and reconciliation. Subsequently, we randomly selected 153 patients with localized PCa treated with radical perineal prostatectomy (67, 43.8%), radical retropubic prostatectomy (19, 12.4%), laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (12, 7.8%), robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (36, 23.5%), and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of the prostate (19, 12.4%) and asked them to complete EPIC. Reliability was assessed by test-retest correlation and Cronbach's alpha. Validity was assessed by factor analysis, interscale correlation, and correlation with Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P).
Results
Test-retest correlation and Cronbach's alpha were high in each of the domains (0.92, 0.91, 0.76, 0.84 and 0.86, 0.84, 0.92, 0.83, p<0.0001). Interscale correlation among the domains was low (r<0.37), which indicated that EPIC is composed of proper domains. Interscale correlation between the function and bother subscales was high (0.94, 0.81, 0.84 and 0.80, p<0.0001). EPIC domains had low correlation with FACT-P, permitting complementary use.
Conclusions
The Korean version of EPIC was developed by a proper process, as evident by its high reliability and validity. Therefore, it is a reliable, comprehensive, systematic method that evaluates QoL in Korean patients after PCa treatment. Furthermore, it can be adapted as an objective methodology for research globally.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.9.601
PMCID: PMC2941808  PMID: 20856644
Prostatic neoplasms; Quality of life; Reproducibility of results

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