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1.  Human dopamine receptor nanovesicles for gate-potential modulators in high-performance field-effect transistor biosensors 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4342.
The development of molecular detection that allows rapid responses with high sensitivity and selectivity remains challenging. Herein, we demonstrate the strategy of novel bio-nanotechnology to successfully fabricate high-performance dopamine (DA) biosensor using DA Receptor-containing uniform-particle-shaped Nanovesicles-immobilized Carboxylated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (CPEDOT) NTs (DRNCNs). DA molecules are commonly associated with serious diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. For the first time, nanovesicles containing a human DA receptor D1 (hDRD1) were successfully constructed from HEK-293 cells, stably expressing hDRD1. The nanovesicles containing hDRD1 as gate-potential modulator on the conducting polymer (CP) nanomaterial transistors provided high-performance responses to DA molecule owing to their uniform, monodispersive morphologies and outstanding discrimination ability. Specifically, the DRNCNs were integrated into a liquid-ion gated field-effect transistor (FET) system via immobilization and attachment processes, leading to high sensitivity and excellent selectivity toward DA in liquid state. Unprecedentedly, the minimum detectable level (MDL) from the field-induced DA responses was as low as 10 pM in real- time, which is 10 times more sensitive than that of previously reported CP based-DA biosensors. Moreover, the FET-type DRNCN biosensor had a rapid response time (<1 s) and showed excellent selectivity in human serum.
doi:10.1038/srep04342
PMCID: PMC3949245  PMID: 24614248
2.  Toll-like receptors, cytokines & nitric oxide synthase in patients with otitis media with effusion 
Background & objectives:
Microbial infections in the normally sterile environment of the middle ear cavity in patients with otitis media trigger expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, and nitric oxide. We evaluated the expression levels of TLR-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, and -9, interleukin (IL)-6, -8, -10, and -12, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO), in paediatric patients with otitis media with effusion (OME).
Methods:
The levels of TLR, cytokine, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNAs in middle ear effusion were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 96 children with OME, 24 prone and 72 not prone to otitis. The level of expression of each mRNA was compared in the otitis-prone and non-otitis-prone groups, in patients with and without bacteria, and by frequency of ventilation tube insertion.
Results:
The expression of TLR-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, and -9; IL-6, -8, -10, and -12; IFN-γ; TNF-α; and NOS mRNAs in the effusion fluid of both the otitis-prone and non-otitis-prone groups were measured. The expression levels of TLR-2, -4, -6, and -9 mRNA were significantly lower in the otitis-prone than in the non-otitis-prone group (P<0.05). Although higher levels of TLR, cytokine, and NOS mRNAs were generally observed in culture positive than in culture negative patients, none of these differences was statistically significant. No differences were observed in the expressions relative to the frequencies of ventilation tube insertion.
Interpretation & conclusions:
TLRs, cytokines, and NOS, which act cooperatively in the innate immune response, were closely associated with OME. Decreased expression of TLRs may be associated with increased susceptibility to OME.
PMCID: PMC3868065  PMID: 24434259
Cytokine; nitric oxide synthase; otitis media with effusion; Toll-like receptors
3.  Agreement between the Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0 and the House-Brackmann Grading System in Patients with Bell Palsy 
Objectives
We have analyzed the correlation between the House-Brackmann (HB) scale and Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0 (FNGS 2.0) in patients with Bell palsy, and evaluated the usefulness of the new grading system.
Methods
Sixty patients diagnosed with Bell palsy from May 2009 to December 2010 were evaluated using the HB scale and FNGS 2.0 scale during their initial visit, and after 3 and 6 weeks and 3 months.
Results
The overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.908 (P=0.000) and the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) was 0.912 (P<0.05). ICC and SCC displayed differences over time, being 0.604 and 0.626, respectively, at first visit; 0.834 and 0.843, respectively, after 3 weeks; 0.844 and 0.848, respectively, after 6 weeks; and 0.808 and 0.793, respectively, after 3 months. There was a significant difference in full recovery, depending on the scale used (HB, P=0.000; FNGS 2.0, P<0.05). The exact agreements between regional assessment and FNGS 2.0 for the mouth, eyes, and brow were 72%, 63%, and 52%, respectively.
Conclusion
FNGS 2.0 shows moderate agreement with HB grading. Regional assessment, rather than HB grading, yields stricter evaluation, resulting in better prognosis and determination of grade.
doi:10.3342/ceo.2013.6.3.135
PMCID: PMC3781225  PMID: 24069515
House-Brackmann scale; Facial Nerve Grading System 2.0; Bell palsy
4.  Anesthetic management of a parturient for combined cesarean section and surgical removal of pituitary tumor -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;62(6):579-583.
A 40-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of bitemporal hemianopsia at 23 weeks of gestation. A brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a pituitary tumor having suprasellar extension. At 30 weeks of gestation, she complained of rapidly deteriorating vision and bitemporal hemianopsia in both eyes and the ensuing radiological examination revealed increased tumor size, displaced tumor location and compressed optic chiasm. The cesarean section was performed at 31 weeks and 3 days of gestation and simultaneous surgical removal of pituitary tumor was carried out due to the risk of irreversible blindness. Anesthetic management for combined cesarean section and brain surgery can be more complex and challenging for anesthesiologists, and the aim was to achieve both the control of intracranial pressure and fetal well being at the same time. In this case, maternal outcome was somewhat improved after the procedure, and neonatal complications were not detected.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.62.6.579
PMCID: PMC3384800  PMID: 22778898
Cesarean section; Pituitary tumor; Pregnancy
5.  Anesthetic experience in patient for single lung transplantation with previous contralateral pneumonectomy -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2012;62(5):479-483.
A 48-year-old woman with cystic fibrosis and a previous left pneumonectomy had surgery planned for single lung transplantation under general anesthesia. Due to progressive dyspnea and recurrent respiratory infection, she could not maintain her normal daily life without lung transplantation. The anesthetic management and surgical procedure was expected to be difficult because of the left mediastinal shift and an asymmetric thorax after the left pneumonectomy, but the single lung transplantation was successfully done under cardiopulmonary bypass.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.62.5.479
PMCID: PMC3366317  PMID: 22679547
Cardiopulmonary bypass; Lung transplantation; Pneumonectomy
6.  Epidural hematoma occurred by massive bleeding intraoperatively in cesarean section after combined spinal epidural anesthesia -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;61(4):336-340.
We describe a case of acute lumbar epidural hematoma at the L2-3 level complicated by paraplegia, which occurred after coagulation disorder because of massive bleeding intraoperatively in cesarean section. The preoperative coagulation laboratory finding was in normal range and so we tried combined spinal epidural anesthesia. Uterine atony occurred in the operation, and there was persistant bleeding during and after the operation. After the operation, she complained of paresthesia on her both legs and was diagnosed with epidural hematoma (EDH) by radiologic examination. Emergency laminectomy on lumbar spine was carried out for hematoma evacuation and decompression of the epidural space at once. In our experience, massive bleeding during surgery may potentially increase the risk of EDH postoperatively.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2011.61.4.336
PMCID: PMC3219782  PMID: 22110889
Blood coagulation disorder; Cesarean section; Epidural anesthesia; Epidural hematoma; Postpartum hemorrhage; Spinal anesthesia
7.  Vomiting after a pediatric adenotonsillectomy: comparison between propofol induced sevoflurane-nitrous oxide maintained anesthesia and TIVA with propofol-remifentanil 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;59(3):185-189.
Background
Anesthesia methods and drugs affect postoperative nausea and vomiting. Propofol is known to have antiemetic effects. We compared the incidence of postoperative vomiting (POV) in children undergoing an adenotonsillectomy; anesthesia in one group was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane and nitrous oxide, and the other group received total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol-remifentanil.
Methods
Ninety children, ASA physical status I, were assigned randomly to one of two groups. In the PSN group, anesthesia was maintained with 2-3 vol% sevoflurane and 50% nitrous oxide. In the PR group, anesthesia was maintained with 10 mg/kg/h propofol and 0.25 µg/kg/min remifentanil. In both groups, anesthesia was induced with 0.5 µg/kg remifentanil and 2 mg/kg propofol. The incidence of POV and the need for rescue antiemetics were assessed in the postanesthesia care unit at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively.
Results
The total incidence of POV was not significantly different between the groups; POV occurred in eight (17.7%) and three (6.7%) children in the PSN and PR groups, respectively. Postoperative frequency of retching in the recovery room was significantly higher in the PSN group, with four children (8.9%) in the PSN group compared to none (0%) in the PR group (P = 0.041). The frequency of POV 24 hrs after exiting the recovery room tended to be higher in the PSN group than the PR group, but no statistically significant difference was observed.
Conclusions
If the development of POV in the early anesthetic recovery phase of children undergoing adenotonsillectomy is adequately prevented, propofol-induced anesthesia maintained with sevoflurane-nitrous oxide is as safe as TIVA with propofol-remifentanil.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.59.3.185
PMCID: PMC2946036  PMID: 20877703
Adenotonsillectomy; Pediatric; PONV; Sevoflurane; TIVA
8.  Maintenance of nitric oxide inhalation to a patient with hemoperitonium and acute respiratory distress syndrome during anesthesia -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2010;58(5):485-489.
Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is occasionally used to treat hypoxemia for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, it is controversial whether or not to maintain inhalation of NO during general anesthesia because of complications, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) production, methemoglobinemia, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. In this case, a 67-year-old male fell from a roof and was brought to an emergency care center. During management, he vomited gastric contents and aspirated. In spite of tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation with high oxygen therapy, the hypoxia did not improve. NO inhalation with mechanical ventilation was performed to treat hypoxemia due to ARDS in the ICU. We maintained the NO inhalation during the surgery for a hemoperitonium. The surgery was completed without intra-operative hemodynamic instability or any complications.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2010.58.5.485
PMCID: PMC2881526  PMID: 20532059
Acute respiratory distress syndrome; General anesthesia; Nitric oxide

Results 1-8 (8)