A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia. The 30-day mortality rates were similar between the trimerthoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and levofloxacin treatment groups. Adverse events related to antibiotics occurred more frequently in patients receiving TMP-SMX, and recurrent bacteremia due to levofloxacin-resistant S. maltophilia strains developed in patients treated with levofloxacin. Our data suggest that levofloxacin can be a useful alternative option for treating S. maltophilia infections.
The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-G IT) test (Cellestis Inc., Valencia, CA) is one of the gamma interferon release assays (IGRAs) that are promising tools for diagnosing active or latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. We investigated the clinical and laboratory factors that affect the rate of indeterminate QFT-G IT test results. We also suggest a workflow strategy for achieving optimized test results using the QFT-G IT test for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) or latent TB infection. We performed statistical analysis using data from a retrospective review of medical records. The first phase included 683 QFT-G IT test results from 676 patients tested between January 2008 and May 2008, and the second phase included an additional 663 QFT-G IT test results from 653 patients tested between January 2008 and December 2008 at Samsung Medical Center, a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. Immunosuppressive drug therapy, underlying diseases, bedridden status, and hypoalbuminemia were significantly associated with indeterminate QFT-G IT test results. With reduction of the incubation delay during the test procedure from an average of 9.82 h to an average of 2.70 h with changes in the workflow, the frequency of indeterminate QFT-G IT test results was significantly reduced from 11.4% to 2.7%. With >6 h of incubation delay, however, the frequency of indeterminate QFT-G IT test results was increased in a statistically significant manner. This study demonstrates that not only clinicopathological factors but also laboratory factors, such as incubation delay, significantly affect the rate of indeterminate QFT-G IT test results; therefore, optimization of the test procedure may contribute to reductions in the rate of indeterminate QFT-G IT test results, which delay the diagnosis of TB.
In this surveillance study, we identified the genotypes, carbapenem resistance determinants, and structural variations of AbaR-type resistance islands among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from nine Asian locales. Clonal complex 92 (CC92), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2), was the most prevalent in most Asian locales (83/108 isolates; 76.9%). CC108, or GC1, was a predominant clone in India. OXA-23 oxacillinase was detected in CRAB isolates from most Asian locales except Taiwan. blaOXA-24 was found in CRAB isolates from Taiwan. AbaR4-type resistance islands, which were divided into six subtypes, were identified in most CRAB isolates investigated. Five isolates from India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong contained AbaR3-type resistance islands. Of these, three isolates harbored both AbaR3- and AbaR4-type resistance islands simultaneously. In this study, GC2 was revealed as a prevalent clone in most Asian locales, with the AbaR4-type resistance island predominant, with diverse variants. The significance of this study lies in identifying the spread of global clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Asia.
To better understand extensively drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, we assessed clinical and microbiological characteristics of 5 extensively drug-resistant pneumococcal isolates. We concluded that long-term care facility residents who had undergone tracheostomy might be reservoirs of these pneumococci; 13- and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccines should be considered for high-risk persons; and antimicrobial drugs should be used judiciously.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; extensively drug-resistant; bacteria; South Korea; antimicrobial drug resistance
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Endocarditis
Methcillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as an important cause of community-acquired infections, which has been recently designated as community-associated (CA) MRSA. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-negative multilocus sequence type 72 (ST72)-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV has been reported as the predominat CA-MRSA strain in Korea and is commonly associated with skin and soft tissue infections in addition to healthcare-associated pneumonia. However, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) for this strain has not yet been reported. We hereby report two cases of CAP caused by PVL-negative ST72-SCCmec type IV strain in patients who had no risk factors for MRSA acquisition. While CA-MRSA infections are not yet prevalent in Korea, our cases suggest that CA-MRSA should be considered in cases of severe CAP, especially for cases associated with necrotizing pneumonia.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Pneumonia; Community-Acquired Infections; Korea
Although pandemic community-associated (CA-) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST30 clone has successfully spread into many Asian countries, there has been no case in Korea. We report the first imported case of infection caused by this clone in a Korean traveler returning from the Philippines. A previously healthy 30-yr-old Korean woman developed a buttock carbuncle while traveling in the Philippines. After coming back to Korea, oral cephalosporin was given by a primary physician without any improvement. Abscess was drained and MRSA strain isolated from her carbuncle was molecularly characterized and it was confirmed as ST30-MRSA-IV. She was successfully treated with vancomycin and surgery. Frequent international travel and migration have increased the risk of international spread of CA-MRSA clones. The efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of CA-MRSA should be continued, and we should raise suspicion of CA-MRSA infection in travelers with skin infections returning from CA-MRSA-endemic countries.
Staphylococcus aureus; Methicillin Resistance; Community-Acquired Infections; Carbuncle; Travel
Although extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) has emerged as a significant community-acquired pathogen, there is little epidemiological information regarding community-onset bacteremia due to ESBL-EC. A retrospective observational study from 2006 through 2011 was performed to evaluate the epidemiology of community-onset bacteremia caused by ESBL-EC. In a six-year period, the proportion of ESBL-EC responsible for causing community-onset bacteremia had increased significantly, from 3.6% in 2006 to 14.3%, in 2011. Of the 97 clinically evaluable cases with ESBL-EC bacteremia, 32 (33.0%) were further classified as healthcare-associated infections. The most common site of infection was urinary tract infection (n=35, 36.1%), followed by biliary tract infections (n=29, 29.9%). Of the 103 ESBL-EC isolates, 43 (41.7%) produced CTX-M-14 and 36 (35.0%) produced CTX-M-15. In the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of 76 isolates with CTX-M-14 or -15 type ESBLs, the most prevalent sequence type (ST) was ST131 (n=15, 19.7%), followed by ST405 (n=12, 15.8%) and ST648 (n=8, 10.5%). No significant differences in clinical features were found in the ST131 group versus the other group. These findings suggest that epidemic ESBL-EC clones such as CTX-M-14 or -15 type ESBLs and ST131 have disseminated in community-onset infections, even in bloodstream infections, which are the most serious type of infection.
Escherichia coli; Community-Acquired Infections; Cephalosporin Resistance; Bacteremia; Epidemiology
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens the successful treatment of pneumococcal infections. Here we report a case of bacteremic pneumonia caused by an extremely drug-resistant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae, nonsusceptible to at least one agent in all classes but vancomycin and linezolid, posing an important new public health threat in our region.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella species are important foodborne pathogens that can cause gastroenteritis, bacteremia, and subsequent focal infections. Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is problematic, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Any anatomical site can be affected by this pathogen via hematogenous seeding and may develop local infections. However, cervical lymphadenitis caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella species is rarely reported. Herein, we have reported a case of cervical lymphadenitis caused by group D non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with lymphoma.
Lymphadenitis; Salmonella; Lymphoma
Staphylococcus aureus; Methicillin resistance; Community-acquired infections; Genotype
We describe the first reported case of endocarditis due to Neisseria skkuensis. The organism from the blood cultures taken on admission day was identified initially as unidentified Gram-negative cocci by Vitek2. Finally, it was identified as Neisseria skkuensis by 16 rRNA gene sequence analysis.
Vancomycin-intermediate resistance has not been previously reported among sequence type 72 (ST72) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates of SCCmec type IV (ST72-MRSA-IV), which are distinctive community genotype strains in Korea. We report the first case of vancomycin treatment failure due to development of vancomycin-intermediate resistance in infection caused by an ST72-MRSA-IV isolate.
We compared the 16S rRNA gene sequencing results analyzed with the GenBank, EzTaxon, and BIBI databases for blood culture specimens for which identifications were incomplete, conflicting, or unidentifiable using conventional methods. Analyses performed using GenBank combined with EzTaxon (kappa = 0.79) were more discriminative than those using other databases alone or in combination with a second database.
Since microbial gene sequencing was utilized for etiologic diagnosis of culture-negative endocarditis, cases of Bartonella endocarditis have been reported in various countries. Herein we report the first case of Bartonella quintana endocarditis, which was confirmed for the first time in Korea by 16S rRNA gene sequencing from the excised valve. A 75-yr-old woman was hospitalized due to dyspnea. Echocardiography demonstrated large oscillating vegetation at the aortic valve. Blood culture was negative. She underwent valve replacement and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from excised valve identified Bartonella quintana. She was successfully treated with combined use of ceftriaxone and gentamicin.
Infective Endocarditis; Bartonella quintana; 16S rRNA; Gene Sequencing
Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a serious concern worldwide, particularly in Asian countries, despite the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) performed a prospective surveillance study of 2,184 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients with pneumococcal infections from 60 hospitals in 11 Asian countries from 2008 to 2009. Among nonmeningeal isolates, the prevalence rate of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml) was 4.6% and penicillin resistance (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml) was extremely rare (0.7%). Resistance to erythromycin was very prevalent in the region (72.7%); the highest rates were in China (96.4%), Taiwan (84.9%), and Vietnam (80.7%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 59.3% of isolates from Asian countries. Major serotypes were 19F (23.5%), 23F (10.0%), 19A (8.2%), 14 (7.3%), and 6B (7.3%). Overall, 52.5% of isolates showed PCV7 serotypes, ranging from 16.1% in Philippines to 75.1% in Vietnam. Serotypes 19A (8.2%), 3 (6.2%), and 6A (4.2%) were the most prominent non-PCV7 serotypes in the Asian region. Among isolates with serotype 19A, 86.0% and 79.8% showed erythromycin resistance and MDR, respectively. The most remarkable findings about the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in Asian countries after the introduction of PCV7 were the high prevalence of macrolide resistance and MDR and distinctive increases in serotype 19A.
Limited clinical information is available regarding community onset infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. A case-control study was performed to evaluate the epidemiology and risk factors of these types of infections. A case patient was defined as a person whose clinical sample yielded ESBL-producing E. coli. For each case patient, one control was randomly chosen from a group of outpatients from whom non-ESBL-producing E. coli had been isolated and for whom a clinical sample had been sent to the same laboratory for culturing during the following week. Of 108 cases of ESBL-producing E. coli, 56 (51.9%) were classified as health care associated (HCA). Univariate analysis showed male gender, HCA infection, severe underlying illness, and a prior receipt of antibiotics to be associated with ESBL-producing E. coli. In the multivariate analysis, HCA infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.67 to 6.06; P < 0.001) and previous use of antibiotics (OR, 4.88; 95% CI, 2.08 to 11.48; P < 0.001) were found to be significantly associated with the ESBL group. In a multivariate analysis that included each antibiotic, previous use of fluoroquinolone (OR, 7.32; 95% CI, 1.58 to 34.01; P = 0.011) was significantly associated with ESBL-producing E. coli. Of 101 isolates in which ESBLs and their molecular relationships were studied, all isolates produced ESBLs from the CTX-M family (CTX-M-14, 40 isolates; CTX-M-15, 39 isolates; and other members of the CTX-M family, 22 isolates). In conclusion, this study confirms that ESBL-producing E. coli strains are a notable cause of community onset infections in predisposed patients. HCA infection and previous use of fluoroquinolone were significant factors associated with ESBL-producing E. coli in community onset infections.
Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive USA300 clone has been the most successful community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clone spreading in North America. In contrast, PVL-negative ST72-CA-MRSA has been predominant in Korea, and there has been no report of infections by the USA300 strain except only one case report of perianal infection. Here, we describe the first case of pneumonia caused by the USA300 strain following pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Korea. A 50-year-old man was admitted with fever and cough and chest radiograph showed pneumonic consolidation at the right lower lung zone. He received a ventilator support because of respiratory failure. PCR for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in nasopharyngeal swab was positive, and culture of sputum and endotracheal aspirate grew MRSA. Typing of the isolate revealed that it was PVL-positive, ST 8-MRSA-SCCmec type IV. The analysis of the PFGE patterns showed that this isolate was the same pulsotype as the USA300 strain.
Influenza, Human; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Pneumonia
The underlying mechanisms of liver abscess formation have not been fully elucidated with regard to the interaction between bacterial virulence factors and the immune response. The objective of this study was to determine the role of the host T cells in liver abscess formation caused by Bacteroides fragilis. We developed a liver abscess mouse model with inoculation of B. fragilis through the hepatic portal vein and examined the role of T cells by studying T cell-deficient mice, as well as conducting adoptive T cell transfer experiments. No microabscess was formed in the αβ T cell receptor-positive (αβTCR+) T cell-depleted mice, in contrast to the results for the control mice. In addition, the αβTCR knockout (KO) mice showed significantly lower numbers of microabscesses, and the abscesses were smaller in size than those in the wild-type mice. Adoptive transfer of T cells purified from the wild-type mice into the αβTCR KO mice resulted in liver abscess formation in those mice. These findings suggest that T cells play an essential role in liver abscess formation caused by B. fragilis in mice.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of initial C-reactive protein (CRP) as a predictor of clinical outcome and to investigate whether follow-up CRP measurement is useful for the prediction of the clinical outcome of bloodstream infections in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), whose CRP production in response to infection may be attenuated.
A retrospective, observational study including 202 LC patients with Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia was conducted to assess the usefulness of serial CRP measurements in predicting clinical outcome in LC patients. The CRP ratio was defined as the ratio of the follow-up CRP level to the initial CRP level.
The overall 30-day mortality rate of the study population was 23.8% (48/202). In the multivariate analysis, advanced age (≥ 70 years), healthcare-associated or nosocomial infections, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of ≥ 30, and initial body temperature of < 37℃ were significant factors associated with mortality (all p < 0.05). No association between initial CRP level and mortality was found. In a further analysis including 87 evaluable cases who had repeated CRP measurements at day 4 and/or 5, a CRP ratio of ≥ 0.7 was found to be a significant factor associated with mortality (odds ratio, 19.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.32 to 276.86; p = 0.043) after adjusting for other confounding variables.
Initial CRP level did not predict mortality of sepsis in LC patients. However, serial CRP measurements during the first week of antimicrobial therapy may be useful as a prognostic factor for mortality in LC patients.
C-reactive protein; Bacteremia; Liver cirrhosis; Treatment outcome
We evaluated the clinical features of ciprofloxacin-resistant Proteus mirabilis bacteremia and risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance.
From October 2000 to July 2009, 37 patients with clinically significant P. mirabilis bacteremia were identified and data from patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible P. mirabilis bacteremia were compared.
The most common underlying diseases were neurologic disease (37.8%) and solid tumors (29.7%). The most common site of infection was the urinary tract (35.1%). Ten of the 37 patients (27.0%) were infected with ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, and univariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between ciprofloxacin-resistant P. mirabilis bacteremia and neurologic disease, recent operation, L-tube insertion, percutaneous tube use, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production (all p < 0.05). ESBL was detected in six of 10 (60%) ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, while only three of 27 (11%) ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates produced ESBL (p = 0.005). In a logistic regression analysis, ESBL production remained a significant factor associated with ciprofloxacin resistance, after adjusting for other variables.
These data indicate a close association between ciprofloxacin resistance and ESBL-production in P. mirabilis bacteremia. This association is particularly troublesome because the therapeutic options for serious infections caused by ESBL-producing P. mirabilis are severely restricted.
Proteus mirabilis; Ciprofloxacin; Drug resistance; Bacterial; Risk factors; Cephalosporin resistance
In vitro activities of colistin and other drugs were tested against 221 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates that were collected between 2006 and 2007 in nine tertiary care South Korean hospitals from patients with bacteremia. The clonality of colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) isolates was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We found that 15 isolates (6.8%) were resistant to colistin. MLST showed that CRKP isolates were nonclonal, with colistin resistance in K. pneumoniae occurring independently and not by clonal spreading.