Vitamin D (vit-D) is essential for bone health, although many osteoporosis patients have low levels of 25-hydroxy-vit-D [25(OH)D]. This randomized, open-label study compared the effects of once weekly alendronate 70 mg containing 5600 IU vit-D3 (ALN/D5600) to alendronate 70 mg without additional vit-D (ALN) on the percent of patients with vit-D insufficiency [25(OH)D <15 ng/mL, primary endpoint] and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH, secondary endpoint) levels in postmenopausal, osteoporotic Korean women. Neuromuscular function was also measured. A total of 268 subjects were randomized. Overall, 35% of patients had vit-D insufficiency at baseline. After 16-weeks, there were fewer patients with vit-D insufficiency in the ALN/D5600 group (1.47%) than in the ALN group (41.67%) (p<0.001). Patients receiving ALN/D5600 compared with ALN were at a significantly decreased risk of vit-D insufficiency [odds ratio=0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-0.08]. In the ALN/D5600 group, significant increases in serum 25(OH)D were observed at weeks 8 (9.60 ng/mL) and 16 (11.41 ng/mL), where as a significant decrease was recorded in the ALN group at week 16 (-1.61 ng/mL). By multiple regression analysis, major determinants of increases in serum 25(OH)D were ALN/D5600 administration, seasonal variation, and baseline 25(OH)D. The least squares mean percent change from baseline in serum PTH in the ALN/D5600 group (8.17%) was lower than that in the ALN group (29.98%) (p=0.0091). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in neuromuscular function. Overall safety was similar between groups. In conclusion, the administration of 5600 IU vit-D in the ALN/D5600 group improved vit-D status and reduced the magnitude of PTH increase without significant side-effects after 16 weeks in Korean osteoporotic patients.
Alendronate; vitamin-D; vitamin-D insufficiency; osteoporosis; parathyroid hormone
Omental infarction occurring after open and laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy with partial omentectomy for gastric cancer was a very rare disease in the past, but its incidence has increased as more partial omentectomies are now being performed. But there are few case reports or radiologic studies on its increasing incidence. It is necessary to differentiate omental infarction from carcinomatosis peritonei, since both have similar imaging findings. In this report, we describe two cases of omental infarction; each occurred after open and laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy in early gastric cancer patients. Partial omentectomy was performed in both cases. Omental infarction following distal gastrectomy with partial omentectomy can be discriminated from carcinomatosis peritonei by comparing with different initial and follow up CT findings.
Omental infarction; Gastrectomy; CT; Carcinomatosis peritonei
Primary gastric carcinoma is the most common cause of linitis plastica. Less frequently, metastatic gastric cancer from the breast, omental metastases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the stomach have been reported to show similar radiographic findings as for linitis plastica. A metastatic gastric cancer from bladder cancer is extremely rare. We present an unusual case, the first to our knowledge, of gastric linitis plastica that resulted from a metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
Matastatic; Linitis plastica; Bladder cancer
Fewer than 20 cases of adventitial cystic disease of the vein have been reported in the worldwide literature. This small number of reported cases may be due not only to the disease's low incidence, but also to the difficulty in making the proper diagnosis. Many techniques have been used to investigate this disease, but venography has been the traditional diagnostic tool. In this report we present a case of adventitial cystic disease that was well demonstrated by CT venography.
Veins, iliac; Veins, stenosis or obstruction; Computed tomography (CT), angiography
This report describes the color and pulsed Doppler US findings of penile Mondor's disease. The pulsed Doppler US findings of penile Mondor's disease have not been previously published, so we report here for the first time on the cavernosal arterial flow signal pattern of penile Mondor's disease. Penile Mondor's disease is rare disease that's characterized by thrombosis in the dorsal vein of the penis. The previous reports on penile Mondor's disease are concerned with the color Doppler US finding without the flow signals in this area, but these findings are insufficient to understand the hemodynamics in penile Mondor's disease. We report for the first time on a cavernosal artery flow signal pattern of low peak systolic velocity and high-resistance.
Ultrasound (US), Doppler studies; Thrombosis, venous, superticial dorsal vein of penis
Many studies have demonstrated an association between hemoglobin levels and cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between hemoglobin concentrations and various clinical parameters, including metabolic factors, plasma C-peptide response after a meal tolerance test, and microvascular complications, in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.
In total, 337 male patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited. All subjects were subjected to a meal tolerance test and underwent assessment of hemoglobin levels, fasting and postprandial β-cell responsiveness, and microvascular complications.
Patients with lower hemoglobin concentrations had a longer duration of diabetes, a lower body mass index, and lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. They also had lower levels of postprandial C-peptide, Δ C-peptide, and postprandial β-cell responsiveness. They had a higher prevalence of retinopathy and nephropathy. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant association between nephropathy and hemoglobin concentration. Also, hemoglobin concentrations were independently associated with Δ C-peptide levels and postprandial β-cell responsiveness.
Hemoglobin concentrations are associated with postprandial C-peptide responses and diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Hemoglobins; Diabetes complications; Diabetes mellitus, type 2
We investigated the associations among body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance, and β-cell function in Korean patients newly presenting with type 2 diabetes.
In total, 132 patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus were investigated. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and the indices of insulin secretion and insulin resistance were calculated.
A higher BMI was associated with higher homeostasis model assessment values for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β), and insulinogenic index as well as lower levels of insulin sensitivity index composite (ISIcomp) and disposition index (DI). In multiple regression models, BMI had independent positive associations with HOMA-IR, ISIcomp, and HOMA-β and inverse associations with the DI.
Our results showed that BMI had independent positive associations with indices of insulin resistance and an inverse association with β-cell function adjusted for insulin resistance in Korean patients newly presenting with type 2 diabetes.
Body mass index; Insulin resistance; Secretion; Diabetes mellitus, type 2
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon mesenchymal solid tumor commonly documented in children and young adults. Here, we report a case of IMT in colon confirmed pathologically after laparoscopic anterior resection. A 35-year-old man presented with anal bleeding after defecation for 2 weeks. Colonoscopy demonstrated a mass with shallow ulceration in the central area and irregular margin accompanied by intact mucosa in the descending colon. Computer tomography showed a well-demarcated and homogenous solitary mass in the descending colon. We performed laparoscopic anterior resection. This case was diagnosed as IMT after microscopic examination. The tumor was composed of a proliferation of spindle-shaped cells arranged in the hyaline material with chronic inflammatory cells, composed mainly of plasma cells and lymphocytes. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for smooth muscle actin, and vimentin, and negative for desmin, CD117 (c-kit), anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; Colon
Diabetes mellitus is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but high cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus patients is not completely explained by clustering traditional risk factors. Recently, associations between diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and macrovasculopathy have been suggested. We aimed to assess associations between DPN and cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients.
Microvascular and cardiovascular complications were evaluated in 1,041 type 2 diabetic patients.
In patients with DPN, the age, prevalence of hypertension, diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and hemoglobin glycation (HbA1c) levels were significantly higher, while the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were lower than in those without DPN. The prevalence of CVD was higher in patients with DPN. In multivariate analysis, DPN was independently associated with CVD (odds ratio, 1.801; 95% confidence interval, 1.009 to 3.214).
Our results showed that DPN was associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients, but further studies are needed to investigate the causative nature of associations between DPN and CVD.
Cardiovascular diseases; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Diabetic neuropathies
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis, and it can be classified as either a functional or nonfunctional tumor. Affected patients usually present with abdominal pain or with symptoms related to the mass effect or hormonal activity of the tumor. Several cases of spontaneously ruptured nonfunctional adrenocortical carcinoma have been reported, but no case of a spontaneous rupture of functioning adrenocortical carcinoma has been described. We report a functioning adrenocortical carcinoma that spontaneously ruptured during a work-up.
Adrenocortical carcinoma; hormones; spontaneous rupture
To characterize ultrasonographic findings in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) combined with Graves' disease.
Medical records and ultrasonographic findings of 1,013 patients with Graves' disease and 3,380 patients without Graves' disease were analyzed retrospectively. A diagnosis of PTC was based on a pathologic examination.
The frequency of hypoechogenicity was lower in patients with PTC and Graves' disease than in patients with PTC alone (p < 0.05). The frequency of perinodular blood flow in patients with PTC and Graves' disease was significantly higher than in those with PTC alone (p < 0.05). PTC combined with Graves' disease was characterized by more ill-defined borders and less frequency of overall calcification, punctate calcification, and heterogeneous echogenicity, although the difference was not statistically significant.
Our results suggest that patients with Graves' disease more frequently have atypical PTC findings on ultrasonography.
Graves disease; Thyroid neoplasms; Ultrasonography
Patient preferences, convenience, and bone turnover markers were evaluated for the monthly ibandronate over the weekly risedronate regimen in Korean postmenopausal osteoporotic women. This was a 6-month, prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter study with a two-period and two-sequence crossover treatment design. After a 30-day screening period, eligible participants with postmenopausal osteoporosis were randomized to receive either monthly oral ibandronate 150 mg for 3 months followed by weekly oral risedronate 35 mg for 12 weeks (sequence A) or the same regimen in reverse order (sequence B). Patient preference and convenience were evaluated by questionnaire. The changes in serum C-telopeptide after 3 months of treatment were analyzed. A total of 365 patients were enrolled in this study (sequence A 182, sequence B 183). Of patients expressing a preference (83.4%), 74.8% preferred the monthly ibandronate regimen over the weekly regimen (25.2%). More women stated that the monthly ibandronate regimen was more convenient (84.2%) than the weekly regimen (15.8%). There was no significant difference in the change in bone turnover marker between the two treatments. The two regimens were similarly tolerable. There were fewer adverse events in the monthly ibandronate group compared to the weekly risedronate group in terms of gastrointestinal side effects (nausea and abdominal distension). This study revealed a strong preference and convenience for monthly ibandronate over weekly risedronate in Korean postmenopausal osteoporotic women. There was no significant difference in change of bone turnover marker and safety profile between the two regimens.
Ibandronate; Risedronate; Preference; Convenience; Korean
Bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis is primarily caused by gastroesophageal varix in association with extensive collateral circulation, portal hypertensive gastropathy, a Mallory-Weiss tear and peptic ulcer disease. The spontaneous rupture of an artery, as a result of coagulopathy, is extremely rare in patients with liver cirrhosis; however, we recently observed a case of a spontaneous rupture of the lateral thoracic artery in a 47 year-old male patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The patient expired despite repeated transcatheter arterial embolization of the lateral thoracic artery and best supportive care. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case of the spontaneous rupture of the lateral thoracic artery in a patient with liver cirrhosis.
Rupture; Spontaneous; Thoracic Artery; Liver Cirrhosis
We wanted to present our experiences for performing transradial cerebral angiography during the learning period, and we also wanted to demonstrate this procedure's technical feasibility and utility in various clinical situations.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the study. All of them had unfavorable situations for performing transfemoral angiography, i.e., IV lines in the bilateral femoral vein, a phobia for groin puncture, decreased blood platelet counts, large hematoma or bruise, atherosclerosis in the bilateral femoral artery and the insistence of patients for choosing another procedure. After confirming the patency of the ulnar artery with a modified Allen's test and a pulse oximeter, the procedure was done using a 21-G micorpuncture set and 5-F Simon II catheters. After angiography, hemostasis was achieved with 1-2 minutes of manual compression and the subsequent application of a hospital-made wrist brace for two hours. The technical feasiblity and procedure-related immediate and delayed complications were evaluated.
The procedure was successful in 30/32 patients (93.8%). Failure occurred in two patients; one patient had hypoplasia of the radial artery and one patient had vasospasm following multiple puncture trials for the radial artery. Transradial cerebral angiography was technically feasible without significant difficulties even though it was tried during the learning period. Pain in the forearm or arm developed in some patients during the procedures, but this was usually mild and transient. Procedure-related immediate complications included severe bruising in one patient and a small hematoma in one patient. Any clinically significant complication or delayed complication such as radial artery occlusion was not demonstrated in our series.
Transradial cerebral angiography is a useful alternative for the patients who have unfavorable clinical situations or contraindications for performing transfemoral cerebral angiography. For the experienced neurointerventionalists, it seems that additional training for perfoming transradial cerebral angiography is not needed.
Angiography; Cerebral blood vessel; Diagnosis; Radial artery; Technique
Tuberculous aneurysm of the aorta is exceedingly rare. To date, the standard therapy for mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta has been surgery involving in-situ graft placement or extra-anatomic bypass surgery followed by effective anti-tuberculous medication. Only recently has the use of a stent graft in the treatment of tuberculous aortic aneurysm been described in the literature. We report two cases in which a tuberculous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta was successfully repaired using endovascular stent grafts. One case involved is a 42-year-old woman with a large suprarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a right psoas abscess, and the other, a 41-year-old man in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptured during surgical drainage of a psoas abscess.
Aorta, disease; Aorta, aneurysm; Aorta, grafts and prostheses