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1.  Primary Gastric Melanoma with Rhabdoid Features: A Case Report 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2013;47(6):606-609.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.6.606
PMCID: PMC3887169  PMID: 24421860
2.  Uncommon and Rare Human Papillomavirus Genotypes Relating to Cervical Carcinomas 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2014;48(1):43-49.
Background
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an oncogenic virus in cervical cancer and most invasive carcinomas (ICs) are caused by HPV16 and 18. However, the roles and contributions of other uncommon and rare genotypes remain uncertain.
Methods
HPV genotypes were retrospectively assessed using an HPV DNA chip that can specify up to 32 HPV genotypes. We arbitrarily regarded genotypes accounting for less than 6% of the total as uncommon and rare genotypes.
Results
A total of 3,164 HPV-positive cases were enrolled. In groups 2A, 2B, 3, and unclassified HPV genotypes, 2.4% of cases with uncommon HPV genotypes (68, 26, 34, 53, 66, 69, 70, 73, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 55, 61, 62, 6, and 11) showed high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and ICs. There were no HPV32- and 57-infected cases.
Conclusions
We found that the uncommon and rare HPV genotypes may provide incremental etiologic contributions in cervical carcinogenesis, especially HPV68, 70, and 53. Further studies on these uncommon and rare HPV genotypes will be of importance in establishing the significance of genotypes in different regions, especially in planning a strategy for further vaccine development as well as follow-up on the effectiveness of the currently used vaccines.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.1.43
PMCID: PMC3950234  PMID: 24627694
Human papillomavirus; Cervix uteri; Carcinogenesis; Genotype
4.  Crush Cytology of Microcystic Meningioma with Extensive Sclerosis 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2014;48(1):77-80.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.1.77
PMCID: PMC3950242  PMID: 24627702
5.  Factors influencing hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis after hepatectomy: a single-center experience 
Background/Aims
Recurrence after hepatic resection is one of the most important factors impacting the prognosis and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We identified prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with HCC after hepatic resection.
Methods
This study was of a retrospective cohort design, and 126 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCC at Gachon University Gil Medical Center between January 2005 and December 2010 were enrolled. Various clinical, laboratory, and pathological data were evaluated to determine the prognostic factors affecting OS and DFS.
Results
Two- and 4-year OS and 2- and 4-year DFS were 78.1% and 65% and 51.1% and 26.6%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, preoperative α-fetoprotein (> 400 ng/mL), tumor size (≥ 5 cm), multiple tumors (two or more nodules), presence of portal vein invasion, modified Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage III/IV, and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B/C were independent prognostic factors affecting a shorter OS. In the multivariate analysis, presence of microvascular invasion, modified UICC stage III/IV, and BCLC stage B/C were independent prognostic factors for a shorter DFS.
Conclusions
The presence of vascular invasion was an independent poor prognostic factor for OS and DFS in patients with HCC after hepatic resection. Thus, close postoperative surveillance for early detection of recurrence and additional treatments are urgently needed in patients with vascular invasion after hepatic resection.
doi:10.3904/kjim.2013.28.4.428
PMCID: PMC3712151  PMID: 23864801
Carcinoma, hepatocellular; Hepatic resection; Prognosis; Vascular invasion
7.  Cervical Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma after Dapsone-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(6):606-610.
A 36-year-old woman presented with erythematous confluent macules on her whole body with fever and chills associated with jaundice after 8 months of dapsone therapy. Her symptoms had developed progressively, and a physical examination revealed bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Excisional biopsy of a cervical lymph node showed effacement of the normal architecture with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia and proliferation of high endothelial venules compatible with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. However, it was assumed that the cervical lymphadenopathy was a clinical manifestation of a systemic hypersensitivity reaction because her clinical course was reminiscent of dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. A liver biopsy revealed drug-induced hepatitis with no evidence of lymphomatous involvement. Intravenous glucocorticoid was immediately initiated and her symptoms and clinical disease dramatically improved. The authors present an unusual case of cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma as an adverse reaction to dapsone.
doi:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2012.46.6.606
PMCID: PMC3540342  PMID: 23323115
Pseudolymphoma; Dapsone therapy
8.  A case of amoxicillin-induced hepatocellular liver injury with bile-duct damage 
The Korean Journal of Hepatology  2011;17(3):229-232.
Amoxicillin, an antibiotic that is widely prescribed for various infections, is associated with a very low rate of drug-induced liver injury; hepatitis and cholestasis are rare complications. Here we present a case of a 39-year-old woman who was diagnosed with abdominal actinomycosis and received amoxicillin treatment. The patient displayed hepatocellular and bile-duct injury, in addition to elevated levels of liver enzymes. The patient was diagnosed with amoxicillin-induced cholestatic hepatitis. When amoxicillin was discontinued, the patient's symptoms improved and her liver enzyme levels reduced to near to the normal range.
doi:10.3350/kjhep.2011.17.3.229
PMCID: PMC3304646  PMID: 22102391
Drug-induced liver injury; Amoxicillin; Cholestatic hepatitis
9.  Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of MALT in Small Intestine Associated with Amyloidosis: A Rare Association 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(5):686-689.
A 62-yr-old man presented with a 5-yr history of intermittent abdominal distention and pain. These symptoms persisted for several months and subsided without treatment. A diagnosis of suspected small bowel lymphoma was made based on plain radiograph and computerized tomogram findings, and he was referred to our institution for further evaluation. Segmental resection of the small intestine was performed and the diagnosis of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma associated with amyloidosis was made. This is the first case of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the small intestine associated with amyloidosis in Korea.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.5.686
PMCID: PMC3082124  PMID: 21532863
Gastrointestinal Tract; Lymphoma; Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone; Amyloidosis
10.  A Case of Lumbar Metastasis of Choriocarcinoma Masquerading as an Extraosseous Extension of Vertebral Hemangioma 
We report here on an uncommon case of metastatic choriocarcinoma to the lung, brain and lumbar spine. A 33-year-old woman was admitted to the pulmonary department with headache, dyspnea and hemoptysis. There was a history of cesarean section due to intrauterine fetal death at 37-weeks gestation and this occurred 2 weeks before admission to the pulmonary department. The radiological studies revealed a nodular lung mass with hypervascularity in the left upper lobe and also a brain parenchymal lesion in the parietal lobe with marginal bleeding and surrounding edema. She underwent embolization for the lung lesion, which was suspected to be an arteriovenous malformation according to the pulmonary arteriogram. Approximately 10 days after discharge from the pulmonary department, she was readmitted due to back pain and progressive paraparesis. The neuroradiological studies revealed a hypervascular tumor occupying the entire L3 vertebral body and pedicle, and the tumor extended to the epidural area. She underwent embolization of the hypervascular lesion of the lumbar spine, and after which injection of polymethylmethacrylate in the L3 vertebral body, total laminectomy of L3, subtotal removal of the epidural mass and screw fixation of L2 and L4 were performed. The result of biopsy was a choriocarcinoma.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.2.143
PMCID: PMC2836452  PMID: 20224716
Metastatic choriocarconoma; Spinal metastasis
11.  Intramedullary Clear Cell Ependymoma in the Thoracic Spinal Cord: A Case with Its Crush Smear and Ultrastructural Findings 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(Suppl):S149-S153.
Clear cell ependymoma was included in the World Health Organization classification of the nervous system in 1993, and all the reported cases, except for two in the spinal cord, were located in the brain, mainly in the supratentorial compartment. Astrocytomas outnumber ependymomas in the spinal cord, and the two entities partly share cytologic findings such as long, bipolar glial processes and oval to round nuclei resembling those seen in pilocytic astrocytoma. Here, we report the first Korean case of intramedullary clear cell ependymoma of the spinal cord, which is the third case situated in the spinal cord in the literature. The crush smear revealed round-to-oval nuclei with occasional nuclear eosinophilic inclusion and rare nuclear grooves. Cytoplasm had fluffy eosinophilic glial processes, and acellular fibrillary zone. On hematoxylin-eosin stain, oval to round tumor cells had large central nuclei with indistinct nucleoli and a moderate amount of clear cytoplasm, i.e. perinuclear halo, mimicking oligodendroglioma. Perivascular pseudorosettes and ependymal clefts were rarely found. In retrospect, perinuclear halo was absent on crush smears. Ultrastructurally, they had extensive surface microvilli and edematous cytoplasm filled with abundant glial filaments and microlumens with or without microvilli. Intercellular long cell junctions of the zipper-like zonula adherens type were found.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.S.S149
PMCID: PMC2694393  PMID: 17923743
Ependymoma, Clear Cell; Spinal Cord; Crush Smear; Microscopy, Electron

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