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2.  Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Community-Acquired Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Prospective Observational Study in 12 University Hospitals in Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(11):1308-1314.
A prospective multicenter observational study was performed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of community-acquired severe sepsis and septic shock. Subjects included 1,192 adult patients admitted to the 22 participating intensive care units (ICUs) of 12 university hospitals in the Korean Sepsis Registry System from April, 2005 through February, 2009. Male accounted for 656 (55%) patients. Mean age was 65.0 ± 14.2 yr. Septic shock developed in 740 (62.1%) patients. Bacteremia was present in 422 (35.4%) patients. The 28-day and in-hospital mortality rates were 23.0% and 28.0%, respectively. Men were more likely to have comorbid illnesses and acute organ dysfunctions, and had higher mortality and clinical severity compared to women. While respiratory sources of sepsis were common in men, urinary sources were predominant in women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, cancer (odds ratio 1.89; 95% confidence interval 1.13-3.17), urinary tract infection (0.25; 0.13-0.46), APACHE II score (1.05; 1.02-1.09), SOFA score on day 1 (1.13; 1.06-1.21) and metabolic dysfunction (2.24, 1.45-3.45) were independent clinical factors for gender-related in-hospital mortality. This study provided epidemiological and clinical characteristics of community-acquired severe sepsis and septic shock in ICUs in Korea, and demonstrated the impact of clinical factors on gender difference in mortality.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.11.1308
PMCID: PMC3492663  PMID: 23166410
Epidemiology; Severe Sepsis; Septic Shock; Mortality; Risk Factor; Gender
4.  Effect of Climatic Factors on Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in South Korea, 2010-2013 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(6):e0157500.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) causes characteristic blisters and sores mainly in infants and children, and has been monitored in South Korea through sentinel surveillance since 2009. We described the patterns of HFMD occurrence and analyzed the effect of climatic factors on national HFMD incidence. Weekly clinically diagnosed HFMD case rates (per 1,000 outpatients) in sentinel sites and weekly climatic factors, such as average temperature, relative humidity, duration of sunshine, precipitation, and wind speed from 2010 to 2013, were used in this study. A generalized additive model with smoothing splines and climatic variables with time lags of up to 2 weeks were considered in the modeling process. To account for long-term trends and seasonality, we controlled for each year and their corresponding weeks. The autocorrelation issue was also adjusted by using autocorrelation variables. At an average temperature below 18°C, the HFMD rate increased by 10.3% for every 1°C rise in average temperature (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4, 12.3%). We also saw a 6.6% increase in HFMD rate (95% CI: 3.6, 9.7%) with every 1% increase in relative humidity under 65%, with a 1.5% decrease in HFMD rate observed (95% CI: 0.4, 2.7%) with each 1% humidity increase above 65%. Modeling results have shown that average temperature and relative humidity are related to HFMD rate. Additional research on the environmental risk factors of HFMD transmission is required to understand the underlying mechanism between climatic factors and HFMD incidence.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157500
PMCID: PMC4902224  PMID: 27285850
5.  Trends of Antibiotic Consumption in Korea According to National Reimbursement Data (2008–2012) 
Medicine  2015;94(46):e2100.
Abstract
This study determined the trends in the quantities and patterns of nationwide antibiotic consumption in the Republic of Korea (ROK).
This nationwide descriptive epidemiological study was conducted in the ROK between 2008 and 2012. The quantities and patterns of total systemic antibiotic prescriptions were analyzed using National Health Insurance claims data collected through the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service. Data concerning systemic antibiotics were collected using measurement units of the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 people per day according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification.
Over the 5-year study period, the annual consumption of systemic antibiotics ranged from 21.68 to 23.12 DDD per 1000 people per day. Outpatient antibiotic use accounted for 80.9% of total consumption. A regression model with autoregressive errors showed significant increased consumption of major antibiotic subgroups, including 3rd-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, and glycopeptides (P < 0.001). However, the antibiotic use of 1st- (P = 0.003), 2nd- (P = 0.004), and 3rd-generation (P = 0.018) cephalosporins among patients who underwent surgery under monitoring by the antimicrobial stewardship programs for perioperative prescription was significantly lower than in those who underwent surgery without monitoring programs. In time-series analysis, total antibiotic consumption demonstrated significant seasonality (P < 0.001).
The consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics was noted to have increased in the ROK from 2008 to 2012, providing a possible explanation for the changing epidemiology of multidrug resistance. Larger prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact on public health of monitoring programs of perioperative antibiotic usage.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000002100
PMCID: PMC4652834  PMID: 26579825
6.  The Prevalence Rate of Tuberculin Skin Test Positive by Contacts Group to Predict the Development of Active Tuberculosis After School Outbreaks 
Background
The tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard tool to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in mass screening. The aim of this study is to find an optimal cut-off point of the TST+ rate within tuberculosis (TB) contacts to predict the active TB development among adolescents in school TB outbreaks.
Methods
The Korean National Health Insurance Review and Assessment database was used to identify active TB development in relation to the initial TST (cut-off, 10 mm). The 7,475 contacts in 89 schools were divided into two groups: Incident TB group (43 schools) and no incident TB group (46 schools). LTBI treatment was initiated in 607 of the 1,761 TST+ contacts. The association with active TB progression was examined at different cut-off points of the TST+ rate.
Results
The mean duration of follow-up was 3.9±0.9 years. Thirty-three contacts developed active TB during the 4,504 person-years among the TST+ contacts without LTBI treatment (n=1,154). The average TST+ rate for the incident TB group (n=43) and no incident TB group (n=46) were 31.0% and 15.5%, respectively. The TST+ rate per group was related with TB progression (odds ratio [OR], 1.025; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001-1.050; p=0.037). Based on the TST+ rate per group, active TB was best predicted at TST+ ≥ 16% (OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.29-7.51; area under curve, 0.64).
Conclusion
Sixteen percent of the TST+ rate per group within the same grade students can be suggested as an optimal cut-off to predict active TB development in middle and high schools TB outbreaks.
doi:10.4046/trd.2015.78.4.349
PMCID: PMC4620328  PMID: 26508922
Adolescent; Disease Outbreaks; Tuberculin Test; Latent Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis
7.  Association between self-perception period of lower urinary tract symptoms and International Prostate Symptom Score: a propensity score matching study 
BMC Urology  2015;15:30.
Background
Most studies focusing on progression of BPH have been limited to the relationship between age and BPH progression, and only few studies have focused on the time duration to start treatment. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-perception period (S-PP) of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS).
Methods
This study used data from two large-population surveys: a community-based survey and a university hospital outpatient-based interview survey. Both surveys were conducted in male subjects aged 40 years or older who gave consent to the survey questionnaire and voluntarily expressed their intention to participate. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to organize the population in both surveys into randomized groups to reduce selection bias. After excluding those who had missing values, 483 subjects were assigned to each group by PSM.
Results
The S-PP of LUTS became significantly longer as the severity of LUTS increased. The S-PP was 4.15 years in the mild group, 4.36 years in the moderate group, and 6.23 years in the severe group. These differences were statistically significant. The correlation between S-PP of LUTS and IPSS was measured by partial correlation while controlling for age (correlation coefficient = 0.20, p <0.001). Multiple regression analysis after controlling for age revealed that one-year increase in the S-PP of LUTS significantly (p <0.001) increased IPSS by 0.322 points.
Conclusions
This study clarified the association between S-PP of LUTS and IPSS in a large-scale population. These findings suggest that, from the perspective of public health, S-PP is an important risk factor for LUTS progression.
doi:10.1186/s12894-015-0021-x
PMCID: PMC4403909  PMID: 25886732
Lower urinary tract symptoms; Prostatic hyperplasia; Self-concept
8.  Blood Stream Infections in Patients in the Burn Intensive Care Unit 
Infection & Chemotherapy  2013;45(2):194-201.
Background
The study on bacteremia helps empirically select the proper antibiotics before the results of culture test about causative pathogen. The purpose of this study is to investigate causative pathogen in bloodstream infection, changing aspects based on elapsed time after burn, relationship with other sites and resistance of important causative pathogen against antibiotics through analysis on bacteria isolated from blood culture of patients hospitalized in burn intensive care unit (BICU).
Materials and Methods
A retrospective study was conducted targeting patients hospitalized in BICU from January 2007 to June 2011. Changes of causative pathogen in bloodstream infection based on elapsed time after injury were analyzed. We would like to examine the relationship between bloodstream infection and infection on other body parts by comparing results of cultures in burn wound site, sputum, urine and catheter tip. Antibiotics resistance patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were studied.
Results
A total of 2,337 burn patients were hospitalized in BICU for 54 months. Causative pathogen was cultured in blood cultures from 397 patients (17.0%). P. aeruginosa (169, 30.1%) was the most cultured and A. baumannii (107, 19.0%) and S. aureus (81, 14.4%) were followed. It was confirmed that the relative frequency of A. baumannii tended to get lower as the period got longer after injury, but the relative frequency of K. pneumoniae got higher as the period got longer after injury. With comparison without bacteremia, P. aeruginosa bacteremia showed high probability in which the same bacteria were cultured in wound site, sputum and cathether tip, and A. baumannii bacteremia and candida bacteremia had high probability in sputum, and urine and catheter tip, respectively. 95.9% of P. aeruginosa and 95.3% of A. baumannii showed the resistance against carbapenem. 96.3% of S. aureus was methicillin resistant and 36.2% of Enterococcus species were vancomycin resistant. 75.0% of K. pneumonia were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria.
Conclusions
Since the highly antibiotic resistant microorganisms were isolated from the patients hospitalized in BICU during early phase, the empirical selection of antibiotics targeting these pathogens should be considered before the results of microbiologic culture test. In addition, use of empirical antifungal agent after 1 week of injury can be considered for patients who have risk factor of fungal infection.
doi:10.3947/ic.2013.45.2.194
PMCID: PMC3780961  PMID: 24265967
Blood stream infection; Burn; ICU
9.  Risk Perception, Preventive Behaviors, and Vaccination Coverage in the Korean Population during the 2009–2010 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1): Comparison between High-Risk Group and Non–High-Risk Group 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64230.
Background
This study was carried out to estimate the vaccination coverage, public perception, and preventive behaviors against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and to understand the motivation and barriers to vaccination between high-risk and non–high-risk groups during the outbreak of pandemic influenza A (H1N1).
Methodology/Principal Findings
A cross-sectional nationwide telephone survey of 1,650 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 19 years and older was conducted in the later stage of the 2009–2010 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) outbreak. The questionnaire identified the demographics, vaccination status of participants and all household members, barriers to non-vaccination, perceived threat, and preventive behaviors. In Korea, the overall rate of pandemic influenza vaccination coverage in the surveyed population was 15.5%; vaccination coverage in the high-risk group and non–high-risk group was 47.3% and 8.0%, respectively. In the high-risk group, the most important triggering event for vaccination was receiving a notice from a public health organization. In the non–high-risk group, vaccination was more strongly influenced by previous experience with influenza or mass media campaigns. In both groups, the most common reasons for not receiving vaccination was that their health was sufficient to forgo the vaccination, and lack of time. There was no significant difference in how either group perceived the threat or adopted preventive behavior. The predictive factors for pandemic influenza vaccination were being elderly (age ≥65 years), prior seasonal influenza vaccination, and chronic medical disease.
Conclusions/Significance
With the exception of vaccination coverage, the preventive behaviors of the high-risk group were not different from those of the non–high-risk group during the 2009–2010 pandemic. For future pandemic preparedness planning, it is crucial to reinforce preventive behaviors to avoid illness before vaccination and to increase vaccination coverage in the high-risk group.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064230
PMCID: PMC3656839  PMID: 23691175
10.  Effect of alcohol on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis: a cross-sectional case-control study 
The Korean Journal of Hepatology  2010;16(3):308-314.
Background/Aims
Whether alcohol intake increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of alcohol intake on the development of HCC.
Methods
Between January 2006 and August 2008, 146 patients with an initial diagnosis of HCC who were hospitalized in 3 major hospitals in the Incheon area were enrolled as cases. Another 146 cirrhotic patients, who matched the cases by age and sex, were enrolled as controls. All cases and controls were HBsAg positive, and had a history of lifetime alcohol intake.
Results
The cases and controls were aged 53±8 and 53±9 years (mean±SD), respectively, with each group comprising 118 males and 28 females. The basal laboratory data, distribution of Child-Pugh class, HBeAg positivity (31.5% vs. 37.7%), HBV DNA level (5.74±2.35 vs. 5.98±2.29 log10 copies/mL), and proportion with a lifetime alcohol intake of more than 292 kg (30.8% vs. 34.9%) did not differ between cases and controls. The cumulative alcohol intake and the proportion of heavy drinkers did not differ between the two groups in male patients.
Conclusions
Alcohol intake might not increase the risk of HCC in patients with HBV infection.
doi:10.3350/kjhep.2010.16.3.308
PMCID: PMC3304590  PMID: 20924214
Alcohol; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatitis B virus; Cirrhosis
12.  Epidemiology of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Endemic Area of the Republic of Korea, 1995-1998 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(4):614-620.
We conducted an epidemiologic study to understand temporal and spatial patterns of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Republic of Korea (ROK). We estimated the incidence among civilians in endemic areas through the active surveillance system during the major epidemic periods, from September to December, between 1996 and 1998. We also estimated the prevalence among Korean military personnel from 1995 to 1998. In addition, we assessed seroprevalence, subclinical infection rate, and vaccination rates in both civilians and military personnel. The incidence in civilians ranged from 2.1 to 6.6 per 100,000 person-months. The annual prevalence in the military personnel was 40-64 per 100,000 military populations, and remained generally constant throughout the study period with seasonal variation. This is the prospective epidemiologic data set on HFRS in the ROK since the inactivated Hantaan virus vaccine was licensed for use in the late 1990s. These results will be invaluable in establishing a national immunization program against HFRS.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.4.614
PMCID: PMC2729880  PMID: 16891802
Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome; Hantaan virus; Epidemiology; Incidence; Prevalence; Korea
13.  Characterization of a Lipoprotein Common to Legionella Species as a Urinary Broad-Spectrum Antigen for Diagnosis of Legionnaires' Disease 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(7):2974-2979.
We have previously identified the Legionella 19-kDa peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) as a species-common immunodominant antigen. We describe here for the first time the excretion and detection of the PAL antigen in infected urine specimens, which is useful for the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease. Rabbit anti-PAL immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody was produced by immunization with the purified, recombinant PAL of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and used in the PAL antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect urinary PAL antigen. A soluble-antigen capture ELISA using rabbit IgG antibodies against Legionella soluble antigens was prepared independently and used as a broad-spectrum standard test to detect soluble antigens of several Legionella species. Urine samples were obtained from guinea pigs experimentally infected with each of L. pneumophila serogroups 1, 3, and 6, and other Legionella species. The absorbance values of the PAL antigen ELISA highly correlated with those of the soluble-antigen ELISA in infected urine samples, with a correlation coefficient of 0.84 (P < 0.01). When applied to 17 infected urine samples and 67 negative controls from guinea pigs, the sensitivity and specificity of the PAL antigen capture ELISA were 88.2 and 95.5%, respectively. Compared to the commercial Biotest enzyme immunoassay, the PAL antigen ELISA was more efficient for detecting pneumophila non-serogroup 1 and nonpneumophila species. None of the 161 control human urine specimens obtained from healthy adults and patients with either non-Legionella pneumonia or urinary tract infections tested positive in the PAL antigen ELISA. The present study shows that the Legionella PAL is a very useful broad-spectrum antigen for urinary diagnostic testing. Moreover, since recombinant PAL antigen can be produced more efficiently than the soluble antigens, the development of a broad-spectrum diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of the PAL antigen appears to be warranted.
doi:10.1128/JCM.41.7.2974-2979.2003
PMCID: PMC165357  PMID: 12843029

Results 1-13 (13)