MUC18 or CD146, a transmembrane glycoprotein, is mainly expressed by endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells where it serves as a cell-cell adhesion molecule. We have found MUC18 up-regulation in airway epithelial cells of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the function of MUC18 in airway epithelial cells remains unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MUC18 exerts a pro-inflammatory function during stimulation with a viral mimic polyI:C or human rhinovirus infection.
Normal human primary airway epithelial cells were transduced with lentivirus encoding MUC18 cDNA to over-express MUC18 or with GFP (control), and treated with polyI:C or HRV for detection of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 and anti-viral gene IFN-β. Additionally, we performed cell culture of human lung epithelial cell line NCIH292 cells to determine the mechanisms of MUC18 function.
We found that MUC18 over-expression promoted IL-8 production, while it inhibited IFN-β expression following polyI:C stimulation or HRV infection. Increased phosphorylation of MUC18 serines was observed in MUC18 over-expressing cells. Reduction of MUC18 serine phosphorylation by inhibiting ERK activity was associated with less production of IL-8 following polyI:C stimulation.
Our results for the first time demonstrate MUC18's pro-inflammatory and anti-viral function in human airway epithelial cells.
Immune response; Airway epithelial cells; MUC18; Rhinovirus; IL-8; Interferon; Anti-viral; Inflammation
Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the most common viral etiology in acute exacerbations of asthma. However, the exact mechanisms underlying HRV infection in allergic airways are poorly understood. IL-13 increases interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase M (IRAK-M) and subsequently inhibits airway innate immunity against bacteria. However, the role of IRAK-M in lung HRV infection remains unclear. Here, we provide the first evidence that IRAK-M over-expression promotes lung epithelial HRV-16 replication and autophagy, but inhibits HRV-16-induced IFN-β and IFN-λ1 expression. Inhibiting autophagy reduces HRV-16 replication. Exogenous IFN-β and IFN-λ1 inhibit autophagy and HRV-16 replication. Our data indicate the enhancing effect of IRAK-M on epithelial HRV-16 infection, which is partly through the autophagic pathway. Impaired anti-viral interferon production may serve as a direct or an indirect (e.g., autophagy) mechanism of enhanced HRV-16 infection by IRAK-M over-expression. Targeting autophagic pathway or administrating anti-viral interferons may prevent or attenuate viral (e.g., HRV-16) infections in allergic airways.
Human rhinovirus; IRAK-M; viral replication; autophagy; airway epithelial cells
Short palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is enriched in normal airway lining fluid, but is significantly reduced in airway epithelium exposed to a Th2 cytokine milieu. The role of SPLUNC1 in modulating airway allergic inflammation (e.g., eosinophils) remains unknown. We used SPLUNC1 knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type (C57BL/6 background) mice and recombinant SPLUNC1 protein to determine the impact of SPLUNC1 on airway allergic/eosinophilic inflammation, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. An acute ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge protocol was used to induce murine airway allergic inflammation (e.g., eosinophils, eotaxin-2, and Th2 cytokines). Our results showed that SPLUNC1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of OVA-challenged wild-type mice was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), which was negatively correlated with levels of lung eosinophilic inflammation. Moreover, SPLUNC1 KO mice demonstrated significantly higher numbers of eosinophils in the lung after OVA challenges than did wild-type mice. Alveolar macrophages isolated from OVA-challenged SPLUNC1 KO versus wild-type mice had higher concentrations of baseline eotaxin-2 that was amplified by LPS (a known risk factor for exacerbating asthma). Human recombinant SPLUNC1 protein was applied to alveolar macrophages to study the regulation of eotaxin-2 in the context of Th2 cytokine and LPS stimulation. Recombinant SPLUNC1 protein attenuated LPS-induced eotaxin-2 production in Th2 cytokine–pretreated murine macrophages. These findings demonstrate that SPLUNC1 inhibits airway eosinophilic inflammation in allergic mice, in part by reducing eotaxin-2 production in alveolar macrophages.
SPLUNC1; asthma; alveolar macrophage; Th2 cytokines; eotaxin-2
Impaired airway mucosal immunity can contribute to increased respiratory tract infections in asthmatic patients, but the involved molecular mechanisms have not been fully clarified. Airway epithelial cells serve as the first line of respiratory mucosal defense to eliminate inhaled pathogens through various mechanisms, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways. Our previous studies suggest that impaired TLR2 function in TH2 cytokine–exposed airways might decrease immune responses to pathogens and subsequently exacerbate allergic inflammation. IL-1 receptor–associated kinase M (IRAK-M) negatively regulates TLR signaling. However, IRAK-M expression in airway epithelium from asthmatic patients and its functions under a TH2 cytokine milieu remain unclear.
We sought to evaluate the role of IRAK-M in IL-13–inhibited TLR2 signaling in human airway epithelial cells. Methods: We examined IRAK-M protein expression in epithelia from asthmatic patients versus that in normal airway epithelia. Moreover, IRAK-M regulation and function in modulating innate immunity (eg, TLR2 signaling) were investigated in cultured human airway epithelial cells with or without IL-13 stimulation.
IRAK-M protein levels were increased in asthmatic airway epithelium. Furthermore, in primary human airway epithelial cells, IL-13 consistently upregulated IRAK-M expression, largely through activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Specifically, phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation led to c-Jun binding to human IRAK-M gene promoter and IRAK-M upregulation. Functionally, IL-13–induced IRAK-M suppressed airway epithelial TLR2 signaling activation (eg, TLR2 and human β-defensin 2), partly through inhibiting activation of nuclear factor κB.
Our data indicate that epithelial IRAK-M overexpression in TH2 cytokine–exposed airways inhibits TLR2 signaling, providing a novel mechanism for the increased susceptibility of infections in asthmatic patients.
IL-13; IL-1 receptor–associated kinase M; Toll-like receptor 2; airway epithelial cells
Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the airways and destruction of lung parenchyma. Repeated and sustained bacterial infections are clearly linked to disease pathogenesis (e.g., exacerbations) and a huge burden on health care costs. The airway epithelium constitutes the first line of host defense against infection and our previous study indicated that Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 (FABP5) is down regulated in airway epithelial cells of smokers with COPD as compared to smokers without COPD. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure down regulates FABP5, thus, contributing to a more sustained inflammation in response to bacterial infection. In this report, we show that FABP5 is increased following bacterial infection but decreased following CS exposure of primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. The goal of this study was to address FABP5 function by knocking down or overexpressing FABP5 in primary NHBE cells exposed to CS. Our data indicate that FABP5 down regulation results in increased P. aeruginosa bacterial load and inflammatory cytokine levels (e.g., IL-8) and decreased expression of the anti-bacterial peptide, β defensin-2. On the contrary, FABP5 overexpression exerts a protective function in airway epithelial cells against P. aeruginosa infection by limiting the production of IL-8 and increasing the expression of β defensin-2. Our study indicates that FABP5 exerts immunomodulatory functions in the airway epithelium against CS exposure and subsequent bacterial infection through its modulation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ activity. These findings support the development of FABP5/PPAR-γ-targeted therapeutic approach to prevent airway inflammation by restoring antimicrobial immunity during COPD exacerbations.
Lung epithelium; SPLUNC1; TLR2; MAPK; AP-1; gene regulation
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcriptional factor that controls the induction of heat shock proteins (e.g. HSP70) in response to stress. Bacterial infections contribute to the pathobiology of chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Whether HSF1 is critical to lung bacterial infection remains unknown. This study is aimed at investigating the impact of HSF1 deficiency on lung Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infection and elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms, such as Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling. HSF1−/− and HSF1+/+ mice were intranasally infected with Mp or saline and sacrificed 4, 24 and 72 h after treatment. HSF1−/− mice had a higher lung Mp load than HSF1+/+ mice. Mp-induced lung TLR2, nuclear factor-κB and associated inflammation [e.g. keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), neutrophils and histopathology] were delayed in HSF1−/− mice as compared to HSF1+/+ mice. HSP70 protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of HSF1−/− mice were decreased. Furthermore, in response to Mp infection, HSF1−/− alveolar macrophages had less TLR2 mRNA expression and KC production than HSF1+/+ counterparts. Nuclear factor-κB activity and KC production in HSF1−/− macrophages could be rescued by addition of exogenous HSP70 protein. These data suggest that HSF1 is necessary to initiate host defense against bacterial infection partly through promoting early TLR2 signaling activation.
Heat shock factor 1; Heat shock protein 70; Toll-like receptor 2; Macrophages
Airway bacterial infections are a major problem in lung diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis. Increased Th2 cytokines, such as IL-13, are observed in lung diseases and may contribute to bacterial infections. How Th2 cytokines affect bacterial infection remains unknown. MUC18, an adhesion molecule shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma, has been recently identified in airway epithelial cells of patients with COPD. We investigated MUC18 regulation by IL-13 and the role of MUC18 in bacterial adherence to epithelial cells. Human airway tissues, brushed bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and subjects with asthma, and epithelial cell lines (e.g., HEK293 cells) were used to study the regulation of MUC18 by IL-13 and the involvement of MUC18 in bacterial (e.g., Mycoplasma pneumoniae [Mp] and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae [NTHi]) adherence to epithelial cells. Asthmatic bronchial epithelium expressed higher levels of MUC18 than normal bronchial epithelium. IL-13 increased MUC18 in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and particularly from subjects with asthma. IL-13–induced MUC18 expression may be modulated in part through transcription factor specificity protein 1. Overexpression of human MUC18 in HEK293 cells increased cell-associated Mp and NTHi levels. Moreover, MUC18 was shown to directly interact with Mp and NTHi. These results for the first time show that an allergic airway milieu (e.g., IL-13) increases MUC18 expression, which may contribute to increased bacterial infection/colonization in asthma and other lung diseases.
airway epithelial cells; MUC18; IL-13; bacteria
host defense; innate immunity; inferior turbinate; uncinate; nasal cavity
Over 40% of chronic stable asthma patients have evidence of respiratory Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infection as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), but not by serology and culture, suggesting a low-level Mp involved in chronic asthma. However, the role of such a low-level Mp infection in regulation of allergic inflammation remains unknown.
To determine the impact of a low-level Mp infection in mice with established airway allergic inflammation on allergic responses such as eosinophilia and chemokine eotaxin-2, and the underlying mechanisms (i.e., prostaglandin E2 [PGE2] pathway) since PGE2 inhalation before allergen challenge suppressed eosinophil infiltration in human airways.
BALB/c mouse models of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma with an ensuing low-dose or high-dose Mp were used to assess IL-4 expression, BAL eosinophil, eotaxin-2 and PGE2 levels, and lung mRNA levels of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Primary alveolar macrophages (pAMs) from naïve BALB/c mice were cultured to determine if Mp-induced PGE2 or exogenous PGE2 down-regulates IL-4/IL-13-induced eotaxin-2.
Low-dose Mp in allergic mice significantly enhanced IL-4 and eotaxin-2, and moderately promoted lung eosinophilia, whereas high-dose Mp significantly reduced lung eosinophilia and tended to decrease IL-4 and eotaxin-2. Moreover, in both OVA-naïve and allergic mice, lung mPGES-1 mRNA and BAL PGE2 levels were elevated in mice infected with high-dose, but not low-dose Mp. In pAMs, IL-4/IL-13 significantly increased eotaxin-2, which was reduced by Mp infection accompanied by dose-dependent PGE2 induction. Exogenous PGE2 inhibited IL-4/IL-13-induced eotaxin-2 in a dose-dependent manner.
This study highlights a novel concept on how differing bacterial loads in the lung modify the established allergic airway inflammation, and thus interact with an allergen to further induce Th2 responses. That is: Unlike high-level Mp, low-level Mp fails to effectively induce PGE2 to down-regulate allergic responses (e.g., eotaxin-2), thus maintaining or even worsening allergic inflammation in asthmatic airways.
asthma; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; eotaxin-2; PGE2; alveolar macrophages
The airway epithelium is the first line of host defense against pathogens. The short PLUNC 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is secreted in respiratory tracts and a member of the BPI fold-containing (BPIF) protein family, which shares structural similarities with bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI)-like proteins. On the basis of its homology with BPIs and restricted expression of SPLUNC1 in serous cells of submucosal glands and surface epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract, SPLUNC1 is thought to possess antimicrobial activity in host defense. SPLUNC1 is also reported to have surfactant properties, which may contribute to anti-biofilm defenses. The objective of this study was to determine the in vivo functions of SPLUNC1 following Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and to elucidate the underlying mechanism, using a knockout (KO) mouse model with a genetic ablation of Splunc1. Splunc1 KO mice showed accelerated mortality and increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection with significantly decreased survival rates, increased bacterial burdens, exaggerated tissue injuries, and elevated proinflammatory cytokine levels as compared to those of their wild-type (WT) littermates. Increased neutrophil infiltration in Splunc1 KO mice was accompanied by elevated chemokine levels including Cxcl1, Cxcl2, and Ccl20. Furthermore, the expression of several epithelial secretory proteins and antimicrobial molecules was considerably suppressed in the lungs of Splunc1 KO mice. The deficiencya of Splunc1 in mouse airway epithelium also results in increased biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Taken together, our results support that the ablation of Splunc1 in mouse airways affects the mucociliary clearance, resulting in decreased innate immune response during Pseudomonas-induced respiratory infection.
splunc1; epithelium; mucociliary clearance; Pseudomonas infection
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in the United States, especially among young people since e-cigarettes have been perceived as a safer alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. However, the scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes on the lung is extremely limited. The major goal of our current study is to determine if e-cigarette use alters human young subject airway epithelial functions such as inflammatory response and innate immune defense against respiratory viral (i.e., human rhinovirus, HRV) infection.
We examined the effects of e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid) on pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g., IL-6) production, HRV infection and host defense molecules (e.g., short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1, SPLUNC1) in primary human airway epithelial cells from young healthy non-smokers. Additionally, we examined the role of SPLUNC1 in lung defense against HRV infection using a SPLUNC1 knockout mouse model. We found that nicotine-free e-liquid promoted IL-6 production and HRV infection. Addition of nicotine into e-liquid further amplified the effects of nicotine-free e-liquid. Moreover, SPLUNC1 deficiency in mice significantly increased lung HRV loads. E-liquid inhibited SPLUNC1 expression in primary human airway epithelial cells. These findings strongly suggest the deleterious health effects of e-cigarettes in the airways of young people. Our data will guide future studies to evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on lung health in human populations, and help inform the public about potential health risks of e-cigarettes.
IL-23 induces IL-17 production in activated CD4+ T cells and participates in host defense against many encapsulated bacteria. However, whether IL-23/IL-17 axis contributes to a Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp)-induced lung inflammation (e.g., neutrophils) has not been addressed. Using an acute respiratory Mp infection murine model, we found significantly up-regulated lung IL-23p19 mRNA in the early phase of infection (4 h), and alveolar macrophages were an important cell source of Mp-induced IL-23. We further showed that Mp significantly increased IL-17 protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Lung gene expression of IL-17, IL-17C and IL-17F was also markedly up-regulated by Mp in vivo. IL-17 and IL-17F were found to be derived mainly from lung CD4+ T cells, and were increased upon IL-23 stimulation in vitro. In vivo blocking of IL-23p19 alone or in combination with IL-23/IL-12p40 resulted in a significant reduction of Mp-induced IL-17 protein and IL-17/IL-17F mRNA expression, which was accompanied by a trend toward reduced lung neutrophil recruitment, BAL neutrophil activity, and Mp clearance. However, IL-23 neutralization had no effect on Mp-induced lung IL-17C mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that IL-17/IL-17F production is IL-23-dependent in an acute Mp infection, and contributes to neutrophil recruitment and activity in lung defense against the infection.
M. pneumoniae; IL-23; IL-17; IL-17F; neutrophil
Emphysema is caused by the cigarette smoke (CS)–induced destruction of alveolar wall septa, and CS is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To study the mechanisms of response to this insult, we focused on oxidant-induced lung injury and the potential role of nuclear erythroid 2–related factor–2 (Nrf2), which is a key regulator of the antioxidant defense system. We studied the protective role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the injury of alveolar type II (ATII) cells induced by CS in vivo and in vitro. ATII cells were isolated and purified using magnetic MicroBeads (Miltenyi Biotec, Auburn, CA) from Nrf2−/− mice and wild-type mice. We analyzed pulmonary injury, inflammation, glutathione (GSH) concentrations, the expression of glutathione cysteine ligase catalytic subunit mRNA, glutathione cysteine ligase modifier subunit mRNA, and glutathione reductase mRNA, and Nrf2, heme oxygenase–1, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate–reduced:quinone oxireductase levels by Western blotting, TUNEL assay, and immunocytofluorescence for 4-hydroxynonenal as a marker of oxidative stress. We found that CS induced greater injury in ATII cells obtained from Nrf2−/− mice than from wild-type mice. Furthermore, NAC attenuated the injuries by CS in ATII cells obtained from wild-type mice both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, NAC decreased the injury of ATII cells obtained from Nrf2−/− mice. Our results suggest that Nrf2–GSH signaling is important for the protective activity of NAC. In addition, in ATII cells deficient in Nrf2, this compound can provide partial protection through its reactive oxygen species–scavenging activities. Targeting the antioxidant system regulated by Nrf2 may provide an effective strategy against lung injury in COPD.
murine alveolar type II cells; lung; Nrf2; NAC; cigarette smoke
Caveolin-1 has emerged as a critical regulator of signaling pathways involved in lung fibrosis and inflammation. Therefore, we investigated whether caveolin-1 is deficient in asthmatic patients and in a murine model of asthma. Immunohistochemical analyses of endobronchial biopsies showed a remarkable loss of caveolin-1 in the lungs of asthmatic patients compared to controls. This loss was most evident in bronchial epithelial cells, and associated with an increase in the expression of extracellular matrix proteins collagen I, tenascin, and periostin. Cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatics had lower caveolin-1 expression compared to control cells. In addition, caveolin-1 expression was significantly decreased in peripheral blood monocytes from asthma patients. The loss of caveolin-1 was also observed in a mouse model for asthma (mice sensitized and challenged with aspergillus fumigatus). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that the regulatory protein caveolin-1 is reduced in patients with asthma.
Asthma; allergen; epithelium
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection is involved in various lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, treatment of PA infection is not very effective in part due to antibiotic resistance. α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) has been shown to reduce PA infection in humans and animals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of our study is to test whether a novel endogenous host defense protein, short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1), is involved in the therapeutic effect of A1AT during lung PA infection.
SPLUNC1 knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice on the C57BL/6 background were intranasally infected with PA to determine the therapeutic effects of A1AT. A1AT was aerosolized to mice 2 hrs after the PA infection, and mice were sacrificed 24 hrs later. PA load and inflammation were quantified in the lung, and SPLUNC1 protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was examined by Western blot.
In WT mice, PA infection significantly increased neutrophil elastase (NE) activity, but reduced SPLUNC1 protein in BAL fluid. Notably, PA-infected mice treated with A1AT versus bovine serum albumin (BSA) demonstrated higher levels of SPLUNC1 protein expression, which are accompanied by lower levels of NE activity, lung bacterial load, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. To determine whether A1AT therapeutic effects are dependent on SPLUNC1, lung PA load in A1AT- or BSA-treated SPLUNC1 KO mice was examined. Unlike the WT mice, A1AT treatment in SPLUNC1 KO mice had no significant impact on lung PA load and pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
A1AT reduces lung bacterial infection in mice in part by preventing NE-mediated SPLUNC1 degradation.
SPLUNC1; α1-antitrypsin; Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection; Human neutrophil elastase
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a disease characterized by inflammation of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. This inflammation may result in part from decreased epithelial barrier and innate immune responses, leading to frequent bacterial and fungal colonization. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression of innate immune proteins of the Palate Lung and Nasal epithelium Clone (PLUNC) family in patients with CRS.
Nasal tissue samples were collected from control subjects and CRS patients with and without nasal polyps. Expression of the members of the PLUNC family was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of SPLUNC1 and LPLUNC2 proteins was analyzed by ELISA, immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis.
Levels of mRNA for most of the members of the PLUNC family were profoundly reduced in nasal polyps (NPs) compared to uncinate tissue from control subjects or CRS patients. LPLUNC2 and SPLUNC1 proteins were decreased in NPs of CRS patients compared to uncinate tissue from control subjects. Immunohistochemical data revealed that within submucosal glands of sinonasal tissues, SPLUNC1 and LPLUNC2 were differentially expressed, in serous and mucous cells, respectively. The decrease in expression of these molecules is probably explained by a decrease in the number of glands in NPs as revealed by correlations with levels of the glandular marker lactoferrin.
Decreased SPLUNC1 and LPLUNC2 in NPs reflects a profound decrease in the number of submucosal glands. Decreased glands may lead to a localized defect in the production and release of glandular innate defense molecules.
Chronic rhinosinusitis; innate immunity; LPLUNC2; nasal polyps; SPLUNC1
Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are a significant cause of mortality of COPD patients, and pose a huge burden on healthcare. One of the major causes of AECOPD is airway bacterial (e.g. nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae [NTHi]) infection. However, the mechanisms underlying bacterial infections during AECOPD remain poorly understood. As neutrophilic inflammation including increased release of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a salient feature of AECOPD, we hypothesized that HNE impairs airway epithelial defense against NTHi by degrading airway epithelial host defense proteins such as short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1).
Recombinant human SPLUNC1 protein was incubated with HNE to confirm SPLUNC1 degradation by HNE. To determine if HNE-mediated impairment of host defense against NTHi was SPLUNC1-dependent, SPLUNC1 protein was added to HNE-treated primary normal human airway epithelial cells. The in vivo function of SPLUNC1 in NTHi defense was investigated by infecting SPLUNC1 knockout and wild-type mice intranasally with NTHi. We found that: (1) HNE directly increased NTHi load in human airway epithelial cells; (2) HNE degraded human SPLUNC1 protein; (3) Recombinant SPLUNC1 protein reduced NTHi levels in HNE-treated human airway epithelial cells; (4) NTHi levels in lungs of SPLUNC1 knockout mice were increased compared to wild-type mice; and (5) SPLUNC1 was reduced in lungs of COPD patients.
Our findings suggest that SPLUNC1 degradation by neutrophil elastase may increase airway susceptibility to bacterial infections. SPLUNC1 therapy likely attenuates bacterial infections during AECOPD.
The lung is constantly challenged during normal breathing by a myriad of environmental irritants and infectious insults. Pulmonary host defense mechanisms maintain homeostasis between inhibition/clearance of pathogens and regulation of inflammatory responses that could injure the airway epithelium. One component of this defense mechanism, surfactant protein-A (SP-A), exerts multifunctional roles in mediating host responses to inflammatory and infectious agents. SP-A has a bacteriostatic effect on Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp), which occurs by binding surface disaturated phosphatidylglycerols. SP-A can also bind the Mp membrane protein, MPN372. In this study we investigated the role of SP-A during acute phase pulmonary infection with Mp using mice deficient in SP-A. Biologic responses, inflammation and cellular infiltration, were much greater in Mp infected SP-A−/− mice than wild type mice. Likewise, physiologic responses (airway hyperresponsiveness and lung compliance) to Mp infection were more severely affected in SP-A−/− mice. Both Mp-induced biologic and physiologic changes were attenuated by pharmacologic inhibition of TNF-α. Our findings demonstrate that SP-A is vital to preserving lung homeostasis and host defense to this clinically relevant strain of Mp by curtailing inflammatory cell recruitment and limiting an overzealous TNF-α response.
lung; inflammation; bacterial
There is increasing interest in the application of nanotechnology to solve the difficult problem of therapeutic administration of pharmaceuticals. Nanodiscs, composed of a stable discoidal lipid bilayer encircled by an amphipathic membrane scaffold protein that is an engineered variant of the human Apo A-I constituent of high-density lipoproteins, have been a successful platform for providing a controlled lipid composition in particles that are especially useful for investigating membrane protein structure and function. In this communication, we demonstrate that nanodiscs are effective in suppressing respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection both in vitro and in vivo when self-assembled with the minor pulmonary surfactant phospholipid palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG). Preparations of nanodiscs containing POPG (nPOPG) antagonized interleukin-8 production from Beas2B epithelial cells challenged by RSV infection, with an IC50 of 19.3 μg/mL. In quantitative in vitro plaque assays, nPOPG reduced RSV infection by 93%. In vivo, nPOPG suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung, as well as IFN-γ production in response to RSV challenge. nPOPG also completely suppressed the histopathological changes in lung tissue elicited by RSV and reduced the amount of virus recovered from lung tissue by 96%. The turnover rate of nPOPG was estimated to have a halftime of 60–120 minutes (m), based upon quantification of the recovery of the human Apo A-I constituent. From these data, we conclude that nPOPG is a potent antagonist of RSV infection and its inflammatory sequelae both in vitro and in vivo.
nanodiscs; therapeutic delivery; anti-viral; innate immunity; phospholipids
Respiratory infections including atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) contribute to the pathobiology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mp infection mainly targets airway epithelium and activates various signaling pathways such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). We have shown that short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) serves as a novel host defense protein and is up-regulated upon Mp infection through NF-κB activation in cultured human and mouse primary airway epithelial cells. However, the in vivo role of airway epithelial NF-κB activation in host defense against Mp infection has not been investigated. In the current study, we investigated the effects of in vivo airway epithelial NF-κB activation on lung Mp clearance and its association with airway epithelial SPLUNC1 expression.
Non-antimicrobial tetracycline analog 9-t-butyl doxycycline (9-TB) was initially optimized in mouse primary tracheal epithelial cell culture, and then utilized to induce in vivo airway epithelial specific NF-κB activation in conditional NF-κB transgenic mice (CC10-CAIKKβ) with or without Mp infection. Lung Mp load and inflammation were evaluated, and airway epithelial SPLUNC1 protein was examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that 9-TB treatment in NF-κB transgene positive (Tg+), but not transgene negative (Tg−) mice significantly reduced lung Mp load. Moreover, 9-TB increased airway epithelial SPLUNC1 protein expression in NF-κB Tg+ mice.
By using the non-antimicrobial 9-TB, our study demonstrates that in vivo airway epithelial NF-κB activation promotes lung bacterial clearance, which is accompanied by increased epithelial SPLUNC1 expression.
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a highly complex mixture and many of its components are known carcinogens, mutagens, and other toxic substances. CS induces oxidative stress and cell death, and this cell toxicity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases.
We studied the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in human alveolar epithelial type I-like (ATI-like) cells. These are isolated type II cells that are differentiating toward the type I cell phenotype in vitro and have lost many type II cell markers and express type I cell markers. ATI-like cells were more sensitive to CSE than alveolar type II cells, which maintained their differentiated phenotype in vitro. We observed disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis and necrosis that were detected by double staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide or Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide and TUNEL assay after treatment with CSE. We also detected caspase 3 and caspase 7 activities and lipid peroxidation. CSE induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased expression of Nrf2, HO-1, Hsp70 and Fra1. Moreover, we found that Nrf2 knockdown sensitized ATI-like cells to CSE and Nrf2 overexpression provided protection against CSE-induced cell death. We also observed that two antioxidant compounds N-acetylcysteine and trolox protected ATI-like cells against injury by CSE.
Our study indicates that Nrf2 activation is a major factor in cellular defense of the human alveolar epithelium against CSE-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidant agents that modulate Nrf2 would be expected to restore antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes and to prevent CS-related lung injury and perhaps lessen the development of emphysema.
Rationale: Cigarette smoke (CS) is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, accounting for more than 90% of cases. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is much higher in the elderly, suggesting an age dependency. A prominent defense against the oxidant burden caused by CS is the glutathione (GSH) adaptive response in the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and tissue. However, as one ages the ability to maintain GSH levels declines.
Objectives: Examine the effect of aging on the GSH adaptive response to CS and resulting lung sensitization to inflammation and oxidation.
Methods: Both young (2 mo old) and aged (8, 13, 19, and 26 mo old) mice were used to study the effects of age on the GSH adaptive response after an acute exposure to CS.
Measurements and Main Results: Young mice had a robust sixfold increase in ELF GSH after a single exposure to CS. The GSH response to CS decreased as a function of age and diminishes in the older mice to only a twofold increase over air controls. As a consequence, levels of CS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide synthase, markers of inflammation, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, a marker of DNA oxidation, were elevated in the aged mice compared with the young mice. Additionally, depletion of ELF GSH with buthionine sulfoximine in young mice recapitulated changes in ELF tumor necrosis factor-α as seen in old mice.
Conclusions: These data suggest that the age-related maladaptive response to CS sensitizes the lung to both inflammation and oxidation potentially contributing to the development of CS-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
smoking; antioxidants; inflammation; oxidation
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies have demonstrated evidence of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae in the lower airways of patients with asthma.
To test the hypothesis that clarithromycin would improve asthma control in individuals with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma that was not well-controlled despite treatment with low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS).
Adults with an Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score ≥1.5 after a 4 week period of treatment with fluticasone propionate were entered into a PCR-stratified randomized trial to evaluate the effect of 16 weeks of either clarithromycin or placebo, added to fluticasone, on asthma control in individuals with or without lower airway PCR evidence of M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae.
92 participants were randomized. Twelve (13%) subjects demonstrated PCR evidence of M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae in endobronchial biopsies; 80 were PCR negative for both organisms. In PCR positive participants, clarithromycin yielded a 0.4±0.4 unit improvement in the ACQ score, with a 0.1±0.3 unit improvement in those allocated to placebo. This between-group difference of 0.3±0.5 (p=0.6) was neither clinically nor statistically significant. In PCR negative participants, a non-significant between-group difference of 0.2±0.2 units (p=0.3) was observed. Clarithromycin did not improve lung function or airway inflammation but did improve airway hyperresponsiveness, increasing the methacholine PC20 by 1.2±0.5 doubling doses (p=0.02) in the study population.
Adding clarithromycin to fluticasone in adults with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma that was suboptimally-controlled by low-dose ICS alone did not further improve asthma control. Although there was an improvement in airway hyperresponsiveness with clarithromycin, this benefit was not accompanied by improvements in other secondary outcomes.
asthma; infection; antibiotic
Infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae in asthma can occur both acutely and chronically with an associated Th2 inflammatory response and/or increased numbers of bronchial mast cells. Mast cells have previously been shown to promote mycoplasma clearance in mice; however, it is unknown whether mast cells would aid M. pneumoniae clearance under allergic conditions.
Our aim was to determine the impact of allergic inflammation on mast cell-mediated lung M. pneumoniae clearance. Furthermore, as we have previously demonstrated an essential role for IL-6 in lung M. pneumoniae clearance we also investigated the role of mast cell-derived IL-6.
Mast cell deficient WBB6F1/J-KitW/KitW-v mice were challenged with ovalbumin to induce airway inflammation prior to M. pneumoniae infection. The role of mast cell-derived IL-6 in bacterial clearance was further investigated by reconstitution of mast cell deficient mice with IL-6-/- mast cells.
Allergic mast cell deficient mice exhibited increased lung M. pneumoniae burden compared to control littermates. Intravenous adoptive transfer of wild type and IL-6-/- mast cells significantly improved M. pneumoniae clearance in mast cell deficient mice. Acutely after M. pneumoniae infection, allergen-challenged mast cell deficient mice had increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in the BAL fluid. The total number of neutrophils was also increased in mast cell deficient mice.
Our results establish that mast cells aid host defense against M. pneumoniae in an allergic setting and that while IL-6 is necessary for lung M. pneumoniae clearance, mast cell-derived IL-6 is not required.
Asthma; host defense; innate immunity; mast cells; Mycoplasma pneumoniae