Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-9 (9)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Decreasing dangerous infant behaviors through parent instruction. 
One adult and three adolescent mothers with 1-year-old infants were taught to reduce their infants' potential for injury in the home. After being taught to increase their positive interactions with their infants, the mothers were taught to child-proof the home, to use playpen time-out for potentially dangerous behaviors, and to give positive attention for safe behaviors. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate functional control. Potentially dangerous behaviors, observed during 10 min of free play, decreased from variable and, at times, high rates during baseline to stable near-zero rates after treatment. These target behaviors remained low at a 7-month follow-up assessment.
PMCID: PMC1285967  PMID: 3610895
2.  Teaching children appropriate shopping behavior through parent training in the supermarket setting. 
The shopping behavior of three elementary school-age boys was analyzed and parent-child interactions assessed for one boy and his mother. Estimates of parent of consumer satisfaction with child shopping behavior were also obtained. The effects of a parent-mediated treatment package on child behavior were assessed using a multiple-baseline design. Treatment produced significant increases in appropriate shopping behavior in all three children and parents became increasingly satisfied with improved child behavior. Analysis of data for one mother also revealed that her manner of interacting with her child became more positive.
PMCID: PMC1311149  PMID: 845098
3.  Automated data acquisition using an IBM key punch. 
PMCID: PMC1333701  PMID: 5448260
4.  An appointment-keeping improvement package for outpatient pediatrics: systematic replication and component analysis. 
Child health-care appointments that are not kept are an important pediatric problem. Previous research has shown that reducing effort (with a parking pass) and reminding patients (with mailed and telephone reminders) significantly improved appointment keeping for first-time and patient-scheduled appointments. This study, using a posttest-only group design, evaluated the effects of various combinations of that intervention applied to clinic-scheduled follow-up appointments. All combinations of the intervention significantly increased cancellations, but none increased appointments kept or decreased appointments not kept significantly. Log linear analyses showed that the lag time between scheduling and the appointment significantly influenced appointment keeping. The results suggest that if clinics want to increase cancellations, a mailed reminder and effort reduction are sufficient. To increase appointment keeping, other interventions, such as reduced lag time, may be necessary.
PMCID: PMC1297871  PMID: 8307830
5.  Does SleepTight work? A behavioral analysis of the effectiveness of SleepTight for the management of infant colic. 
We evaluated the effectiveness of SleepTight in the management of infant colic. SleepTight is a device that vibrates the infant's crib to simulate the action of a car traveling at 55 mph. A multiple baseline design across 6 infants was used. Data were collected on infant crying, parental use of SleepTight, and parental satisfaction. The application of SleepTight was associated with reduction in crying in 4 of the 6 infants. These outcome data notwithstanding, consideration of reported nonrecording of severe episodes and mixed reports of satisfaction suggests that SleepTight may not be a viable means of managing infant colic.
PMCID: PMC1279557  PMID: 2055799
6.  Primary encopresis: evaluation and treatment. 
Cathartic and behavioral treatment procedures for eliminating diurnal and nocturnal primary encopresis were investigated using a multiple-baseline design across four children. The dependent and independent variables measured were appropriate bowel movements, soiling accidents, independent toiletings, and cathartic use. Over 177 reliability observations (home visits) were conducted. For two of the children, treatment with cathartics and child-time remedied their soiling accidents and increased their independent toiletings in 8 to 11 weeks. While the cathartics and child-time increased the rate of appropriate bowel movements, they did not eliminate the soiling accidents with the other two children. Independent toiletings for these two children were achieved after 32 to 39 weeks of treatment when punishment procedures (positive practice, time-out, and hourly toilet sits) were incorporated and the suppositories were faded systematically.
PMCID: PMC1308053  PMID: 3733585
7.  Testicular self-examination: validation of a training strategy for early cancer detection. 
Testicular self-examination (TSE) can lead to early diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer, the third leading cause of death in young men. We evaluated the effectiveness of a brief and specific checklist for teaching TSE skills. Ten men were videotaped while performing testicular self-examinations before and after training. The TSE training resulted in large and significant increases in the number of TSE steps completed and duration of the TSE. Two urological validation measures supported the improvements observed in the mens' self-examinations. Subjects reported continued performance of TSE during a follow-up telephone interview. This pilot study indicates that a brief and specific checklist is an effective strategy for teaching early cancer detection skills.
PMCID: PMC1308044  PMID: 3710951
8.  Improving pediatric appointment keeping with reminders and reduced response requirement. 
We evaluated the effectiveness of appointment reminders and a reduced response requirement for improving appointment keeping in a hospital ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants received mailed and telephoned reminders along with a parking pass that reduced the time and effort required to attend the clinic. A multiple baseline analysis of 5,261 appointments over one fiscal year showed that the intervention increased the percentage of appointments kept and decreased the percentage of appointments broken in the continuity clinics of five pediatric health care providers. Social validation, consumer satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness measures, as well as an interrupted time-series analysis, all support the effectiveness of the intervention.
PMCID: PMC1308027  PMID: 3936835
9.  The effect of informational feedback on food intake of adult burn patients. 
The effect of informational feedback on the protein and caloric consumption of burn patients was investigated using a multiple-baseline across subjects. The patients were four severely burned adult males who failed to consume sufficient foods to achieve prescribed levels of protein or kilocalories via standard burn unit procedures during recovery. Feedback consisted of informing patients of (a) their prescribed levels of protein and kilocalories, (b) the protein and kilocalorie content of hospital foods and beverages, and (c) their actual intake of protein and kilocalories. Following the provision of feedback, there was an increase in protein and kilocalorie intakes and in the number of days during which prescribed levels for protein and kilocalories were achieved. These results suggest that the informational feedback was effective for improving the oral caloric intake of burn patients.
PMCID: PMC1307956  PMID: 6511703

Results 1-9 (9)