PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-3 (3)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Gray Matter Structural Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Relationship to Neuropsychological Functions 
Psychiatry research  2008;164(2):123-131.
Numerous magnetic resonance (MR) studies have examined gray matter structural alterations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Few, however, have used automated, highly reliable techniques such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine the entire brain in contrast to selected regions of interest. Moreover, few studies have examined the functional correlates of gray matter abnormalities in OCD. We used VBM to evaluate regional gray matter differences between 21 OCD patients and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. All patients had comprehensive neuropsychological assessments. MR images were normalized to a customized template and segmented using optimized VBM. OCD patients had significantly (P < 0.001; uncorrected) more gray matter in the left thalamus compared to healthy volunteers. OCD patients without major depression had significantly more gray matter in the thalamus (bilaterally) and left orbitofrontal cortex as well as an unpredicted region of more right dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter, which remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons, compared to healthy volunteers. In the subgroup of patients without depression greater right hemisphere thalamic and dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter correlated significantly with worse motor functioning and processing speed, respectively. In this subgroup there was also a tendency for more gray matter in the left orbitofrontal cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to be associated with greater symptom severity. Our findings provide additional support for involvement of cortical-striatal-thalamic circuits in the pathophysiology of OCD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may also be implicated. Moreover, our data suggest that gray matter structural alterations in OCD have neuropsychological correlates, which may be useful in further characterizing structure-function relations in this disorder.
doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2008.03.005
PMCID: PMC2654218  PMID: 18938065
OCD; MRI; OFC; neuropsychology; thalamus
2.  Grouping in object recognition: The role of a Gestalt law in letter identification 
Cognitive Neuropsychology  2009;26(1):36-49.
The Gestalt psychologists reported a set of laws describing how vision groups elements to recognize objects. The Gestalt laws “prescribe for us what we are to recognize ‘as one thing’” (Köhler, 1920). Were they right? Does object recognition involve grouping? Tests of the laws of grouping have been favourable, but mostly assessed only detection, not identification, of the compound object. The grouping of elements seen in the detection experiments with lattices and “snakes in the grass” is compelling, but falls far short of the vivid everyday experience of recognizing a familiar, meaningful, named thing, which mediates the ordinary identification of an object. Thus, after nearly a century, there is hardly any evidence that grouping plays a role in ordinary object recognition. To assess grouping in object recognition, we made letters out of grating patches and measured threshold contrast for identifying these letters in visual noise as a function of perturbation of grating orientation, phase, and offset. We define a new measure, “wiggle”, to characterize the degree to which these various perturbations violate the Gestalt law of good continuation. We find that efficiency for letter identification is inversely proportional to wiggle and is wholly determined by wiggle, independent of how the wiggle was produced. Thus the effects of three different kinds of shape perturbation on letter identifiability are predicted by a single measure of goodness of continuation. This shows that letter identification obeys the Gestalt law of good continuation and may be the first confirmation of the original Gestalt claim that object recognition involves grouping.
doi:10.1080/13546800802550134
PMCID: PMC2679997  PMID: 19424881
Gestalt; Grouping; Contour integration; Good continuation; Letter identification; Object recognition; Features; Snake in the grass; Snake letters; Dot lattice
3.  Grouping in object recognition: The role of a Gestalt law in letter identification 
Cognitive neuropsychology  2009;26(1):36-49.
The Gestalt psychologists reported a set of laws describing how vision groups elements to recognize objects. The Gestalt laws “prescribe for us what we are to recognize ‘as one thing’.” (Köhler, 1920). Were they right? Does object recognition involve grouping? Tests of the laws of grouping have been favorable, but mostly assessed only detection, not identification, of the compound object. The grouping of elements seen in the detection experiments with lattices and ‘snakes in the grass’ is compelling, but falls far short of the vivid everyday experience of recognizing a familiar, meaningful, named thing, which mediates the ordinary identification of an object. Thus, after nearly a century, there is hardly any evidence that grouping plays a role in ordinary object recognition. To assess grouping in object recognition, we made letters out of grating patches and measured threshold contrast for identifying these letters in visual noise as a function of perturbation of grating orientation, phase, and offset. We define a new measure, “wiggle,” to characterize the degree to which these various perturbations violate the Gestalt law of good continuation. We find that efficiency for letter identification is inversely proportional to wiggle, and is wholly determined by wiggle, independent of how the wiggle was produced. Thus the effects of three different kinds of shape perturbation on letter identifiability are predicted by a single measure of goodness of continuation. This shows that letter identification obeys the Gestalt law of good continuation, and may be the first confirmation of the original Gestalt claim that object recognition involves grouping.
doi:10.1080/13546800802550134
PMCID: PMC2679997  PMID: 19424881
Gestalt; grouping; contour integration; good continuation; letter identification; object recognition; features; snake in the grass; snake letters; dot lattice

Results 1-3 (3)