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3.  Evaluation of Antidiarrheal Activity of Methanolic Extract of Maranta arundinacea Linn. Leaves 
Diarrhea is one of the most common causes for thousands of deaths every year. Therefore, identification of new source of antidiarrheal drugs becomes one of the most prominent focuses in modern research. Our aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea linn. (MEMA) leaves in rats and brine shrimp, respectively. Antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by using castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility tests at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats where the cytotoxic activity was justified using brine shrimp lethality bioassay at different concentrations of MEMA. The extract showed considerable antidiarrheal effect by inhibiting 42.67% and 57.75% of diarrheal episode at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. MEMA also significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the castor oil-induced intestinal volume (2.14 ± 0.16 to 1.61 ± 0.12 mL) in enteropooling test as well as intestinal transit (33.00 to 43.36%) in GI motility test, compared to their respective control. These observed effects are comparable to that of standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). On the other hand, in brine shrimp lethality test after 24 h, surviving brine shrimp larvae were counted and LD50 was assessed. Result showed that MEMA was potent against brine shrimp with LD50 value of 420 µg/mL. So the highest dose of 400 µg/mL of MEMA was not toxic to mice. So these results indicate that bioactive compounds are present in methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea leaves including significant antidiarrheal activity and could be accounted for pharmacological effects.
PMCID: PMC4543376  PMID: 26346095
4.  Induced pluripotent stem cells as a source of hepatocytes 
Current pathobiology reports  2014;2(1):11-20.
During the past decade, a series of discoveries has established the potential of the so called terminally differentiated cells to transition to more primitive progenitor cells. The dramatic demonstration of the ability to reprogram differentiated somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) that can then give rise to cells of all three germ layers has opened the possibility of generating virtually any cell type in culture, from any given individual. Taking advantage of these concepts, researchers have generated iPSCs by reprogramming a wide variety of somatic cells. In addition to their practical implications, these studies have provided crucial insights into the mechanism of cell plasticity that underlies the transition from one cell type to another. Using concepts derived from research on embryological development, investigators have differentiated iPSCs to cells resembling hepatocytes in many ways. Such hepatocyte-like cells could be of enormous value in disease modeling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, the currently available methods do not yield cells that fully reproduce the characteristics of adult primary hepatocytes. Thus generating hepatocytes from iPSCs is very much a work in progress. In addition to chronicling these exciting developments, this review will discuss the emergent new approaches to generating iPSCs, improving their differentiation to hepatocyte-like cells and maintaining the hepatocyte-like cells in culture for longer survival and better function.
PMCID: PMC4312414  PMID: 25650171
iPS; reprogramming; hepatocyte-like cells; directed differentiation
5.  Antinociceptive and cytotoxic activities of an epiphytic medicinal orchid: Vanda tessellata Roxb. 
Vanda tessellata (Orchidaceae) has been used in different sorts of ailments such as inflammations, rheumatism, dysentery, bronchitis, dyspepsia and fever in folk medicine. In this study we evaluated the antinociceptive and cytotoxic effect of methanol and aqueous extracts of V. tessellata leaf.
Oral administration of V. tessellata aqueous (VTA) and methanol (VTM) leaf extracts at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw) doses were assessed for antinociceptive activity in acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, and tail immersion test in mice. In this study we also screened for cytotoxicity of the extracts by the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay.
The extracts, at both doses, exhibited a significant (p < 0.05 - < 0.01) dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in hot plate and tail immersion test. The reaction time was increased to the thermal stimuli at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses up to 90 min. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, oral administration of VTA and VTM (200 and 400 mg/kg) also decreased the writhing significantly while compared to control. The dose 400 mg/kg showed maximum percentage of pain inhibition 42.37% and 45.08% for VTA and VTM respectively. Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg) and nalbuphine (10 mg/kg) were used as reference antinociceptive drugs. Very low cytotoxicity was observed on brine shrimps lethality assay.
The leaf extract has potential antinociceptive activity with minimum cytotoxicity. The present study supports the use of V. tessellata in different inflammatory disorders.
PMCID: PMC4289330  PMID: 25472757
Antinociceptive; Analgesic; Tail immersion; hot plate; Cytotoxicity; Vanda tessellata
6.  Graves’ disease presenting as bi - ventricular heart failure with severe pulmonary hypertension and pre-eclampsia in pregnancy – a case report and review of the literature 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:814.
Graves’ disease, a well-known cause of hyperthyroidism, is an autoimmune disease with multi-system involvement. More prevalent among young women, it appears as an uncommon cardiovascular complication during pregnancy, posing a diagnostic challenge, largely owing to difficulty in detecting the complication, as a result of a low index of suspicion of Graves’ disease presenting during pregnancy. Globally, cardiovascular disease is an important factor for pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a case of Graves’ disease detected for the first time in pregnancy, in a patient presenting with bi- ventricular heart failure, severe pulmonary hypertension and pre- eclampsia. Emphasis is placed on the spectrum of clinical presentations of Graves’ disease, and the importance of considering this thyroid disorder as a possible aetiological factor for such a presentation in pregnancy.
Case presentation
A 30-year-old Bangladeshi-Bengali woman, in her 28th week of pregnancy presented with severe systemic hypertension, bi-ventricular heart failure and severe pulmonary hypertension with a moderately enlarged thyroid gland. She improved following the administration of high dose intravenous diuretics, and delivered a premature female baby of low birth weight per vaginally, twenty four hours later. Pre-eclampsia was diagnosed on the basis of hypertension first detected in the third trimester, 3+ oedema and mild proteinuria. Electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia with incomplete right bundle branch block and echocardiography showed severe pulmonary hypertension with an estimated pulmonary arterial systolic pressure of 73 mm Hg, septal and anterior wall hypokinesia with an ejection fraction of 51%, grade I mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. Thyroid function tests revealed a biochemically hyperthyroid state and positive anti- thyroid peroxidase antibodies was found. 99mTechnetium pertechnetate thyroid scans demonstrated diffuse toxic goiter as evidenced by an enlarged thyroid gland with intense radiotracer concentration all over the gland. The clinical and biochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis of Graves’ disease.
Graves’ disease is an uncommon cause of bi-ventricular heart failure and severe pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy, and a high index of clinical suspicion is paramount to its effective diagnosis and treatment.
PMCID: PMC4247774  PMID: 25927843
Graves’ disease; Hypertension; Bi- Ventricular Heart Failure; Pulmonary Hypertension; Pre-eclampsia; Pregnancy
7.  Disuccinyl Betulin Triggers Metacaspase-Dependent Endonuclease G-Mediated Cell Death in Unicellular Protozoan Parasite Leishmania donovani 
The unicellular organism Leishmania undergoes apoptosis-like cell death in response to external stress or exposure to antileishmanial agents. Here, we showed that 3-O,28-O-disuccinyl betulin (DiSB), a potent topoisomerase type IB inhibitor, induced parasitic cell death by generating oxidative stress. The characteristic feature of the death process resembled the programmed cell death (PCD) seen in higher eukaryotes. In the current study, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), followed by the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), caused a loss in ATP production in Leishmania parasites. This further gave positive feedback to produce a large amount of ROS, which in turn caused oxidative DNA lesions and genomic DNA fragmentation. The treatment of promastigotes with DiSB induced high expression levels of metacaspase protein that led to cell death in this unicellular organism. The PCD was insensitive to benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), suggesting that the death process was not associated with the activation of caspases. DiSB treatment translocated Leishmania donovani endonuclease G (LdEndoG) from mitochondria to the nucleus, which was responsible for the DNA degradation process. Conditional antisense knockdown of L. donovani metacaspase (LdMC), as well as EndoG, -subverted death of the parasite and rescued cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. The present study on the effector molecules associated with the PCD pathway of the parasite should help to manifest the mechanisms of PCD and also might be exploited in antileishmanial chemotherapy.
PMCID: PMC4023740  PMID: 24468787
8.  Long-Term Reduction of Jaundice in Gunn Rats by Nonviral Liver-Targeted Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposon 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)  2009;50(3):815-824.
Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-mediated endocytosis has been used to target genes to hepatocytes in vivo. However, the level and duration of transgene expression have been low because of lysosomal translocation and degradation of the DNA and lack of its integration into the host genome. In this study we packaged the DNA of interest in proteoliposomes containing the fusogenic galactose-terminated F-glycoprotein of the Sendai virus (FPL) for targeted delivery to hepatocytes. After the FPL binds to ASGPR on the hepatocyte surface, fusogenic activity of the F-protein delivers the DNA into the cytosol, bypassing the endosomal pathway. For transgene integration we designed plasmids containing one transcription unit expressing the Sleeping Beauty transposase (SB) and another expressing human uridinediphosphoglucuronate glucuronosyltransferase-1A1 (pSB-hUGT1A1). The latter was flanked by inverted/direct repeats that are substrates of SB. In cell culture, FPL-mediated delivery of the E. coli β-galactosidase gene (LacZ) resulted in transduction of ASGPR-positive cells (rat hepatocytes or Hepa1 cell line), but not of ASGPR-negative 293 cells. Intravenous injection of the FPL-entrapped pSB-hUGT1A1 (4–8 μg/day, 1–4 doses) into UGT1A1-deficient hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats (model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1) resulted in hUGT1A1 expression in 5%–10% of hepatocytes, but not in other cell types. Serum bilirubin levels declined by 30% ± 4% in 2 weeks and remained at that level throughout the 7-month study duration. With histidine containing FPL, serum bilirubin was reduced by 40% ± 5%, and bilirubin glucuronides were excreted into bile. No antibodies were detectable in the recipient rats against the F-protein or human UGT1A1.
FPL is an efficient hepatocyte-targeted gene delivery platform in vivo that warrants further exploration toward clinical application.
PMCID: PMC4174336  PMID: 19585550
9.  How Far Are We from Visceral Leishmaniasis Elimination in Bangladesh? An Assessment of Epidemiological Surveillance Data 
In 2005, Bangladesh, India, and Nepal joined forces to eliminate Visceral Leishmaniasis (or kala-azar) from the region by 2015. In Bangladesh the elimination target is set at less than one new case per 10,000 population per year at upazila (sub-district) level. As the deadline approaches, we review the status of the elimination initiative in this country.
We collected all available disease surveillance data at the Disease Control Unit of the Directorate General of Health Services, Government of Bangladesh from 1994 to 2013. Additionally, we retrieved data from the Civil Surgeon Office from the Mymensingh district, one of the most heavily affected areas in Bangladesh.
Between 1994 and 2013, 109,266 kala-azar cases causing 329 deaths were reported from 37 endemic districts in Bangladesh. Only 16 districts reported cases every year. The Mymensingh district was the most affected with 53,582 (49.04%) cases. Between 2008 and 2013 only 16 upazilas showed incidence rates above the elimination target in which they ranged from 1.06 to 18.25 per 10,000 people per year.
While clear progress has been made towards eliminating VL, 16 upazilas in Bangladesh had not yet reached the target in 2013, based on official notification data that probably suffered from under-reporting bias. The elimination initiative urgently needs to establish methods to ascertain and monitor the elimination target.
PMCID: PMC4140646  PMID: 25144317
10.  Direct Laryngoscopy Using a Videogastroscope: Outcome of 119 Cases 
Direct laryngoscopy is an essential examination for supraglottic and laryngeal pathology. Fibreoptic or videolaryngoscope are not readily available. This study was designed to see the usefulness of Videogastroscope to evaluate laryngeal lesion instead of fibreoptic or videolaryngoscope. Patients with unsuccessful or unsatisfactory indirect laryngoscopic examination referred by ENT surgeons were examined using videogastroscope and anaesthetizing oropharynx and hypopharynx with lidocaine pharyngeal spray. Under direct supervision impressions including still and dynamic images were recorded. Study group comprised of 76 males and 43 females with age varying from 09 to 87 with mean age 44 years. Various abnormalities were detected among 74 (62.2 %) patients. Common pathologies were vocal cord polyps and nodules in 28, laryngitis and laryngeal ulcer in 16, supraglottic growth in 13 and pyriform fossa growth in 10. Direct laryngoscopy using videogastroscope is safe, effective and easily performed newer technique which might be very useful where indirect laryngoscopy is difficult and fibreoptic or videolaryngoscope is not available.
PMCID: PMC3585570  PMID: 24381916
Videogastroscope; Laryngeal lesion; Direct laryngoscopy
11.  Medicinal Formulations of a Kanda Tribal Healer — A Tribe on the Verge of Disappearance in Bangladesh 
The Kanda tribe is one of the lesser known small tribes of Bangladesh with an estimated population of about 1700 people (according to them), and on the verge of extinction as a separate entity. To some extent, they have assimilated with the surrounding mainstream Bengali-speaking population, but they still maintain their cultural practices including traditional medicinal practices, for which they have their own tribal healers. Nothing at all has been documented thus far about their traditional medicinal practices and formulations, which are on the verge of disappearance. The Kanda tribe can be found only in scattered tea gardens of Sreemangal in Sylhet district of Bangladesh; dispersion of the tribe into small separated communities is also contributing to the fast losing of traditional medicinal practices. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the traditional healers of the Kanda tribe (in fact, only one such healer was found after extensive searches). Information was collected from the healer with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. A total of 24 formulations were obtained from the healer containing 34 plants including two plants, which could not be identified. Besides medicinal plants, the Kanda healer also used the body hairs of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and bats (Pteropus giganteus giganteus) in one of his formulation for treatment of fever with shivering. The ailments treated by the Kanda healer were fairly common ailments like cuts and wounds, skin diseases, helminthiasis, fever, respiratory problems (coughs, asthma), gastrointestinal disorders (stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea), burning sensations during urination, various types of pain (headache, body ache, toothache, ear ache), conjunctivitis, poisonous snake, insect or reptile bites, jaundice, and bone fractures. A number of important drugs in allopathic medicine like quinine, artemisinin, and morphine (to name only a few) have been discovered from observing indigenous medicinal practices. From that view point, the formulations used by the Kanda healer merit scientific studies for their potential in the discovery of cheap and effective new drugs. Scientific validation of the medicinal formulations of the Kanda healer can also be effective for treatment of ailments among this tribe, which does not have or does not want to have any contact with modern medicine.
PMCID: PMC3746568  PMID: 24146444
12.  Antiepileptic drug utilization in Bangladesh: experience from Dhaka Medical College Hospital 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:473.
Epilepsy is a common health problem which carries a huge medical social psychological and economic impact for a developing country. The aim of this hospital-based study was to get an insight into the effectiveness and tolerability of low cost antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in Bangladeshi people with epilepsy.
This retrospective chart review was done from hospital records in weekly Epilepsy outdoor clinic of Department of Neurology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) from October 1998 to February 2013. A total of 854 epilepsy patients met the eligibility criteria (had a complete record of two years of follow up data) from hospital database. A checklist was used to take demographics (age and gender), epilepsy treatment and adverse event related data. At least two years of follow up data were considered for analysis.
Out of 854 patients selected, majority of the patients attending outdoor clinic were >11-30 years age group (55.2%) with a mean age of 20.3 ± 9 years and with a male (53%) predominance. Focal epilepsy were more common (53%), among whom secondary generalized epilepsy was the most frequent diagnosis (67%) followed by complex partial seizure (21%). Among those with Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy (46%), generalized tonic clonic seizure was encountered in 74% and absence seizure was observed in 13%. The number of patients on monotherapy and dual AED therapy were 67% and 24% respectively and polytherapy (i.e. >3 AEDs) was used only in 9%. CBZ (67%) was the most frequently prescribed AED, followed by VPA (43%), PHB (17%), and PHT (8%). CBZ was prescribed in 37% patients as monotherapy followed by VPA in 21% and PHB in 8% patients. Newer generation drugs eg lemotrigine and topiramate were used only as add on therapy in combination with CBZ and VPA in only 2% patients. The treatment retention rates over the follow up period for the AEDs in monotherapy varied between 86 and 91% and were highest for CBZ, followed by VPA. Most of the combination regimens had a treatment retention rate of 100%. The effectiveness of AED in terms of reduction of seizure frequency was highest for PHT (100%) and PHB (98%) followed by CBZ (96%) and VPA (95%). PHB and PHT were the cheapest of all AEDs (42 I$ and 56 I$/ year respectively). The costs of VPA and CBZ were two times and LTG and TOP were six to eight times higher. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) were observed among 140 (24.5%) of those with monotherapy. PHT (64%) was the most common drug to cause ADR, CBZ was at the bottom of the list to cause adverse effect (11.6%). VPA and PHB caused weight gain commonly. Adjustment of drug dose or withdrawal due to ADRs was necessary in 39% with PHT and 26% with PHB.
Though PHT and PHB are cheapest and efficacious among all, CBZ and VPA are less costly, effective and well tolerated drug for seizure control in context of Bangladesh.
PMCID: PMC4225505  PMID: 24245810
Anti epileptic drug (AED); Effective; Treatment retention rate
13.  Children's perception about falls and its prevention: a qualitative study from a rural setting in Bangladesh 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:1008.
Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & Design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled 'Fun without Smokes'. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils' smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the 'Fun without Smokes' website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the 'Fun without Smokes' website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Discussion The present study protocol describes the purpose, intervention design and study protocol of 'Fun without Smokes'. Expectations are that pupils receiving tailored advice will be less likely to smoke after 24 months in contrast to pupils in the control condition. Furthermore, tailored feedback letters and prompting is expected to be more effective than providing tailored feedback letters only. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3116
PMCID: PMC3854644  PMID: 24156606
14.  Children’s perceptions about falls and their prevention: a qualitative study from a rural setting in Bangladesh 
BMC Public Health  2013;13:1022.
Childhood falls is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. In-depth understanding of the situation by the target groups and their families is necessary for successful development, implementation and evaluation of any intervention. The study aimed at knowing the views of Bangladeshi rural children about childhood falls and their suggestions for prevention.
Children of 10–17 were selected purposely from 4 villages of Sherpur Sadar upazila (sub-district), Sherpur district of Bangladesh. Six focus group discussions and ten in-depth interviews were conducted during July-August 2010 for this study. Gender and education of the participants were considered. Major themes were identified, coded and categorized from content analysis.
Participants stated that young children (<5 years of age) and boys appeared to be the main victims of falls and majority of these injuries occurred in and around the households. Boys commonly fall from the tree around their premises and high places. Girls usually fall when they remain busy in household chores and playing with friends around their premises. Participants also mentioned that children mostly sustained injury when they are unsupervised. Supervision, public awareness and putting barriers (e.g. door barrier, putting pillow and use net around the bed etc.) were suggested as the preventive measures.
Findings of this study could be considered as part of knowledge-base in designing interventions to address childhood falls.
PMCID: PMC4231461  PMID: 24168265
Perception; Falls; Children; Prevention; Bangladesh; Rural
15.  Nucleic acid amplification: Alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction 
Nucleic acid amplification is a valuable molecular tool not only in basic research but also in application oriented fields, such as clinical medicine development, infectious diseases diagnosis, gene cloning and industrial quality control. A comperehensive review of the literature on the principles, applications, challenges and prospects of different alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. PCR was the first nucleic acid amplification method. With the advancement of research, a no of alternative nucleic acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence based amplification, strand displacement amplification, multiple displacement amplification. Most of the alternative methods are isothermal obviating the need for thermal cyclers. Though principles of most of the alternate methods are relatively complex than that of PCR, they offer better applicability and sensitivity in cases where PCR has limitations. Most of the alternate methods still have to prove themselves through extensive validation studies and are not available in commercial form; they pose the potentiality to be used as replacements of PCR. Continuous research is going on in different parts of the world to make these methods viable technically and economically.
PMCID: PMC3831736  PMID: 24302831
Amplification methods; ligase chain reaction; loop mediated isothermal amplification; multiple displacement amplification; nucleic acid sequence based amplification; polymerase chain reaction alternatives
16.  Tracheal Adenocarcinoma Treated with Adjuvant Radiation: A Case Report and Literature Review 
Case Reports in Oncology  2013;6(2):280-284.
Primary adenocarcinoma of the trachea is extremely rare and a standard treatment does not exist due to nonavailability of evidence-based randomized control studies. This paper reports the case of a 60-year-old male, who presented with cough and occasional respiratory distress. Bronchoscopic examination and a computed tomography scan revealed a soft tissue mass in the trachea arising from the posterior tracheal wall. Cytological examination and immunochemistry confirmed primary adenocarcinoma of the trachea. Excision of the tumor followed by three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was performed, and a dose of 56 Gy was delivered to the primary site. Two and a half years after treatment, the patient has no clinical or radiological evidence of the disease, and no late complication has occurred.
PMCID: PMC3670626  PMID: 23741224
Tracheal neoplasm; Adenocarcinoma; Adjuvant radiation
17.  Risk Factors of Rheumatic Heart Disease in Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study 
Not all cases of rheumatic fever (RF) end up as rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The fact raises the possibility of existence of a subgroup with characteristics that prevent RF patients from developing the RHD. The present study aimed at exploring the risk factors among patients with RHD. The study assessed the risk of RHD among people both with and without RF. In total, 103 consecutive RHD patients were recruited as cases who reported to the National Centre for Control of Rheumatic Fever and Heart Disease, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Of 309 controls, 103 were RF patients selected from the same centre, and the remaining 206 controls were selected from Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital, who got admitted for other non-cardiac ailments. RHD was confirmed by auscultation and colour Doppler echocardiography. RF was diagnosed based on the modified Jones criteria. An unadjusted odds ratio was generated for each variable, with 95% confidence interval (CI), and only significant factors were considered candidate for multivariate analysis. Three separate binary logistic regression models were generated to assess the risk factors of RF, risk factors of RHD compared to non-rheumatic control patients, and risk factors of RHD compared to control with RF. RF and RHD shared almost a similar set of risk factors in the population. In general, age over 19 years was found to be protective of RF; however, age of the majority (62.1%) of the RHD cases was over 19 years. Women [odds ratio (OR)=2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.3], urban resident (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.2–8.4), dwellers in brick-built house (OR=3.6, 95% CI 1.6-8.1), having >2 siblings (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.5- 6.3), offspring of working mothers (OR=7.6, 95% CI 2.0-24.2), illiterate mother (OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.8), and those who did not brush after taking meals (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.3) were more likely to develop RF. However, more than 5 members in a family showed a reduced risk of RF. RHD shared almost a similar set of factors in general. More than three people sharing a room also showed an increased risk of RHD (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.4), in addition to the risk factors of RF. Multivariate model also assessed the factors that may perpetuate RHD among RF patients. Overcrowding (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7) and illiteracy (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.2) posed the risk of RHD in the RF patients. The study did not find new factors that might pose an increased risk, rather looked for the documented risk factors and how these operate in the population of Bangladesh.
PMCID: PMC3702361  PMID: 23617207
Case-control study; Rheumatic fever; Rheumatic heart disease; Risk factors; Bangladesh
18.  Colloidal gold-loaded, biodegradable, polymer-based stavudine nanoparticle uptake by macrophages: an in vitro study 
Video abstract
We describe the development, evaluation, and comparison of colloidal gold-loaded, poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based nanoparticles containing anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drug stavudine and uptake of these nanoparticles by macrophages in vitro.
We used the following methods in this study: drug-excipient interaction by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, morphology of nanoparticles by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, particle size by a particle size analyzer, and zeta potential and polydispersity index by a zetasizer. Drug loading and in vitro release were evaluated for formulations. The best formulation was incorporated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Macrophage uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate nanoparticles was studied in vitro.
Variations in process parameters, such as speed of homogenization and amount of excipients, affected drug loading and the polydispersity index. We found that the drug was released for a prolonged period (over 63 days) from the nanoparticles, and observed cellular uptake of stavudine nanoparticles by macrophages.
Experimental nanoparticles represent an interesting carrier system for the transport of stavudine to macrophages, providing reduced required drug dose and improved drug delivery to macrophages over an extended period. The presence of colloidal gold in the particles decreased the drug content and resulted in comparatively faster drug release.
PMCID: PMC3526149  PMID: 23271908
stavudine; poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid); nanoparticles; colloidal gold; uptake by macrophages
19.  Single Liver Lobe Repopulation with Wildtype Hepatocytes Using Regional Hepatic Irradiation Cures Jaundice in Gunn Rats 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e46775.
Background and Aims
Preparative hepatic irradiation (HIR), together with mitotic stimulation of hepatocytes, permits extensive hepatic repopulation by transplanted hepatocytes in rats and mice. However, whole liver HIR is associated with radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), which limits its potential therapeutic application. In clinical experience, restricting HIR to a fraction of the liver reduces the susceptibility to RILD. Here we test the hypothesis that repopulation of selected liver lobes by regional HIR should be sufficient to correct some inherited metabolic disorders.
Hepatocytes (107) isolated from wildtype F344 rats or Wistar-RHA rats were engrafted into the livers of congeneic dipeptidylpeptidase IV deficient (DPPIV−) rats or uridinediphosphoglucuronateglucuronosyltransferase-1A1-deficient jaundiced Gunn rats respectively by intrasplenic injection 24 hr after HIR (50 Gy) targeted to the median lobe, or median plus left liver lobes. An adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor (1011 particles) was injected intravenously 24 hr after transplantation.
Three months after hepatocyte transplantation in DPPIV− rats, 30–60% of the recipient hepatocytes were replaced by donor cells in the irradiated lobe, but not in the nonirradiated lobes. In Gunn rats receiving median lobe HIR, serum bilirubin declined from pretreatment levels of 5.17±0.78 mg/dl to 0.96±0.30 mg/dl in 8 weeks and remained at this level throughout the 16 week observation period. A similar effect was observed in the group, receiving median plus left lobe irradiation.
As little as 20% repopulation of 30% of the liver volume was sufficient to correct hyperbilirubinemia in Gunn rats, highlighting the potential of regiospecific HIR in hepatocyte transplantation-based therapy of inherited metabolic liver diseases.
PMCID: PMC3473037  PMID: 23091601
20.  Hepatic Irradiation Augments Engraftment Of Donor Cells Following Hepatocyte Transplantation 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)  2009;49(1):258-267.
Engraftment of donor hepatocytes is a critical step that determines the success of hepatocyte transplantation. Rapid and efficient integration of donor cells would enable prompt liver repopulation of these cells in response to selective proliferative stimuli offered by a preparative regimen. We have earlier demonstrated that hepatic irradiation (HIR) in combination with a variety of hepatotrophic growth signals, ie., partial hepatectomy and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can be used as a preparative regimen for liver repopulation of transplanted hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of HIR on engraftment of transplanted DPPIV positive hepatocytes in congeneic DPPIV-deficient rats. HIR-induced apoptosis of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) within six hours of HIR, resulted in dehiscence of the SEC lining in 24hrs. Although there was no change of the number of Kupffer cells after HIR, colloidal carbon clearance decreased 24 hours post HIR, indicating a suppression of phagocytic function. DPPIV+ donor cells were transplanted 24h after HIR (0–50 Gy). There was a HIR dose-dependent increase in the donor hepatocyte mass engrafted in the liver parenchyma. The number of viable transplanted hepatocytes present in hepatic sinusoids or integrated in the parenchyma was greater in the HIR-treated group at 3 and 7dys after transplantation compared with the sham controls. Finally, we validated these rodent studies in cynomologous monkeys, demonstrating a single 10Gy dose of HIR was sufficient to enhance engraftment of donor porcine hepatocytes. This data indicates that transient disruption of the SEC barrier and inhibition of the phagocytic function of Kupffer cells by HIR enhances hepatocyte engraftment and the integrated donor cell mass. Thus, preparative HIR could be potentially useful to augment hepatocyte transplantation.
PMCID: PMC3416044  PMID: 19003915
Hepatocyte transplantation; Hepatic irradiation; Hepatocyte engraftment
21.  Disability among elderly rural villagers: report of a survey from Gonoshasthaya Kendra, Bangladesh 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:379.
The study was set up to identify the extent and nature of difficulty with activities of daily living (disabilities) among elderly village residents of Bangladesh, to describe help currently given and to identify possible interventions. It was carried out at Gonoshasthaya Kendra (GK), a community development organization responsible for the health care of 600 villages with a population of some 1.5 million.
A survey card was designed and piloted using 12 questions on disability, elaborated from the Washington Group Disability questions, together with a checklist of health problems. A survey was carried out in 2010 in 535 villages under the care of GK since 2005, with village paramedics interviewing residents believed to be age 60 years or older. Respondents were matched where possible to data from the 2005 GK household census, giving data on education, occupation, socioeconomic group and smoking habit.
Survey cards were completed for 43417 residents of which 17346 were matched to residents recorded in the GK census as born ≤ 1945. The proportion reporting ‘much difficulty’ on one or more functional capacities increased steadily with age, reaching 55% (1796/3620) among those ≥ 85 years. Difficulties most frequently reported were lifting and carrying, vision and going outside the home. At all ages women were more likely to report ‘much difficulty’ than men (OR = 1.43 (1.35 to 1.48)), with widows and the illiterate at greater risk. Health problems, particularly hemiplegia, resting tremor, urinary incontinence and depression were strongly related to the 12 disabilities assessed. Help came almost entirely from family members; of 11211 villagers with ‘much difficult’ on at least one functional capacity, only 15 reported getting help outside the family.
Disabled elderly residents were dependent on the family for help but, with family cohesiveness under threat from migration to the city, there is a pressing need for the development and critical evaluation of community-based interventions designed specifically for the elderly in poor rural societies. New approaches to training and practice will be needed to integrate such disability management into primary care.
PMCID: PMC3422201  PMID: 22632632
22.  Fine needle aspiration cytology of ovarian tumors with histological correlation 
Till today, there has been some hesitation to accept the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in pelvic mass. We have tried to study the role of ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) guided FNAC as diagnostic and supportive investigation for ovarian tumors.
To evaluate the current status of image-directed percutaneous aspiration of ovarian neoplasm for the purpose of early detection of malignancy.
Materials and Methods:
Seventy-four fine needle aspirations of ovarian neoplasms were performed between January 2007 and December 2008 by transabdominal approach under USG and CT guidance and correlated with histopathological findings and tumor markers.
A total of 47 (63.5%) cases were assessed as malignant and 21 (28.3%) as benign and 6 (8.1%) as inconclusive. The neoplastic lesions were categorized as per World Health Organization (WHO) classification.
With the availability of modern techniques, USG and CT guided FNAC can be an optimum modality for the diagnosis of primary and metastatic ovarian neoplasms and evaluation of recurrent malignant tumors, which has great impact on patient management consequently.
PMCID: PMC3307449  PMID: 22470227
Fine needle aspiration cytology; ovarian tumors; histopathology
23.  Antigen-Specific Memory B-Cell Responses in Bangladeshi Adults after One- or Two-Dose Oral Killed Cholera Vaccination and Comparison with Responses in Patients with Naturally Acquired Cholera ▿ 
The mediators of protective immunity against cholera are currently unknown, but memory B-cell responses may play a central role in facilitating long-term and anamnestic responses against Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera. We compared memory B-cell responses in adults with natural cholera in Bangladesh (n = 70) to responses in Bangladeshi adults after one-dose (n = 30) or two-dose (n = 30) administration of an oral killed cholera vaccine, WC-rBS (Dukoral; Crucell), assessing the responses at the acute stage of disease or prevaccination and then on days 3, 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360. Individuals with natural cholera developed prominent vibriocidal and plasma anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) IgG and IgA responses, but these responses returned to baseline by 1 year of follow-up. Vaccinees developed plasma anti-CtxB and anti-LPS IgG and IgA responses that were generally comparable to those in individuals recovering from natural disease, but vibriocidal responses were lower in vaccinees than in infected patients. Individuals recovering from natural disease developed memory B-cell IgG and IgA anti-CtxB and anti-LPS responses by day 30, and these responses were detectable through at least days 180 to 360. In contrast, we detected no IgA or IgG memory B-cell responses to LPS in vaccinees; anti-CtxB IgA responses were only detectable on day 30, and anti-CtxB IgG responses were detectable until days 90 to 180, compared to days 270 to 360 in patients. These findings may explain in part the relatively short-term protection afforded by oral cholera vaccination compared to natural disease.
PMCID: PMC3122537  PMID: 21346055
24.  Identification of a Novel TGFβ/PKA Signaling Transduceome in Mediating Control of Cell Survival and Metastasis in Colon Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(5):e19335.
Understanding drivers for metastasis in human cancer is important for potential development of therapies to treat metastases. The role of loss of TGFβ tumor suppressor activities in the metastatic process is essentially unknown.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Utilizing in vitro and in vivo techniques, we have shown that loss of TGFβ tumor suppressor signaling is necessary to allow the last step of the metastatic process - colonization of the metastatic site. This work demonstrates for the first time that TGFβ receptor reconstitution leads to decreased metastatic colonization. Moreover, we have identified a novel TGFβ/PKA tumor suppressor pathway that acts directly on a known cell survival mechanism that responds to stress with the survivin/XIAP dependent inhibition of caspases that effect apoptosis. The linkage between the TGFβ/PKA transduceome signaling and control of metastasis through induction of cell death was shown by TGFβ receptor restoration with reactivation of the TGFβ/PKA pathway in receptor deficient metastatic colon cancer cells leading to control of aberrant cell survival.
This work impacts our understanding of the possible mechanisms that are critical to the growth and maintenance of metastases as well as understanding of a novel TGFβ function as a metastatic suppressor. These results raise the possibility that regeneration of attenuated TGFβ signaling would be an effective target in the treatment of metastasis. Our work indicates the clinical potential for developing anti-metastasis therapy based on inhibition of this very important aberrant cell survival mechanism by the multifaceted TGFβ/PKA transduceome induced pathway. Development of effective treatments for metastatic disease is a pressing need since metastases are the major cause of death in solid tumors.
PMCID: PMC3086924  PMID: 21559296
25.  Spontaneous hepatic repopulation in transgenic mice expressing mutant human α1-antitrypsin by wild-type donor hepatocytes 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2011;121(5):1930-1934.
α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited condition that causes liver disease and emphysema. The normal function of this protein, which is synthesized by the liver, is to inhibit neutrophil elastase, a protease that degrades connective tissue of the lung. In the classical form of the disease, inefficient secretion of a mutant α1-antitrypsin protein (AAT-Z) results in its accumulation within hepatocytes and reduced protease inhibitor activity, resulting in liver injury and pulmonary emphysema. Because mutant protein accumulation increases hepatocyte cell stress, we investigated whether transplanted hepatocytes expressing wild-type AAT might have a competitive advantage relative to AAT-Z–expressing hepatocytes, using transgenic mice expressing human AAT-Z. Wild-type donor hepatocytes replaced 20%–98% of mutant host hepatocytes, and repopulation was accelerated by injection of an adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation with engrafted hepatocytes occurred in the AAT-Z–expressing mice even in the absence of severe liver injury. Donor cells replaced both globule-containing and globule-devoid cells, indicating that both types of host hepatocytes display impaired proliferation relative to wild-type hepatocytes. These results suggest that wild-type hepatocyte transplantation may be therapeutic for AAT-Z liver disease and may provide an alternative to protein replacement for treating emphysema in AAT-ZZ individuals.
PMCID: PMC3083768  PMID: 21505264

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