Direct laryngoscopy is an essential examination for supraglottic and laryngeal pathology. Fibreoptic or videolaryngoscope are not readily available. This study was designed to see the usefulness of Videogastroscope to evaluate laryngeal lesion instead of fibreoptic or videolaryngoscope. Patients with unsuccessful or unsatisfactory indirect laryngoscopic examination referred by ENT surgeons were examined using videogastroscope and anaesthetizing oropharynx and hypopharynx with lidocaine pharyngeal spray. Under direct supervision impressions including still and dynamic images were recorded. Study group comprised of 76 males and 43 females with age varying from 09 to 87 with mean age 44 years. Various abnormalities were detected among 74 (62.2 %) patients. Common pathologies were vocal cord polyps and nodules in 28, laryngitis and laryngeal ulcer in 16, supraglottic growth in 13 and pyriform fossa growth in 10. Direct laryngoscopy using videogastroscope is safe, effective and easily performed newer technique which might be very useful where indirect laryngoscopy is difficult and fibreoptic or videolaryngoscope is not available.
Videogastroscope; Laryngeal lesion; Direct laryngoscopy
The Kanda tribe is one of the lesser known small tribes of Bangladesh with an estimated population of about 1700 people (according to them), and on the verge of extinction as a separate entity. To some extent, they have assimilated with the surrounding mainstream Bengali-speaking population, but they still maintain their cultural practices including traditional medicinal practices, for which they have their own tribal healers. Nothing at all has been documented thus far about their traditional medicinal practices and formulations, which are on the verge of disappearance. The Kanda tribe can be found only in scattered tea gardens of Sreemangal in Sylhet district of Bangladesh; dispersion of the tribe into small separated communities is also contributing to the fast losing of traditional medicinal practices. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the traditional healers of the Kanda tribe (in fact, only one such healer was found after extensive searches). Information was collected from the healer with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. A total of 24 formulations were obtained from the healer containing 34 plants including two plants, which could not be identified. Besides medicinal plants, the Kanda healer also used the body hairs of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and bats (Pteropus giganteus giganteus) in one of his formulation for treatment of fever with shivering. The ailments treated by the Kanda healer were fairly common ailments like cuts and wounds, skin diseases, helminthiasis, fever, respiratory problems (coughs, asthma), gastrointestinal disorders (stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea), burning sensations during urination, various types of pain (headache, body ache, toothache, ear ache), conjunctivitis, poisonous snake, insect or reptile bites, jaundice, and bone fractures. A number of important drugs in allopathic medicine like quinine, artemisinin, and morphine (to name only a few) have been discovered from observing indigenous medicinal practices. From that view point, the formulations used by the Kanda healer merit scientific studies for their potential in the discovery of cheap and effective new drugs. Scientific validation of the medicinal formulations of the Kanda healer can also be effective for treatment of ailments among this tribe, which does not have or does not want to have any contact with modern medicine.
Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & Design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled 'Fun without Smokes'. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils' smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the 'Fun without Smokes' website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the 'Fun without Smokes' website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Discussion The present study protocol describes the purpose, intervention design and study protocol of 'Fun without Smokes'. Expectations are that pupils receiving tailored advice will be less likely to smoke after 24 months in contrast to pupils in the control condition. Furthermore, tailored feedback letters and prompting is expected to be more effective than providing tailored feedback letters only. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3116
Nucleic acid amplification is a valuable molecular tool not only in basic research but also in application oriented fields, such as clinical medicine development, infectious diseases diagnosis, gene cloning and industrial quality control. A comperehensive review of the literature on the principles, applications, challenges and prospects of different alternative methods of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. PCR was the first nucleic acid amplification method. With the advancement of research, a no of alternative nucleic acid amplification methods has been developed such as loop mediated isothermal amplification, nucleic acid sequence based amplification, strand displacement amplification, multiple displacement amplification. Most of the alternative methods are isothermal obviating the need for thermal cyclers. Though principles of most of the alternate methods are relatively complex than that of PCR, they offer better applicability and sensitivity in cases where PCR has limitations. Most of the alternate methods still have to prove themselves through extensive validation studies and are not available in commercial form; they pose the potentiality to be used as replacements of PCR. Continuous research is going on in different parts of the world to make these methods viable technically and economically.
Amplification methods; ligase chain reaction; loop mediated isothermal amplification; multiple displacement amplification; nucleic acid sequence based amplification; polymerase chain reaction alternatives
Primary adenocarcinoma of the trachea is extremely rare and a standard treatment does not exist due to nonavailability of evidence-based randomized control studies. This paper reports the case of a 60-year-old male, who presented with cough and occasional respiratory distress. Bronchoscopic examination and a computed tomography scan revealed a soft tissue mass in the trachea arising from the posterior tracheal wall. Cytological examination and immunochemistry confirmed primary adenocarcinoma of the trachea. Excision of the tumor followed by three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy was performed, and a dose of 56 Gy was delivered to the primary site. Two and a half years after treatment, the patient has no clinical or radiological evidence of the disease, and no late complication has occurred.
Tracheal neoplasm; Adenocarcinoma; Adjuvant radiation
Not all cases of rheumatic fever (RF) end up as rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The fact raises the possibility of existence of a subgroup with characteristics that prevent RF patients from developing the RHD. The present study aimed at exploring the risk factors among patients with RHD. The study assessed the risk of RHD among people both with and without RF. In total, 103 consecutive RHD patients were recruited as cases who reported to the National Centre for Control of Rheumatic Fever and Heart Disease, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Of 309 controls, 103 were RF patients selected from the same centre, and the remaining 206 controls were selected from Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital, who got admitted for other non-cardiac ailments. RHD was confirmed by auscultation and colour Doppler echocardiography. RF was diagnosed based on the modified Jones criteria. An unadjusted odds ratio was generated for each variable, with 95% confidence interval (CI), and only significant factors were considered candidate for multivariate analysis. Three separate binary logistic regression models were generated to assess the risk factors of RF, risk factors of RHD compared to non-rheumatic control patients, and risk factors of RHD compared to control with RF. RF and RHD shared almost a similar set of risk factors in the population. In general, age over 19 years was found to be protective of RF; however, age of the majority (62.1%) of the RHD cases was over 19 years. Women [odds ratio (OR)=2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.3], urban resident (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.2–8.4), dwellers in brick-built house (OR=3.6, 95% CI 1.6-8.1), having >2 siblings (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.5- 6.3), offspring of working mothers (OR=7.6, 95% CI 2.0-24.2), illiterate mother (OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.8), and those who did not brush after taking meals (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.3) were more likely to develop RF. However, more than 5 members in a family showed a reduced risk of RF. RHD shared almost a similar set of factors in general. More than three people sharing a room also showed an increased risk of RHD (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.4), in addition to the risk factors of RF. Multivariate model also assessed the factors that may perpetuate RHD among RF patients. Overcrowding (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7) and illiteracy (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.2) posed the risk of RHD in the RF patients. The study did not find new factors that might pose an increased risk, rather looked for the documented risk factors and how these operate in the population of Bangladesh.
Case-control study; Rheumatic fever; Rheumatic heart disease; Risk factors; Bangladesh
We describe the development, evaluation, and comparison of colloidal gold-loaded, poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based nanoparticles containing anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drug stavudine and uptake of these nanoparticles by macrophages in vitro.
We used the following methods in this study: drug-excipient interaction by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, morphology of nanoparticles by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, particle size by a particle size analyzer, and zeta potential and polydispersity index by a zetasizer. Drug loading and in vitro release were evaluated for formulations. The best formulation was incorporated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Macrophage uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate nanoparticles was studied in vitro.
Variations in process parameters, such as speed of homogenization and amount of excipients, affected drug loading and the polydispersity index. We found that the drug was released for a prolonged period (over 63 days) from the nanoparticles, and observed cellular uptake of stavudine nanoparticles by macrophages.
Experimental nanoparticles represent an interesting carrier system for the transport of stavudine to macrophages, providing reduced required drug dose and improved drug delivery to macrophages over an extended period. The presence of colloidal gold in the particles decreased the drug content and resulted in comparatively faster drug release.
stavudine; poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid); nanoparticles; colloidal gold; uptake by macrophages
Background and Aims
Preparative hepatic irradiation (HIR), together with mitotic stimulation of hepatocytes, permits extensive hepatic repopulation by transplanted hepatocytes in rats and mice. However, whole liver HIR is associated with radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), which limits its potential therapeutic application. In clinical experience, restricting HIR to a fraction of the liver reduces the susceptibility to RILD. Here we test the hypothesis that repopulation of selected liver lobes by regional HIR should be sufficient to correct some inherited metabolic disorders.
Hepatocytes (107) isolated from wildtype F344 rats or Wistar-RHA rats were engrafted into the livers of congeneic dipeptidylpeptidase IV deficient (DPPIV−) rats or uridinediphosphoglucuronateglucuronosyltransferase-1A1-deficient jaundiced Gunn rats respectively by intrasplenic injection 24 hr after HIR (50 Gy) targeted to the median lobe, or median plus left liver lobes. An adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor (1011 particles) was injected intravenously 24 hr after transplantation.
Three months after hepatocyte transplantation in DPPIV− rats, 30–60% of the recipient hepatocytes were replaced by donor cells in the irradiated lobe, but not in the nonirradiated lobes. In Gunn rats receiving median lobe HIR, serum bilirubin declined from pretreatment levels of 5.17±0.78 mg/dl to 0.96±0.30 mg/dl in 8 weeks and remained at this level throughout the 16 week observation period. A similar effect was observed in the group, receiving median plus left lobe irradiation.
As little as 20% repopulation of 30% of the liver volume was sufficient to correct hyperbilirubinemia in Gunn rats, highlighting the potential of regiospecific HIR in hepatocyte transplantation-based therapy of inherited metabolic liver diseases.
Engraftment of donor hepatocytes is a critical step that determines the success of hepatocyte transplantation. Rapid and efficient integration of donor cells would enable prompt liver repopulation of these cells in response to selective proliferative stimuli offered by a preparative regimen. We have earlier demonstrated that hepatic irradiation (HIR) in combination with a variety of hepatotrophic growth signals, ie., partial hepatectomy and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can be used as a preparative regimen for liver repopulation of transplanted hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of HIR on engraftment of transplanted DPPIV positive hepatocytes in congeneic DPPIV-deficient rats. HIR-induced apoptosis of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC) within six hours of HIR, resulted in dehiscence of the SEC lining in 24hrs. Although there was no change of the number of Kupffer cells after HIR, colloidal carbon clearance decreased 24 hours post HIR, indicating a suppression of phagocytic function. DPPIV+ donor cells were transplanted 24h after HIR (0–50 Gy). There was a HIR dose-dependent increase in the donor hepatocyte mass engrafted in the liver parenchyma. The number of viable transplanted hepatocytes present in hepatic sinusoids or integrated in the parenchyma was greater in the HIR-treated group at 3 and 7dys after transplantation compared with the sham controls. Finally, we validated these rodent studies in cynomologous monkeys, demonstrating a single 10Gy dose of HIR was sufficient to enhance engraftment of donor porcine hepatocytes. This data indicates that transient disruption of the SEC barrier and inhibition of the phagocytic function of Kupffer cells by HIR enhances hepatocyte engraftment and the integrated donor cell mass. Thus, preparative HIR could be potentially useful to augment hepatocyte transplantation.
Hepatocyte transplantation; Hepatic irradiation; Hepatocyte engraftment
The study was set up to identify the extent and nature of difficulty with activities of daily living (disabilities) among elderly village residents of Bangladesh, to describe help currently given and to identify possible interventions. It was carried out at Gonoshasthaya Kendra (GK), a community development organization responsible for the health care of 600 villages with a population of some 1.5 million.
A survey card was designed and piloted using 12 questions on disability, elaborated from the Washington Group Disability questions, together with a checklist of health problems. A survey was carried out in 2010 in 535 villages under the care of GK since 2005, with village paramedics interviewing residents believed to be age 60 years or older. Respondents were matched where possible to data from the 2005 GK household census, giving data on education, occupation, socioeconomic group and smoking habit.
Survey cards were completed for 43417 residents of which 17346 were matched to residents recorded in the GK census as born ≤ 1945. The proportion reporting ‘much difficulty’ on one or more functional capacities increased steadily with age, reaching 55% (1796/3620) among those ≥ 85 years. Difficulties most frequently reported were lifting and carrying, vision and going outside the home. At all ages women were more likely to report ‘much difficulty’ than men (OR = 1.43 (1.35 to 1.48)), with widows and the illiterate at greater risk. Health problems, particularly hemiplegia, resting tremor, urinary incontinence and depression were strongly related to the 12 disabilities assessed. Help came almost entirely from family members; of 11211 villagers with ‘much difficult’ on at least one functional capacity, only 15 reported getting help outside the family.
Disabled elderly residents were dependent on the family for help but, with family cohesiveness under threat from migration to the city, there is a pressing need for the development and critical evaluation of community-based interventions designed specifically for the elderly in poor rural societies. New approaches to training and practice will be needed to integrate such disability management into primary care.
Till today, there has been some hesitation to accept the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in pelvic mass. We have tried to study the role of ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) guided FNAC as diagnostic and supportive investigation for ovarian tumors.
To evaluate the current status of image-directed percutaneous aspiration of ovarian neoplasm for the purpose of early detection of malignancy.
Materials and Methods:
Seventy-four fine needle aspirations of ovarian neoplasms were performed between January 2007 and December 2008 by transabdominal approach under USG and CT guidance and correlated with histopathological findings and tumor markers.
A total of 47 (63.5%) cases were assessed as malignant and 21 (28.3%) as benign and 6 (8.1%) as inconclusive. The neoplastic lesions were categorized as per World Health Organization (WHO) classification.
With the availability of modern techniques, USG and CT guided FNAC can be an optimum modality for the diagnosis of primary and metastatic ovarian neoplasms and evaluation of recurrent malignant tumors, which has great impact on patient management consequently.
Fine needle aspiration cytology; ovarian tumors; histopathology
The mediators of protective immunity against cholera are currently unknown, but memory B-cell responses may play a central role in facilitating long-term and anamnestic responses against Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera. We compared memory B-cell responses in adults with natural cholera in Bangladesh (n = 70) to responses in Bangladeshi adults after one-dose (n = 30) or two-dose (n = 30) administration of an oral killed cholera vaccine, WC-rBS (Dukoral; Crucell), assessing the responses at the acute stage of disease or prevaccination and then on days 3, 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360. Individuals with natural cholera developed prominent vibriocidal and plasma anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) IgG and IgA responses, but these responses returned to baseline by 1 year of follow-up. Vaccinees developed plasma anti-CtxB and anti-LPS IgG and IgA responses that were generally comparable to those in individuals recovering from natural disease, but vibriocidal responses were lower in vaccinees than in infected patients. Individuals recovering from natural disease developed memory B-cell IgG and IgA anti-CtxB and anti-LPS responses by day 30, and these responses were detectable through at least days 180 to 360. In contrast, we detected no IgA or IgG memory B-cell responses to LPS in vaccinees; anti-CtxB IgA responses were only detectable on day 30, and anti-CtxB IgG responses were detectable until days 90 to 180, compared to days 270 to 360 in patients. These findings may explain in part the relatively short-term protection afforded by oral cholera vaccination compared to natural disease.
Understanding drivers for metastasis in human cancer is important for potential development of therapies to treat metastases. The role of loss of TGFβ tumor suppressor activities in the metastatic process is essentially unknown.
Utilizing in vitro and in vivo techniques, we have shown that loss of TGFβ tumor suppressor signaling is necessary to allow the last step of the metastatic process - colonization of the metastatic site. This work demonstrates for the first time that TGFβ receptor reconstitution leads to decreased metastatic colonization. Moreover, we have identified a novel TGFβ/PKA tumor suppressor pathway that acts directly on a known cell survival mechanism that responds to stress with the survivin/XIAP dependent inhibition of caspases that effect apoptosis. The linkage between the TGFβ/PKA transduceome signaling and control of metastasis through induction of cell death was shown by TGFβ receptor restoration with reactivation of the TGFβ/PKA pathway in receptor deficient metastatic colon cancer cells leading to control of aberrant cell survival.
This work impacts our understanding of the possible mechanisms that are critical to the growth and maintenance of metastases as well as understanding of a novel TGFβ function as a metastatic suppressor. These results raise the possibility that regeneration of attenuated TGFβ signaling would be an effective target in the treatment of metastasis. Our work indicates the clinical potential for developing anti-metastasis therapy based on inhibition of this very important aberrant cell survival mechanism by the multifaceted TGFβ/PKA transduceome induced pathway. Development of effective treatments for metastatic disease is a pressing need since metastases are the major cause of death in solid tumors.
α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited condition that causes liver disease and emphysema. The normal function of this protein, which is synthesized by the liver, is to inhibit neutrophil elastase, a protease that degrades connective tissue of the lung. In the classical form of the disease, inefficient secretion of a mutant α1-antitrypsin protein (AAT-Z) results in its accumulation within hepatocytes and reduced protease inhibitor activity, resulting in liver injury and pulmonary emphysema. Because mutant protein accumulation increases hepatocyte cell stress, we investigated whether transplanted hepatocytes expressing wild-type AAT might have a competitive advantage relative to AAT-Z–expressing hepatocytes, using transgenic mice expressing human AAT-Z. Wild-type donor hepatocytes replaced 20%–98% of mutant host hepatocytes, and repopulation was accelerated by injection of an adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor. Spontaneous hepatic repopulation with engrafted hepatocytes occurred in the AAT-Z–expressing mice even in the absence of severe liver injury. Donor cells replaced both globule-containing and globule-devoid cells, indicating that both types of host hepatocytes display impaired proliferation relative to wild-type hepatocytes. These results suggest that wild-type hepatocyte transplantation may be therapeutic for AAT-Z liver disease and may provide an alternative to protein replacement for treating emphysema in AAT-ZZ individuals.
A 12-year old girl from Uttar Badda, Dhaka, Bangladesh, was admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B, with a 23-day history of fever and diarrhoea. After admission, she was treated for culture-proven Salmonella Typhi-associated infection and was discovered to be heterozygous for haemoglobin E. Despite treatment with appropriate antibiotics, the patient's condition did not improve, prompting further investigation, which revealed malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. Dhaka is considered a malaria-free zone, and the patient denied recent travel outside Dhaka. Subsequently, the patient recovered fully on antimalarial therapy.
Haemoglobin E; Malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; Salmonella Typhi; Typhoid; Bangladesh
Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) results from a combination of direct cytocidal effects on intestinal crypt and endothelial cells and subsequent loss of the mucosal barrier, resulting in electrolyte imbalance, diarrhea, weight loss, infection and mortality. Because R-spondin1 (Rspo1) acts as a mitogenic factor for intestinal stem cells, we hypothesized that systemic administration of Rspo1 would amplify the intestinal crypt cells and accelerate the regeneration of the irradiated intestine, thereby, ameliorating RIGS.
Methods and Findings
Male C57Bl/6 mice received recombinant adenovirus expressing human R-spondin1 (AdRspo1) or E.coli Lacz (AdLacz), 1–3 days before whole body irradiation (WBI) or abdominal irradiation (AIR). Post-irradiation survival was assessed by Kaplan Meier analysis. RIGS was assessed by histological examination of intestine after hematoxilin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical staining of BrdU incorporation, Lgr5 and β-catenin expression and TUNEL staining. The xylose absorption test (XAT) was performed to evaluate the functional integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. In order to examine the effect of R-spondin1 on tumor growth, AdRspo1 and AdLacZ was administered in the animals having palpable tumor and then exposed to AIR. There was a significant increase in survival in AdRspo1 cohorts compared to AdLacZ (p<0.003) controls, following WBI (10.4 Gy). Significant delay in tumor growth was observed after AIR in both cohorts AdRspo1 and AdLacZ but AdRspo1 treated animals showed improved survival compared to AdLacZ. Histological analysis and XAT demonstrated significant structural and functional regeneration of the intestine in irradiated animals following AdRspo1 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated an increase in Lgr5+ve crypt cells and the translocation of β-catenin from the cytosol to nucleus and upregulation of β-catenin target genes in AdRspo1-treated mice, as compared to AdLacz-treated mice.
Rspo1 promoted radioprotection against RIGS and improved survival of mice exposed to WBI. The mechanism was likely related to induction of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway and promotion of intestinal stem cell regeneration. Rspo1 has protective effect only on normal intestinal tissue but not in tumors after AIR and thereby may increase the therapeutic ratio of chemoradiation therapy in patients undergoing abdominal irradiation for GI malignancies.
Infection with Vibrio cholerae induces protection from subsequent severe disease, suggesting that an effective vaccine could be an important preventive strategy. Available vaccines provide less protection against cholera than natural infection, particularly in children.
We examined a cohort of 121 children (2 years-12 years of age) and 276 older patients (>12 years of age) hospitalized with cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh over a 4-year period, to compare clinical features in older patients and children and immune responses to key antigens.
Older patients had more severe disease. Children with cholera were more commonly retinol deficient, while zinc deficiency was equally prevalent in both groups. Children developed higher vibriocidal and serum immune responses to the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB). In contrast, older patients mounted higher immune responses to 2 other key V. cholerae antigens, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and toxin coregulated pilus antigens (TcpA). We compared immune responses following infection with those occurring after receipt of a live, oral vaccine in both children and older patients in Bangladesh, during a similar time period. The response rates for vibriocidal and LPS antibodies were higher after infection than after vaccination. Both vaccinated older patients and children responded poorly to CTB and TcpA.
Although children developed vigorous vibriocidal and CTB-specific responses following infection, they had lessened responses to LPS and TcpA compared with older patients, as well as lessened responses to vaccination. More studies need to be carried out to determine factors, including micronutrient interventions that can improve responses in children to both natural infection and vaccination.
cholera; Vibrio cholerae O1/O139; children; older patients; immunological responses
Objective To investigate the impact of zinc supplementation in children with cholera.
Design Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial.
Setting Dhaka Hospital, Bangladesh.
Participants 179 children aged 3-14 years with watery diarrhoea and stool dark field examination positive for Vibrio cholerae and confirmed by stool culture.
Intervention Children were randomised to receive 30 mg elemental zinc per day (n=90) or placebo (n=89) until recovery. All children received erythromycin suspension orally in a dose of 12.5 mg/kg every six hours for three days.
Main outcome measures Duration of diarrhoea and stool output.
Results 82 children in each group completed the study. More patients in the zinc group than in the control group recovered by two days (49% v 32%, P=0.032) and by three days (81% v 68%, P=0.03). Zinc supplemented patients had 12% shorter duration of diarrhoea than control patients (64.1 v 72.8 h, P=0.028) and 11% less stool output (1.6 v 1.8 kg/day, P=0.039).
Conclusion Zinc supplementation significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea and stool output in children with cholera. Children with cholera should be supplemented with zinc to reduce its duration and severity.
Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00226616.
We compared putative molecular markers of virulence (vacA, cagA, and iceA) of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from 52 adult duodenal ulcer patients from West Bengal, India, with those of H. pylori strains isolated from 48 adult healthy volunteers from the same region. On the basis of genotyping by PCR, we conclude that the H. pylori strains isolated from the two study groups were indistinguishable and that there are geographic variations in the association of certain putative H. pylori virulence genes with clinical status.
The genotypes of 78 strains of Helicobacter pylori from Calcutta, India (55 from ulcer patients and 23 from more-benign infections), were studied, with a focus on putative virulence genes and neutral DNA markers that were likely to be phylogenetically informative. PCR tests indicated that 80 to 90% of Calcutta strains carried the cag pathogenicity island (PAI) and potentially toxigenic vacAs1 alleles of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA), independent of disease status. This was higher than in the West (where cag PAI+ vacAs1 genotypes are disease associated) but lower than in east Asia. The iceA2 gene was weakly disease associated in Calcutta, whereas in the West the alternative but unrelated iceA1 gene at the same locus is weakly disease associated. DNA sequence motifs of vacAm1 (middle region) alleles formed a cluster that was distinct from those of east Asia and the West, whereas the cagA sequences of Calcutta and Western strains were closely related. An internal deletion found in 20% of Calcutta iceA1 genes was not seen in any of ∼200 strains studied from other geographic regions and thus seemed to be unique to this H. pylori population. Two mobile DNAs that were rare in east Asian strains were also common in Calcutta. About 90% of Calcutta strains were metronidazole resistant. These findings support the idea that H. pylori gene pools differ regionally and emphasize the potential importance of studies of Indian and other non-Western H. pylori populations in developing a global understanding of this gastric pathogen and associated disease.
Nine districts in West Bengal, India, and 42 districts in Bangladesh have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization maximum permissible limit of 50 microg/L. The area and population of the 42 districts in Bangladesh and the 9 districts in West Bengal are 92,106 km(2) and 79.9 million and 38,865 km(2) and 42.7 million, respectively. In our preliminary study, we have identified 985 arsenic-affected villages in 69 police stations/blocks of nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. In Bangladesh, we have identified 492 affected villages in 141 police stations/blocks of 42 affected districts. To date, we have collected 10,991 water samples from 42 arsenic-affected districts in Bangladesh for analysis, 58,166 water samples from nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. Of the water samples that we analyzed, 59 and 34%, respectively, contained arsenic levels above 50 microg/L. Thousands of hair, nail, and urine samples from people living in arsenic-affected villages have been analyzed to date; Bangladesh and West Bengal, 93 and 77% samples, on an average, contained arsenic above the normal/toxic level. We surveyed 27 of 42 districts in Bangladesh for arsenic patients; we identified patients with arsenical skin lesions in 25 districts. In West Bengal, we identified patients with lesions in seven of nine districts. We examined people from the affected villages at random for arsenical dermatologic features (11,180 and 29,035 from Bangladesh and West Bengal, respectively); 24.47 and 15.02% of those examined, respectively, had skin lesions. After 10 years of study in West Bengal and 5 in Bangladesh, we feel that we have seen only the tip of iceberg.
Recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) efficiently transfer foreign genes into hepatocytes in vivo, but the duration of transgene expression is limited by the host immune response which precludes gene expression upon readministration of the virus. To test if this immune response can be abrogated by oral tolerization, we instilled protein extracts of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 via gastroduodenostomy tubes into bilirubin-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-1 (BUGT1)-deficient jaundiced Gunn rats. Control rats received BSA. Subsequent intravenous injection 5 x 10(9) pfu of a recombinant adenovirus-expressing human BUGT1 (Ad-hBUGT1) resulted in hepatic expression of human BUGT1 (hBUGT1) with reduction of serum bilirubin levels by 70%. After 2 mo serum bilirubin increased gradually. In orally tolerized rats, but not in controls, a second dose of the virus on day 98 markedly reduced serum bilirubin again. In the tolerized rats, the development of antiadenoviral neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic lymphocytes were markedly inhibited, and transplantation of their splenocytes into naive Gunn rats adoptively transferred the tolerance, indicating a role for regulatory cells. Lymphocytes from the tolerized rats hyperexpressed TGFbeta1, IL2, and IL4 upon exposure to viral antigens, whereas IFNgamma expression became undetectable. Thus, oral tolerization with adenoviral antigens permits long-term gene expression by repeated injections of recombinant adenoviruses.