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1.  Comparing Argus sling and artificial urinary sphincter in patients with moderate post-prostatectomy incontinence 
Post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is a main complication of radical prostatectomy. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of the Argus male sling (Argus) with that of artificial urinary sphincters (AUS) in patients with moderate PPI. A total of 33 moderate PPI patients underwent AUS or Argus implantation from January 2009 to June 2013 (13 AUS, 20 Argus). We defined moderate PPI as the use of 2–4 pads per day. To compare efficacy, we assessed the success rate between the two groups. Success was defined as the daily need for no pads or one small safety pad that remained dry most of the day. The mean patient age was 73.5±6.3 yr in the AUS group and 70.9±5.1 yr in the Argus group, and the mean follow-up period was 29.8±14.9 months in the AUS group and 24.7±11.8 months in the Argus group. The success rate was 72.7% in the AUS group and 85.0% in the Argus group (P=0.557). Abnormal postoperative pain persisted in more patients in the Argus group (6/20, 30%) than in the AUS group (1/13, 7.7%) (P=0.126). However, the rate of other complications was not different between the two groups (7.7% and 15.0% for AUS and Argus, respectively, P=0.822). Argus surgery showed similar success and complication rates to those of AUS in moderate PPI patients, indicating that it could be an alternative surgical option for the treatment of moderate PPI.
doi:10.12965/jer.140152
PMCID: PMC4237852  PMID: 25426474
Post-prostatectomy incontinence; Artificial urinary sphincter; Male sling
2.  Pretreatment Features to Influence Effectiveness of Intravesical Hyaluronic Acid Instillation in Refractory Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome 
Purpose
To determine the efficacy of intravesical hyaluronic acid (HA) instillation in treating patients with refractory interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and to identify any related factors that influence its therapeutic effect.
Methods
Thirty-three female IC/PBS patients who demonstrated poor or unsatisfactory responses to previous treatments between December 2010 and October 2012 were enrolled. Despite previous treatments, the enrolled patients had visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores ≥4 and total scores (symptom and bother scores) ≥13 on the pelvic pain and urgency/frequency (PUF) questionnaire and ≥12 on the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis symptoms index (ICSI)/problems index (ICPI). All patients received once weekly intravesical instillations of 40-mg HA diluted in 50-mL saline for 4 weeks. The efficacy of the HA instillation was evaluated by comparing the mean changes in the scores of the VAS and questionnaires from baseline to 4 weeks after treatment. Improvement was defined as a ≥2 decrease in the VAS. Moreover, we investigated the effects of the presence of Hunner's ulcer and previous treatment modalities on the therapeutic outcome of HA instillation.
Results
The mean age was 57.0±1.8 years (range, 28-75 years). The VAS score significantly decreased from baseline to 4 weeks after treatment (-2.5, P<0.001). The mean changes in the PUF, ICSI, and ICPI from baseline to 4 weeks after the treatment were -3.8 (P<0.001), -2.3 (P<0.001), and -2.7 (P<0.001), respectively. Twenty patients (61%) showed improvements. Previous treatment modalities did not affect the efficacy of HA instillation and the presence of Hunner's ulcer was unrelated to outcomes. No complications were observed.
Conclusions
These results show that intravesical HA instillation is an effective and safe treatment for patients with refractory IC/PBS. Previous treatment modalities and presence of Hunner's ulcer do not affect the efficacy of HA instillation.
doi:10.5213/inj.2014.18.3.163
PMCID: PMC4180168  PMID: 25279245
Hyaluronic acid; Intravesical administration; Interstitial cystitis
3.  Clinical Factors Associated With Dose Escalation of Solifenacin for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder in Real Life Practice 
Purpose
To determine the baseline clinical characteristics associated with dose escalation of solifenacin in patients with overactive bladder (OAB).
Methods
We analyzed the data of patients with OAB (micturition frequency ≥8/day and urgency ≥1/day) who were treated with solifenacin and followed up for 24 weeks. According to our department protocol, all the patients kept voiding diaries, and OAB symptom scores (OABSS) were monitored at baseline and after 4, 12, and 24 weeks of solifenacin treatment.
Results
In total, 68 patients (mean age, 60.8±10.0 years) were recruited. The dose escalation rate by the end of the study was 41.2%, from 23.5% at 4 weeks and 17.6% at 12 weeks. At baseline, the dose escalator group had significantly more OAB wet patients (53.6% vs. 20.0%) and higher total OABSS (10.2±2.4 vs. 7.9±3.5, P=0.032) than the nonescalator group. OAB wet (odds ratio [OR], 4.615; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.578-13.499; P<0.05) and total OABSS (OR, 1.398; 95% CI, 1.046-1.869; P<0.05) were found to be independently associated with dose escalation.
Conclusions
Patients who have urgency urinary incontinence and high total OABSS have a tendency for dose escalation of solifenacin.
doi:10.5213/inj.2014.18.1.23
PMCID: PMC3983505  PMID: 24729924
Overactive urinary bladder; Muscarinic antagonists; Solifenacin
4.  Elimination of Hunner's Ulcers by Fulguration in Patients With Interstitial Cystitis: Is It Effective and Long Lasting? 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(11):767-771.
Purpose
To evaluate the outcome of fulguration of Hunner's ulcers (HUs) in painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) that is refractory to conservative treatment.
Materials and Methods
Patients diagnosed with refractory PBS/IC and treated with fulguration between 2011 and 2013 were identified through screening of medical records. To evaluate treatment outcomes, voiding diaries, the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, and two IC symptom questionnaires (pelvic pain and urgency/frequency scale [PUF] and O'Leary-Sant IC symptom index and IC problem index [OS]) were used. Fulguration was deemed to be successful if the VAS score was <2 or less than half of the preoperative VAS score.
Results
In total, 27 patients with PBS/IC in whom conservative treatments had failed were enrolled. Two months after fulguration, decreases were observed in the mean 24-hour urinary frequency (from 16.0 to 10.2), 24-hour urgency episodes (8.0 to 1.8), and the VAS (5.8 to 1.2), PUF symptom (15.1 to 7.0), PUF bother (8.4 to 2.7), OS symptom (15.1 to 7.2), and OS problem (13.8 to 6.0) scores. At 5 and 10 months, all variables had worsened. At 2, 5, and 10 months, the success rates were 94.1%, 70.0%, and 33.3%, respectively. Four patients underwent one repeat fulguration on average 11.3 months after the first fulguration. Repeat fulguration was not significantly associated with any clinical characteristics.
Conclusions
In PBS/IC that was refractory to medication or other conservative treatments, HU elimination by fulguration effectively improved symptoms. However, this effect decreased gradually over time.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.11.767
PMCID: PMC3830970  PMID: 24255759
Electrocoagulation; Interstitial cystitis; Urinary bladder
5.  A Prospective Multi-center Trial of Escherichia coli Extract for the Prophylactic Treatment of Patients with Chronically Recurrent Cystitis 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(3):435-439.
We have assessed the efficacy and safety of Escherichia coli extract (ECE; Uro-Vaxom®) which contains active immunostimulating fractions, in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. Forty-two patients with more than 2 episodes of cystitis in the proceeding 6 months were treated for 3 months with one capsule daily of ECE and observed for a further 6 months. The primary efficacy criterion was the number of episodes of recurrent cystitis during the 6 months after treatment compared to those during the 6 months before treatment. At the end of the 9-month trial, 34 patients (all women) were eligible for statistical analysis. Their mean age was 56.4 yr (range, 34-75 yr), and they had experienced recurrent urinary tract infections for 7.2±5.2 yr. The number of recurrences was significantly lower during the 6-month follow-up period than during the 6 months preceding the trial (0.35 vs. 4.26, P<0.001). During the follow-up, 28 (82.4%) patients had no recurrences and 4 (11.8%) had 1 each. In patients who relapsed, ECE alleviated cystitis symptoms, including painful voiding, frequency and urgency. There were no serious adverse events related to the study drug. Our study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ECE in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.3.435
PMCID: PMC2826739  PMID: 20191044
Cystitis; Immunization; Escherichia coli; OM-8930; Prevention and Control
6.  A Long-Term Study of the Effects of the Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Procedure for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence on Voiding, Storage, and Patient Satisfaction: A Post-Hoc Analysis 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(1):40-44.
Purpose
We assessed the long-term effects of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) on voiding, storage, and patient satisfaction.
Materials and Methods
This retrospective study examined the records of 134 patients who had undergone the TVT procedure for SUI and were followed up for more than 5 years. Voiding function was evaluated by measuring maximum urinary flow rate (MFR), post-void residual urine volume (PVR), and storage function by using a voiding diary. Patients were asked to describe their satisfaction with the operation.
Results
MFR was lower at 1 month compared with the preoperative level, but had recovered to preoperative levels by 5 years postoperatively. However, some patients with >50%, 25-50%, and <25% decreases in the MFR at 1 month postoperatively showed a decrease in the MFR of >50% at 5 years. PVR increased over the 5 postoperative years. Of the patients with urgency and urgency incontinence, 43.8% and 48.1% showed improvement, respectively, whereas new patients developed postoperatively. Thus, the total number of patients with urgency or urgency incontinence remained similar over the 5 years. In those with a changed voiding pattern, patient satisfaction was negatively affected by de novo urgency and urgency incontinence and decreased MFR.
Conclusions
Any obstructive effect of the TVT procedure diminished over time in most patients, although a decrease in the MFR was sustained in some patients. With regard to overactive bladder symptoms, some patients were cured and some patients complained of de novo symptoms. The most major factor affecting patient satisfaction was de novo urgency.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.1.40
PMCID: PMC2855463  PMID: 20414409
Patient satisfaction; Suburethral slings; Stress urinary incontinence
7.  Effects of Bladder Training and/or Tolterodine in Female Patients with Overactive Bladder Syndrome: A Prospective, Randomized Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(6):1060-1063.
We compared the effects of bladder training and/or tolterodine as first line treatment in female patients with overactive bladder (OAB). One hundred and thirty-nine female patients with OAB were randomized to treatment with bladder training (BT), tolterodine (To, 2 mg twice daily) or both (Co) for 12 weeks. Treatment efficacy was measured by micturition diary, urgency scores and patients' subjective assessment of their bladder condition. Mean frequency and nocturia significantly decreased in all treatment groups, declining 25.9% and 56.1%, respectively, in the BT group; 30.2% and 65.4%, respectively, in the To group; and 33.5% and 66.3%, respectively in the Co group (p<0.05 for each). The decrease in frequency was significantly greater in the Co group than in the BT group (p<0.05). Mean urgency score decreased by 44.8%, 62.2% and 60.2% in the BT, To, and Co groups, respectively, and the improvement was significantly greater in the To and Co groups than in the BT group (p<0.05 for each). Although BT, To and their combination were all effective in controlling OAB symptoms, combination therapy was more effective than either method alone. Tolterodine alone may be instituted as a first-line therapy, but may be more effective when combined with bladder training.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.6.1060
PMCID: PMC2721929  PMID: 17179687
Urinary Incontinence; Overactive Bladder; Bladder Training; tolterodine
8.  Risk Factors of Voiding Dysfunction and Patient Satisfaction After Tension-free Vaginal Tape Procedure 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(6):1006-1010.
This study was undertaken to identify risk factors for postoperative voiding dysfunction and factors having impact on patient global satisfaction after a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. Two hundred and eighty-five women who underwent the TVT procedure for stress urinary incontinence were analyzed to identify risk factors predictive of voiding dysfunction. Postoperative voiding dysfunction was defined as a peak urinary flow rate (PFR) <10 mL/sec (straining voiding, n=17) or residual urine volume >30% of bladder capacity (incomplete emptying, n=13). The global satisfaction rate was 91.6%. Voiding dysfunction developed in 29 (10.2%) patients. Among the factors, PFR was only factor of significance for voiding dysfunction. There was no significant difference between patients with and without voiding dysfunction in terms of their satisfaction. But postoperative PFR <10 mL/sec significantly compromised global satisfaction after the surgery. In those patients with a preoperative PFR <20 mL/sec, there were more patients with postoperative PFR <10 mL/sec. Peak urinary flow rate is an important factor for the postoperative voiding dysfunction. The inevitable decline in PFR can compromise patients' satisfaction with the procedure, when their postoperative PFR was <10 mL/sec.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.6.1006
PMCID: PMC2779300  PMID: 16361813
Tension-free Vaginal Tape; Urinary Incontinence; Patient Satisfaction; Physiopathology; Dysfunction; Urination Disorders
9.  Effect of Combined Systematized Behavioral Modification Education Program With Desmopressin in Patients With Nocturia: A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, and Parallel Study 
Purpose
The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy of combining the systematized behavioral modification program (SBMP) with desmopressin therapy and to compare this with desmopressin monotherapy in the treatment of nocturnal polyuria (NPU).
Methods
Patients were randomized at 8 centers to receive desmopressin monotherapy (group A) or combination therapy, comprising desmopressin and the SBMP (group B). Nocturia was defined as an average of 2 or more nightly voids. The primary endpoint was a change in the mean number of nocturnal voids from baseline during the 3-month treatment period. The secondary endpoints were changes in the bladder diary parameters and questionnaires scores, and improvements in self-perception for nocturia.
Results
A total of 200 patients were screened and 76 were excluded from the study, because they failed the screening process. A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive treatment, with group A comprising 68 patients and group B comprising 56 patients. The patients' characteristics were similar between the groups. Nocturnal voids showed a greater decline in group B (-1.5) compared with group A (-1.2), a difference that was not statistically significant. Significant differences were observed between groups A and B with respect to the NPU index (0.37 vs. 0.29, P=0.028), the change in the maximal bladder capacity (-41.3 mL vs. 13.3 mL, P<0.001), and the rate of patients lost to follow up (10.3% [7/68] vs. 0% [0/56], P=0.016). Self-perception for nocturia significantly improved in both groups.
Conclusions
Combination treatment did not have any additional benefits in relation to reducing nocturnal voids in patients with NPU; however, combination therapy is helpful because it increases the maximal bladder capacity and decreases the NPI. Furthermore, combination therapy increased the persistence of desmopressin in patients with NPU.
doi:10.5213/inj.2014.18.4.213
PMCID: PMC4280441  PMID: 25558419
Nocturia; Polyuria; Behavior Therapy
10.  A Comparative Study on the Efficacy of Solifenacin Succinate in Patients with Urinary Frequency with or without Urgency 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e112063.
Objectives
Patients with overactive bladder (OAB) often have trouble perceiving urgency because of difficulties in distinguishing between urgency and desire to void. Empirical antimuscarinic treatment of patients with frequency only may be reasonable if conservative management has failed. We compared the efficacy of solifenacin in patients with frequency with or without urgency.
Materials and Methods
This multicenter, 12-week, open-label, comparative, non-inferiority clinical trial assessed whether the solifenacin efficacy for frequency without urgency is non-inferior to its efficacy for frequency with urgency. All patients had micturition frequency ≥8 voids/day with or without urgency. Primary efficacy variable: daily frequency change at 12 weeks relative to baseline. Secondary efficacy variables: change at 12 weeks relative to baseline in Patients' Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), OAB Symptom Score (OABSS), and Benefit, Satisfaction, Willingness to continue (BSW) questionnaire.
Results
Of the 286 enrolled patients, 240 (83.9%) completed the study (without urgency n = 115; with urgency n = 125). Full dataset analysis revealed that the groups without and with urgency exhibited significant reductions in daily micturition frequency of −2.49±0.35 (mean ± standard error) and −2.63±0.37, respectively. The lower limit of the 95% two-sided CI of the comparison of the two group means was −1.14, which is smaller than the −0.8 margin of clinical equivalence. The two groups did not differ in improvement in PPBC, OABSS, or BSW scores. Both tolerated the treatment well.
Conclusions
It was not possible to verify that the solifenacin efficacy for frequency alone was non-inferior to its efficacy for OAB. Nevertheless, solifenacin tended to be effective for frequency regardless of urgency.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00979472
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112063
PMCID: PMC4234319  PMID: 25401784
11.  Effectiveness of Retropubic Tension-Free Vaginal Tape and Transobturator Inside-Out Tape Procedures in Women With Overactive Bladder and Stress Urinary Incontinence 
Purpose
We compared the effectiveness of the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and the transobturator inside-out tape (TVT-O) in treating symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Methods
Women with urodynamic SUI and OAB (mean urgency episodes ≥1 and frequency ≥8/24 hours on a 3-day voiding diary) were assigned to the TVT or TVT-O group. Preoperative measures were based on a urodynamic study, 3-day voiding diary, the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTSSF), and the urgency perception scale (UPS). At 12 postoperative months, the 3-day voiding diary, symptoms questionnaire, patient satisfaction, and standing stress test were assessed. The primary endpoint was change in the number of urgency episodes/24 hours from baseline to 12 months.
Results
In this group of 132 women, 42 received TVT and 90 received TVT-O. The mean urgency episodes/24 hours decreased from 6.3±5.5 to 1.6±3.2 in the TVT group and from 5.1±4.4 to 1.8±3.0 in the TVT-O group. The mean percent change was significantly greater after TVT than after TVT-O (73% vs. 60%, P=0.049). All subscales of BFLUTSSF and UPS were significantly improved using either method, with significantly greater improvement seen in the quality of life (QoL) domain after TVT (P=0.002). There were no significant differences in the cure and satisfaction rates between the two groups.
Conclusions
Intervention with the TVT or the TVT-O significantly improved symptoms of OAB in women with SUI and OAB. Urgency and QoL significantly improved after TVT compared with that after TVT-O.
doi:10.5213/inj.2013.17.3.145
PMCID: PMC3797895  PMID: 24143294
Overactive urinary bladder; Stress urinary incontinence
12.  Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) in a Korean Population 
Purpose
Psychometric properties of the overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) were recently examined. However, since the cross-cultural adaptation of a non-English version of the OAB-q has never been demonstrated, we evaluated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the OAB-q in a Korean population with OAB.
Methods
A prospective cohort study involving 116 women with 58 OAB and 58 control subjects was performed and convergent validity was assessed. Total and subscale OAB-q scores of the control and OAB groups were compared to their sensitivity to score changes before and after administering anti-cholinergic medication for 12 weeks. Short form 36 and King's health questionnaire (KHQ) were also used for comparison or correlation.
Results
Assessment of face validity showed that the Korean version of the OAB-q was reasonable with OAB-q subscale scores being significantly different between the control and patient groups. Significant correlation (range, -0.29 to -0.81) was found between the OAB-q scores and KHQ results for the OAB patients. Cronbach's alpha coefficients (range, 0.77 to 0.95) indicated excellent internal consistency and test-retest analysis involving 35 OAB patients showed that each questions as well as subscale scores were reproducible. Each score of OAB-q also showed statistically significant sensitivity to changes following anti-muscarinic treatment for OAB (n=27, P<0.001 except for social, P=0.059).
Conclusions
The Korean version of the OAB-q is a valid and reliable instrument to measure outcomes in Korean patients with OAB.
doi:10.5213/inj.2012.16.2.77
PMCID: PMC3395803  PMID: 22816048
Overactive urinary bladder; Quality of life; Questionnaires; Psychometrics
13.  Efficacy and Safety of Tamsulosin for Treating Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label Non-Inferiority Study 
Korean Journal of Urology  2012;53(3):178-183.
Purpose
To compare the efficacy and safety of Sulosin D (PACIFICPHARMA, Korea) and Harnal D (ASTELLAS PHARMA KOREA, Korea) in treating patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Materials and Methods
This randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter non-inferiority study was conducted at four sites in Korea. We randomly assigned 123 patients with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥12 to receive either Sulosin D or Harnal D treatment for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the mean change in IPSS from baseline to endpoint. Secondary outcomes were the mean change from baseline to endpoint in IPSS quality of life subscores, maximum uroflowmetry (Qmax), and post-voiding residuals (PVR).
Results
In all, 123 patients were randomly assigned (60 Sulosin D and 63 Harnal D). The changes in the total IPSS from baseline in the Sulosin D- and Harnal D-treated groups were -4.97 and -4.03, respectively. There were significant decreases compared with baseline in both groups. The mean difference (Sulosin D - Harnal D) was -0.91 (with a two-sided 90% confidence interval), inferring that Sulosin D was not inferior to Harnal D. The mean changes in the IPSS subscore, Qmax, and PVR from baseline were comparable between the groups (both p>0.05). During the treatment periods, the incidence of adverse events was 23.33% and 34.92% in the Sulosin D and Harnal D groups, respectively (p=0.1580).
Conclusions
We demonstrate the non-inferiority of Sulosin D to Harnal D in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH.
doi:10.4111/kju.2012.53.3.178
PMCID: PMC3312066  PMID: 22468213
Drugs, generic; Prostatic hyperplasia; Tamsulosin
14.  Desmopressin is an Effective Treatment for Mixed Nocturia with Nocturnal Polyuria and Decreased Nocturnal Bladder Capacity 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(12):1792-1797.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ≥18 yr with mixed nocturia (≥2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 3-week dose-titration period and the determined dose was maintained for 4 weeks. The efficacy was assessed by the frequency-volume charts and the sleep questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (NV) compared with baseline. Among 103 patients enrolled, 94 (79 men and 15 women) were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in NV was 68 (72%). The mean number of NV decreased significantly (3.20 to 1.34) and the mean nocturnal urine volume, nocturia index, NPi, and NBCi decreased significantly. The mean duration of sleep until the first NV was prolonged from 118.4±44.1 to 220.3±90.7 min (P<0.001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.12.1792
PMCID: PMC2995235  PMID: 21165296
Urinary Bladder; Deamino Arginine Vasopressin; Hyponatremia; Nocturia; Nocturnal Polyuria
15.  Prevalence and Treatment Efficacy of Genitourinary Mycoplasmas in Women with Overactive Bladder Symptoms 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(9):625-630.
Purpose
To evaluate the incidence of genitourinary mycoplasmas and the efficacy of antibiotics in women with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms.
Materials and Methods
Women with OAB symptoms (micturition ≥8/24 hours and urgency ≥1/24 hours) for ≥3 months were screened for Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis), Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum), and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis). Specimens from urethral and cervical vaginal swabs were examined for M. hominis and U. urealyticum by using the Mycoplasma IST2 kit and for C. trachomatis by using PCR. Women with positive results were treated with a 1 g dose of azithromycin. Persistent infection was treated with doxycycline. Changes in a 3-day bladder diary, Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) were evaluated 4 weeks after negative conversion. Patient satisfaction was assessed.
Results
Of 84 women screened, 42.8% were positive (U. urealyticum, 40.5%; M. hominis, 7.1%; C. trachomatis, 3.6%; two organisms, 8.3%). After treatment, 82.7% obtained negative conversion, and their median number of micturition episodes decreased from 10.6/24 hours to 8.1/24 hours (p=0.002). PPBC and domain scores of the ICIQ-FLUTS (filling and quality of life) significantly improved. About 87.5% women with negative conversion were satisfied with the treatment.
Conclusions
Considering diagnostic tests and treatment for genitourinary mycoplasmas might be beneficial before invasive workup or treatment in women with OAB symptoms.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.9.625
PMCID: PMC2941811  PMID: 20856647
Chlamydia trachomatis; Mycoplasma hominis; Overactive urinary bladder; Ureaplasma urealyticum
16.  Efficacy and Safety of "Tension-free" Placement of Gynemesh PS for the Treatment of Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse 
Purpose
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the tension-free placement of a monofilament polypropylene mesh for the repair of an anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP).
Materials and Methods
Women aged ≥ 30 years with an AVWP stage of II or greater were included. Forty-nine women underwent trans-vaginal repair using a Gynemesh™ PS. Forty-six women who had symptomatic stress urinary incontinence received a midurethral sling (MUS). At the 12-month follow-up, evaluations were made for changes in the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage and Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory. Cure was defined as a POP-Q stage of 0 and improvement as a stage of I. Complications were also evaluated.
Results
The cure rate was 71.4%, and the improvement rate was 18.4%. Obstructive/discomfort, irritative, and stress subscale scores of the Urinary Distress Inventory anterior and posterior subscale scores of the POP Distress Inventory and the obstructive subscale score of the Colo-Rectal-Anal Distress Inventory were significantly improved. Thirty-two of the 46 women (69.6%) who received MUS procedures reported no leakage after surgery. Complications were 2 cases of increased intraoperative bleeding and 1 case of vaginal erosion.
Conclusions
Trans-vaginal repair using a Gynemesh™ PS is a feasible and effective procedure for the treatment of AVWP with no significant complications.
doi:10.5213/inj.2010.14.1.34
PMCID: PMC2989483  PMID: 21120174
Pelvic organ prolapse; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Surgery
17.  Anatomical and Functional Outcomes of Posterior Intravaginal Slingplasty for the Treatment of Vaginal Vault or Uterine Prolapse: A Prospective, Multicenter Study 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(3):187-192.
Purpose
We aimed to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of posterior intravaginal slingplasty (P-IVS) for the treatment of a vaginal vault or uterine prolapse (VP/UP).
Materials and Methods
This was a 12-month prospective, multicenter, observational study. Women aged over 30 years who presented with stage II or greater VP/UP underwent P-IVS by four urologists at four university hospitals. Preoperatively, pelvic examination by use of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system, the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) questionnaire, the 3-day frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry were completed. At the 12-month follow-up, changes in the POP-Q, PFDI, frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry parameters were assessed. Cure was defined as VP/UP stage 0 and improvement as stage I.
Results
The cure and improvement rates among the 32 women were 65.6% and 34.4%, respectively. All subscale scores of the Urinary Distress Inventory, the general subscale score of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, and the rectal prolapse subscale score of the Colo-Rectal-Anal Distress Inventory were significantly improved. There were no significant changes in the frequency volume chart or uroflowmetry parameters. There was one case of surgery-related transfusion.
Conclusions
Trans-vaginal repair by P-IVS is an effective and safe procedure for restoring the anatomical defect and improving the associated pelvic floor symptoms in women with VP/UP.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.3.187
PMCID: PMC2855447  PMID: 20414395
Prospective studies; Treatment outcome; Pelvic organ prolapse
18.  Efficacy and Safety of Tamsulosin for the Treatment of Non-neurogenic Voiding Dysfunction in Females: A 8-Week Prospective Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;25(1):117-122.
We evaluated the therapeutic effects of tamsulosin for women with non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction. Women who had voiding dysfunctions for at least 3 months were included. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 yr, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥15, and maximum flow rate (Qmax) of ≥12 mL/sec and/or postvoid residuals (PVR) of ≥150 mL. Patients with neurogenic voiding dysfunction or anatomical bladder outlet obstruction were excluded. All patients were classified according to the Blaivas-Groutz nomogram as having no or mild obstruction (group A) or moderate or severe obstruction (group B). After 8 weeks of treatment, treatment outcomes and adverse effects were evaluated. One hundred and six patients were evaluable (70 in group A, 36 in group B). After treatments, mean IPSS, bother scores, Qmax, PVR, diurnal and nocturnal micturition frequencies and scored form of the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTS-SF) were changed significantly. Eighty-nine patients (84%) reported that the treatment was beneficial. The proportion of patients reported that their bladder symptoms caused "moderate to many severe problems" were significantly decreased. No significant difference were observed between the groups in terms of IPSS, bother score, Qmax, PVR, micturition frequency, and BFLUTS-SF changes. Adverse effects related to medication were dizziness (n=3), de novo stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (n=3), aggravation of underlying SUI (n=1), fatigue (n=1). Tamsulosin was found to be effective in female patients with voiding dysfunction regardless of obstruction grade.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.1.117
PMCID: PMC2800025  PMID: 20052356
Urination Disorders; Female; Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; Outcomes Assessment
19.  Long-Term Results of Laparoscopic Burch Colposuspension for Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;24(6):1182-1186.
We evaluated the long-term efficacy of laparoscopic Burch colposuspension for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. A total of 68 patients who underwent extraperitoneal laparoscopic Burch colposuspensions with more than a 3-yr follow-up were included. The colposuspension was performed by using two non-absorbable sutures on each side. The patients were considered to be cured of SUI if they had a negative result of cough stress test and there were no reports of urine leakage during physical stress. The mean follow-up period was 52 months (range, 36 to 83 months). The overall subjective cure rate was reported in 49 patients (72%). There was no significant difference between the cured and non-cured group in terms of clinical parameters. The cure rate tended to decline gradually over time and it was more deteriorated significantly after 4 yr of surgery. Based on these results, we recommend that long-term follow-up is needed when evaluating the clinical efficacy of anti-incontinence surgery.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.6.1182
PMCID: PMC2775871  PMID: 19949679
Urinary Incontinence, Stress; Laparoscopy; Follow-Up Studies

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