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1.  Evaluation of cytotoxicity, biophysics and biomechanics of cells treated with functionalized hybrid nanomaterials 
Hybrids consisting of carboxylated, single-walled carbon nanotube (c-SWNT)–silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-DNA–poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) are synthesized via sequential functionalization to mimic the theragnostic (therapy and diagnosis) system. Carboxylation of SWNT has minimized the metal impurities with plenty of –COOH groups to produce hybrid (c-SWNT-AgNPs). The hybrid is further wrapped with DNA (hybrid-DNA) and encapsulated with PVA as hybrid composite (HC). Materials were tested against human alveolar epithelial cells (A549), mouse fibroblasts cells (NIH3T3) and human bone marrow stromal cells (HS-5). The composition-sensitive physico-chemical interactions, biophysics and biomechanics of materials-treated cells are evaluated. The cell viability was improved for HC, hybrid-PVA and c-SWNT when compared with SWNT and hybrid. SWNT and hybrid showed cell viability less than 60% at high dose (40 µg ml−1) and hybrid-PVA and HC retained 80% or more cell viability. The treatment of hybrid nanomaterials considerably changed cell morphology and intercellular interaction with respect to the composition of materials. Peculiarly, PVA-coated hybrid was found to minimize the growth of invadopodia of A549 cells, which is responsible for the proliferation of cancer cells. Surface roughness of cells increased after treatment with hybrid, where cytoplasmic regions specifically showed higher roughness. Nanoindentation results suggest that changes in biomechanics occurred owing to possible internalization of the hybrid. The changes in force spectra of treated cells indicated a possible greater interaction between the cells and hybrid with distinct stiffness and demonstrated the surface adherence and internalization of hybrid on or inside the cells.
doi:10.1098/rsif.2013.0694
PMCID: PMC3785842  PMID: 23985739
functionalization; atomic force microscopy–force spectroscopy; cellular interaction; cytotoxicity; biophysics; biomechanics
3.  One-Dimensional Oxide Nanostructures as Gas-Sensing Materials: Review and Issues 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2010;10(4):4083-4099.
In this article, we review gas sensor application of one-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures with major emphases on the types of device structure and issues for realizing practical sensors. One of the most important steps in fabricating 1D-nanostructure devices is manipulation and making electrical contacts of the nanostructures. Gas sensors based on individual 1D nanostructure, which were usually fabricated using electron-beam lithography, have been a platform technology for fundamental research. Recently, gas sensors with practical applicability were proposed, which were fabricated with an array of 1D nanostructures using scalable micro-fabrication tools. In the second part of the paper, some critical issues are pointed out including long-term stability, gas selectivity, and room-temperature operation of 1D-nanostructure-based metal-oxide gas sensors.
doi:10.3390/s100404083
PMCID: PMC3274262  PMID: 22319343
1-dimensional nanostructures; gas sensors; long-term stability; gas selectivity; electronic-nose; room-temperature operation

Results 1-3 (3)