Family history (FHx) of coronary heart disease (CHD) is a well-known risk factor for CHD. However, the prognostic implication of FHx has not been established clearly in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
In total, 11,612 patients (8,132 males [70%], age 63 ± 13 years) with first-onset AMI between November 2005 and June 2008 in a nationwide, prospective, multicenter, online registry (the Korea AMI Registry) were analyzed. Clinical characteristics and outcomes (cardiac death and major adverse cardiac events [MACEs]) were assessed according to the presence of FHx.
The patients with FHx were younger and included more males. Male patients with FHx included more current smokers and individuals with poor lipid profiles. In all patients, after adjustment using the Cox proportional hazard model, FHx was related to the risk of MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; p = 0.009) and cardiac death (HR, 1.56; p = 0.080). The poor prognostic implication of FHx was further augmented in females and a low risk subset of patients. A significant interaction was only found between male and female patients for composite MACEs (p for interaction = 0.057), and between patients with more risk factors (≥ 2 risk factors) and fewer risk factors for cardiac deaths (p for interaction = 0.008).
FHx may be an independent prognostic predictor, especially in female patients and patients with low-risk profile.
Coronary disease; Myocardial infarction; Risk factors; Epidemiology
In this case, we describe a case of a 76-year-old male with extensive aortoiliac aneurysms treated by endovascular aneurysm repair using the sandwich technique in order to preserve left internal iliac artery perfusion. The sandwich technique refers to the deployment of multiple paralleled stent grafts into main distal and side branches in overlapping with a single proximal stent graft. The procedure was successfully performed without complications. Post-procedural CT angiography demonstrated patent stent grafts without any endoleak. The strengths and limitations of the sandwich technique need to be investigated in large-scale, long-term clinical trials.
Endovascular procedures; Stents; Aortic aneurysm; Iliac; Aneurysm
The goal of this study was to perform an economic analysis of a primary stenting with drug-eluting stents (DES) compared with bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admitted through an emergency room (ER) visit in Korea using population-based data.
We employed a cost-minimization method using a decision analytic model with a two-year time period. Model probabilities and costs were obtained from a published systematic review and population-based data from which a retrospective database analysis of the national reimbursement database of Health Insurance Review and Assessment covering 2006 through 2010 was performed. Uncertainty was evaluated using one-way sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.
Among 513 979 cases with AMI during 2007 and 2008, 24 742 cases underwent stenting procedures and 20 320 patients admitted through an ER visit with primary stenting were identified in the base model. The transition probabilities of DES-to-DES, DES-to-BMS, DES-to-coronary artery bypass graft, and DES-to-balloon were 59.7%, 0.6%, 4.3%, and 35.3%, respectively, among these patients. The average two-year costs of DES and BMS in 2011 Korean won were 11 065 528 won/person and 9 647 647 won/person, respectively. DES resulted in higher costs than BMS by 1 417 882 won/person. The model was highly sensitive to the probability and costs of having no revascularization.
Primary stenting with BMS for AMI with an ER visit was shown to be a cost-saving procedure compared with DES in Korea. Caution is needed when applying this finding to patients with a higher level of severity in health status.
Myocardial infarction; Drug-eluting stents; Costs and cost analysis; Pharmaceutical economics
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using stent grafts has shown to be an effective alternative to surgical repair in treating an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). EVAR is associated with shorter hospital stays, less blood loss, shorter operating times, and lower early morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair, although EVAR required a higher reintervention rate during a longer follow-up period. However, short or severely an angulated infrarenal proximal aortic neck is considered unsuitable for EVAR. The chimney graft technique is a modified procedure based on the deployment of a covered or bare-metal stent parallel to the main aortic endograft within the aneurysm, thereby creating a conduit that runs outside the aortic main endograft to preserve flow to the aortic branches. In this case report, we present a 78-year-old patient with an AAA with a short and severely angulated proximal neck who was successfully treated by EVAR using the chimney graft technique.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal; Endovascular techniques
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an attractive therapeutic strategy for severe aortic stenosis (AS) in elderly patients due to its minimally-invasive nature. Therefore, early results of its clinical outcomes in elderly Korean patients were evaluated.
Materials and Methods
We compared early clinical outcomes of TAVI, surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), and optimal medical therapy (OMT) in patients aged ≥80 years with symptomatic severe AS. Treatment groups were allocated as follows: TAVI (n=10), SAVR (n=14), and OMT (n=42).
Baseline clinical characteristics including predicted operative mortality were similar among the three groups. However, patients with New York Heart Association functional class III or IV symptoms and smaller aortic valve area were treated with TAVI or SAVR rather than OMT. In-hospital combined safety endpoints (all-cause mortality, major stroke, peri-procedural myocardial infarction, life-threatening bleeding, major vascular complication, and acute kidney injury) after TAVI or SAVR were significantly lower in the TAVI group than in the SAVR group (10.0% vs. 71.4%, respectively, p=0.005), along with an acceptable rate of symptom improvement and device success. During the follow-up period, the TAVI group showed the lowest rate of 3-month major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, major stroke, and re-hospitalization (TAVI 0.0% vs. SAVR 50.0% vs. OMT 42.9%, p=0.017).
Treatment with TAVI was associated with lower event rates compared to SAVR or OMT. Therefore, TAVI may be considered as the first therapeutic strategy in selected patients aged ≥80 years with symptomatic severe AS.
Aortic stenosis; transcatheter aortic valve implantation; treatment outcome
The effectiveness of below-the-knee (BTK) percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to obtain successful revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia has been well established, and many of these patients with chronic lower-extremity disease have been treated by endovascular intervention as the firstline treatment. Dorsal-plantaer loop technique is one of the new BTK interventional techiniques, and includes recanalization of both pedal and plantar arteries and their anatomical anastomoses. This method generally needs two approaches simultaneously, including antegrade and retrograde. In this report, however, we describe a case in which dorsal-plantar loop technique with only one antegrade approach, using chronic total occlusion devices via anterior tibial artery, was used to successfully recanalize BTK arteries. We think that this new technique, which may represent a safe and feasible endovascular option to avoid more invasive, time-consuming, and riskier surgical procedures, especially in end-stage renal disease and diabetes, should be considered whenever the foot is at risk, and results of above-the-ankle percutaneous transluminal angioplasty remain unsatisfactory or insufficient to achieve limb salvage.
Ischemia; peripheral arterial disease; angioplasty
Currently, insufficient data exist to evaluate the relationship between angiographic late loss (LL) and long-term clinical outcome after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. In this study, we hypothesized that angiographic LL between 0.3 and 0.6 mm correlate with favorable long-term clinical outcomes.
Materials and Methods
Patients were enrolled in the present study if they had undergone both DES implantation in single coronary vessel and a subsequent follow-up angiogram (n=634). These individuals were then subdivided into three groups based on their relative angiographic LL: group I (angiographic LL <0.3 mm, n=378), group II (angiographic LL between 0.3 and 0.6 mm, n=124), and group III (angiographic LL >0.6 mm, n=134). During a 5-year follow-up period, all subjects were tracked for critical events, defined as any cause of death or myocardial infarction, which were then compared among the three groups.
Mean follow-up duration was 63.0±10.0 months. Critical events occurred in 25 subjects in group I (6.6%), 5 in group II (4.0%), and 17 in group III (12.7%), (p=0.020; group I vs. group II, p=0.293; group II vs. group III, p=0.013). In a subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis, chronic renal failure [odds ratio (OR)=3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48-7.31, p=0.003] and long lesion length, defined as lesion length >28 mm (OR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.02-3.46, p=0.042) were independent predictors of long-term critical events.
This retrospective analysis fails to demonstrate that post-DES implantation angiographic LL between 0.3 and 0.6 mm is protective against future critical events.
Coronary artery disease; stents; outcome assessment
An aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) is the most common vascular abnormality of the aortic arch and is associated with development of aneurysms in 3-8% of these anomalies. In this case report, we describe an 84-year-old man with a symptomatic ARSA treated with staged hybrid procedure combining surgical replacement of the ascending aorta and bilateral carotid-to-subclavian artery bypass with implantation of a stent graft in the aortic arch and descending aorta. Our case suggests that a less invasive hybrid therapy can be performed successfully for the treatment of ARSA with aneurysmal change in patients at high surgical risk.
Aberrant right subclavian artery; Aortic aneurysm, thoracic; Endovascular procedures
To determine which drug-eluting stents are more effective in acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
This study included a total of 3,566 acute MI survivors with CKD from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry who were treated with stenting and followed up for 12 months: 1,845 patients who received sirolimus-eluting stents (SES), 1,356 who received paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), and 365 who received zotarolimus-eluting stents (ZES). CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 calculated by the modification of diet in renal disease method.
At the 12-month follow-up, patients receiving ZES demonstrated a higher incidence (14.8%) of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) compared to those receiving SES (10.1%) and PES (12%, p = 0.019). The ZES patients also had a higher incidence (3.9%) of target lesion revascularization (TLR) compared to those receiving SES (1.5%) and PES (2.4%, p = 0.011). After adjusting for confounding factors, ZES was associated with a higher incidence of MACE and TLR than SES (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.623; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.442 to 0.879; p = 0.007; adjusted HR, 0.350; 95% CI, 0.165 to 0.743; p = 0.006, respectively), and with a higher rate of TLR than PES (adjusted HR, 0.471; 95% CI, 0.223 to 0.997; p = 0.049).
Our findings suggest that ZES is less effective than SES and PES in terms of 12-month TLR, and has a higher incidence of MACE due to a higher TLR rate compared with SES, in acute MI patients with CKD.
Myocardial infarction; Renal insufficiency; Chronic; Stents
Radiation-induced arterial disease is caused by significant atherosclerosis in the circumjacent vessels being irradiated. Even though this has been recognized as survival of cancer patients treated with radiotherapy improves, it is a problem that is often under-reported. We present a case of chronic thromboembolic occlusion of right common iliac artery in a 53-year-old woman who was treated with radiation therapy for cervical cancer 13 years ago. We initially performed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with thrombolytic therapy, but had to cease thrombolytic therapy due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding of Dieulafoy's lesion, nevertheless, achieved good results after revascularization by Fogarty embolectomy.
Radiation-induced arterial disease; thromboembolic occlusion; atherosclerosis
Background and Objectives
Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a heterogeneous group of disorders that often present with severe chest or back pain. It includes acute aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH), dissecting aneurysm, and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU). The clinical picture of AAS and its prognosis have not been studied in a large number of Korean patients. Therefore, we organized a multi-center registry to identify the clinical characteristics and treatment patterns, as well as long-term outcomes in Korean patients with AAS.
Subjects and Methods
Five-hundred twenty-eight patients, who had been diagnosed with AAS, were enrolled into this registry from 10 centers. On a retrospective basis, we collected demographic, laboratory, imaging data, as well as follow-up clinical outcomes by reviewing medical records from individual centers. All the data were collected in core lab and analyzed in detail.
The mean patient age was 60.1±14.5 years; the male-to-female ratio was M : F=297 : 231. The prevalent risk factors for AAS included hypertension (361, 68.4%) and diabetes (52, 11.1%). The components of AAS that are included in this study are acute AD (446, 84.5%), IMH (57, 10.7%), and PAU (11, 2.1%). By type of AAS, patients diagnosed with Stanford A were 45.6% of enrolled patients, whereas those with Stanford B were 54.4% of enrolled patients. Among nearly half of the patients were treated with medicine (55.7%) alone, whereas 40.0% underwent surgery and 4.3% underwent endovascular treatment. Overall, the in-hospital event rate was 21.2% and the in-hospital death rate was 8.1%. The mean follow-up duration was 42.8 months and there showed 22.9% of total event and 10.1% of death during this period.
By organizing a multi-center registry of AAS, we could identify the characteristics of AAS in real-world Korean patients. Further, prospective study is warranted with a larger number of patients.
Aortic diseases; Dissection; Hematoma; Population characteristics
Although adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) has become a promising immunotherapeutic regime for cancer treatment, its effectiveness has been hindered by several inherent shortcomings regarding safety and efficacy. During the past few decades, several strategies for enhancing the efficacy of ACT have been developed and introduced in clinic. This review will summarize not only the past approaches but also the latest strategies which have been shown to enhance the anticancer activity of ACT.
Adoptive T cell therapy; Gene modification; Immunotherapy; Cancer
Accurate evaluation of side branch (SB) ostium could be critical to the treatment of bifurcation lesions. We compared measured and calculated values of side branch ostial length (SBOL) in coronary bifurcation lesions with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).
Materials and Methods
Pre-intervention and post-intervention IVUS was performed in 113 patients who underwent stent implantation of bifurcation lesions. For the IVUS longitudinal reconstruction of the bifurcation lesions, SBOL, SB diameter, and the angle between the distal portion of the main vessel (MV) and SB were directly measured. In addition, SBOL was calculated as: SB diameter/sin (angle between distal MV and SB). The relationship between measured and calculated SBOL was then evaluated.
The angled between the distal MV and SB were 57.3±12.4° at pre-intervention and 59.4±12.6° at post-intervention. The mean measured and calculated SBOL values were 2.91±0.86 mm and 3.06±0.77 mm at pre-intervention and 2.79±0.82 mm and 2.92±0.69 mm at post-intervention,
respectively. Differences between measured and calculated SBOL were 0.15±0.44 mm at pre-intervention and 0.13±0.41 mm at post-intervention. We found that calculated SBOL was correlated with measured SBOL (pre-intervention r=0.863, p<0.001; post-intervention r=0.868, p<0.001).
There was a good correlation between measured and calculated SBOLs of the bifurcation lesions in IVUS longitudinal reconstruction. SBOL in the bifurcation lesions can therefore be estimated using the SB diameter and the angle between distal MV and SB.
Coronary artery disease; ultrasonics; bifurcation
Background and Objectives
Patients with acute myocardial infarction show varying degrees of collateral development. However, the relationships between angiogenic factors and degree of collaterals are not well known.
Subjects and Methods
Fifty-nine patients (mean age, 59±10 years) with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were divided into one of 2 groups: group I (Rentrop collateral grade 0/1, n=34) or group II (grade 2/3, n=25). Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble VEGF receptor (sFlt-1), angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and soluble Tie-2 at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after PCI were measured.
There were fewer diabetic patients and higher incidence of previous angina and multi-vessel disease in group II. Group II had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction and a trend toward longer pain-to-balloon time. Plasma levels of Ang-2, sFlt-1 were elevated prior to primary PCI and decreased after PCI, whereas plasma level of VEGF was relatively low initially, however rose after PCI. sTie-2 levels showed no significant interval change in group I, but decreased over time in group II. VEGF, sFlt-1, and Tie-2 levels did not differ between the groups at each time point. However, plasma levels of Ang-2 were higher in group I than in group II at baseline and at 48 hours.
Presence of collaterals in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI was associated with lesser rise in Ang-2 plasma level. VEGF showed a delayed response to acute ischemia compared to Ang-2. Clinical implications of our findings need to be investigated in further studies.
Myocardial infarction; Angiogenesis modulating agents; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Angiopoietin-2
We investigated correlations of coronary plaque composition determined by virtual histology (VH) intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and blood levels of biomarkers that represent the vulnerability of coronary plaques.
Materials and Methods
Pre- and postprocedural blood levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), matrix metalloproteinase-9, and neopterin were measured in 70 patients with stable angina (SA) or unstable angina (UA) who were undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for single lesions. We evaluated the data for correlations between these biomarkers and necrotic core contents in PCI target lesions analyzed by VH.
Clinical characteristics, IVUS, VH, and biomarker blood levels were not different between the SA and the UA group except for more frequent previous statin use (52.3% vs. 23.1%, p=0.017) and lower remodeling index in the SA group (0.98±0.09 vs. 1.10±0.070, p<0.001). Among the biomarkers evaluated, only pre-PCI neopterin level showed a weakly significant correlation with the absolute volume of the necrotic core (r=0.320, p=0.008). Pre- and post-PCI blood levels of sCD40L (r=0.220, p=0.072; r=0.231, p=0.062) and post-PCI blood level of neopterin (r=0.238, p=0.051) showed trends toward weakly positive correlations with the absolute volume of necrotic core.
We found a weakly positive correlation between the pre-PCI neopterin level and necrotic core volume in the PCI-target lesion. The clinical implications of our findings need to be investigated in further studies.
Atherosclerosis; coronary artery disease; inflammation; intravascular ultrasound
There is a lack of sufficient data in comparison of optical coherence tomographic (OCT) findings between first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES). Compared to first-generation (i.e., sirolimus- or paclitaxel-eluting stents), second-generation DESs (i.e., everolimus- or biolinx-based zotarolimus-eluting stents) might have more favorable neointimal coverage.
Materials and Methods
Follow-up OCT findings of 103 patients (119 lesions) treated with second-generation DESs were compared with those of 139 patients (149 lesions) treated with first-generation DESs. The percentage of uncovered or malapposed struts, calculated as the ratio of uncovered or malapposed struts to total struts in all OCT cross-sections, respectively, was compared between the two groups.
Both DES groups showed similar suppression of neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) on OCT (mean NIH cross-sectional area; second- vs. first-generation=1.1±0.5 versus 1.2±1.0 mm2, respectively, p=0.547). However, the percentage of uncovered struts of second-generation DESs was significantly smaller than that of first-generation DESs (3.8±4.8% vs.7.5±11.1%, respectively, p<0.001). The percentage of malapposed struts was also significantly smaller in second-generation DESs than in first-generation DESs (0.4±1.6% vs.1.4±3.7%, respectively, p=0.005). In addition, intra-stent thrombi were less frequently detected in second-generations DESs than in first-generation DESs (8% vs. 20%, respectively, p=0.004).
This follow-up OCT study showed that second-generation DESs characteristically had greater neointimal coverage than first-generation DESs.
Optical coherence tomography; stent
Background and Objectives
Prehypertension according to JNC7 is common and is associated with increased vascular mortality. The importance of management in high-normal blood pressure (BP) is underemphasized.
Subjects and Methods
We analyzed major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry in normal BP (group I) and high-normal BP (group II) patients.
Among 14871 patients, 159 (61±12.3 years, 122 males) satisfied the study indication. Six-month and one-year clinical follow-up rate was 88.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Group I had 78 patients (60.9±12.4 years). Group II had 81 patients (61.6±12.5 years). Demographics of patients were not different between groups. Treatment strategy was not different. Initial Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 0 was less frequent in group II (n=32, 47.1%) than in group I (n=16, 21.9%) (p=0.001). Successful intervention rate was not different between group II (93.8%) and group I (97.1%) (p=0.590). Six-month MACE occurred in 3 patients in group I (4.4%) and 10 in group II (15.6%) (p=0.031). Compared with normal BP, the odds ratio for patients with high-normal BP was 1.147 (p=0.045, 95% confidence interval 1.011-1.402) for 6-month MACE.
Even though high-normal BP patients had a better baseline clinical status, the prognosis was poorer than patients with normal BP. Therapeutic BP target goal for the patients with acute myocardial infarction should be <140/90 mm Hg, which is recommended in JNC7.
Blood pressure; Prognosis
Background and Objectives
With recent advances in equipment and techniques, infrapopliteal angioplasty has shown results that are comparable to those of surgical bypass in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and the feasibility of infrapopliteal angioplasty in patients with CLI.
Subjects and Methods
Between March 2002 and May 2008, infrapopliteal angioplasty was performed on 118 limbs of 101 patients (79 males; mean age 66 years) with CLI (Rutherford category 4, 5 or 6). Freedom from reintervention, limb salvage, and overall survival were analyzed.
The median follow-up duration was 30 months. Initial technical and clinical success rates were 69.5% and 83.1%, respectively. No major complication requiring surgical intervention developed after angioplasty. Among 82 limbs with initial technical success, the rate of freedom from any reintervention at 2 years was 70.7% and that from limb salvage was 97.6%. Young age and Rutherford category 6 at initial presentation were independent predictors associated with poor 2 year primary patency in these patients with CLI. Overall survival at 1 year was 86.4% and that at 2 years 76.3%. A history of cerebrovascular accident was an independent predictor associated with poor 2 year survival in these patients.
Infrapopliteal angioplasty as a primary choice of treatment in CLI patients showed favorable clinical outcomes and feasibility.
Ischemia; Limb salvage; Tibial arteries; Peroneal arteries; Angioplasty
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 play a key role in the pathogenesis of in-stent restenosis. We investigated the effect of a short-term therapy of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, with or without doxycycline, an MMP inhibitor, after coronary stenting on inflammatory biomarkers and neointimal hyperplasia.
Materials and Methods
A total of 75 patients (86 lesions) treated with bare metal stents were randomized into three groups: 1) combination therapy (200 mg celecoxib and 20 mg doxycycline, both twice daily), 2) celecoxib (200 mg twice daily) only, and 3) non-therapy control. Celecoxib and doxycycline were administered for 3 weeks after coronary stenting. The primary endpoint was neointimal volume obstruction by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) at 6 months. The secondary endpoints included clinical outcomes, angiographic data, and changes in blood levels of inflammatory biomarkers.
Follow-up IVUS revealed no significant difference in the neointimal volume obstruction among the three treatment groups. There was no difference in cardiac deaths, myocardial infarctions, target lesion revascularization or stent thrombosis among the groups. Blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble CD40 ligand, and MMP-9 varied widely 48 hours and 3 weeks after coronary stenting, however, they did not show any significant difference among the groups.
Our study failed to demonstrate any beneficial effects of the short-term therapy with celecoxib and doxycycline or with celecoxib alone in the suppression of inflammatory biomarkers or in the inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. Large scale randomized trials are necessary to define the role of anti-inflammatory therapy in the inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia.
Celecoxib; coronary artery disease; coronary stent; neointimal hyperplasia; inflammation
Stent fracture is a complication following implantation of drug eluting stents and is recognized as one of the risk factors for in-stent restenosis. We present the first case of successfully managing a stent fracture and subsequent migration of the fractured stent into the ascending aorta that occurred during repeat revascularization for in-stent restenosis of an ostium of saphenous vein graft after implantation of a zotarolimus-eluting stent. Although the fractured stent segment had migrated into the ascending aorta with a pulled balloon catheter, it was successfully repositioned in the saphenous vein graft using an inflated balloon catheter. Then, the fractured stent segment was successfully connected to the residual segment of the zotarolimus-eluting stent by covering it with an additional sirolimuseluting stent.
Coronary artery disease; Drug-Eluting stents; Complications
Late stent thrombosis (LST) which is a life threatening complication has emerged as a serious problem of drug-eluting stents (DES). Several studies have suggested that incomplete neointimal coverage of stent struts contributes to LST. Progressive atherosclerosis within the neointima is an another possible cause of LST, but this phenomenon has seldom been reported in DES. We present a case of LST following DES implantation after a period of 28 months due to ruptured atheromatous plaque, despite complete neointimal coverage of stent struts proven by optical coherence tomography.
Drug-eluting stents; thrombosis; optical coherence tomography
Gender-based differences exist in the characteristics, management, and prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, their impact on prognosis remains unclear. We aimed to identify factors causing these differences in Koreans.
Materials and Methods
We examined 6,636 ACS patients (66.2% males) visiting 72 Korean hospitals between April-2007 and December-2008. Gender-based differences in clinical demographics, therapy, and outcomes were analyzed over 6 months.
Women were older than men [mean (standard deviation, SD) age, 67.6 (9.8) vs. 60.6 (11.2) years; p<0.001]; had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lack of exercise (p<0.001 for all); and lower rates of obesity, familial history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and smoking (p<0.05 for all). Atypical symptoms were more common in women (20.5% vs. 15.1% in men, p<0.001), whereas myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation was less common (17.1% vs. 27.8%, p<0.001). Mean (SD) time lapse from symptom onset to arrival at hospital was longer in women [11.44 (18.19) vs. 8.26 (14.89) hours in men, p<0.001], as was the duration of hospitalization [7.58 (7.61) vs. 7.04 (7.72) days, p=0.007]. Fewer women underwent revascularization procedures, including thrombolytic therapy, balloon angioplasty, stent implantation, and coronary artery bypass grafting (79.4% vs. 83.3% men, p<0.001). No significant differences were observed in CVD-related death, recurrent ACS, stroke, refractory angina, or rehospitalization for angina.
Female ACS patients were older than male subjects and had more atypical presentation. They arrived at the hospital later than men and had longer hospital stays, but less often required revascularization therapy. However, no gender-based differences were noted in ACS-related mortality and morbidity.
Acute coronary syndrome; gender identity; Korea; prognosis
Background and Objectives
Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) has proven to be a valuable technique in high-risk coronary patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, there have been few studies on PCI associated with PCPS in Korea. We summarized our experience with PCPS-supported PCI.
Subjects and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients with PCPS-supported PCI between August 2005 and June 2009. PCPS was used as an elective procedure for 10 patients with at least two of the following conditions: left-ventricular ejection fraction <35%, target vessel(s) supplying more than 50% of the viable myocardium, high risk surgical patients, and patients who refused coronary bypass surgery. In the remaining 9 patients PCPS was used as an emergency procedure, to stabilize and even resuscitate patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock, in order to attempt urgent PCI.
Among the 19 patients who were treated with PCPS-supported PCI, 11 (57.9%) survived and 8 (42.1%) patients did not. ST elevation myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock was more prevalent in the non-survivors than in the survivors (75% vs. 27.3%, p=0.04). The elective PCPS-supported PCI was practiced more frequently in the survivors than in the non-survivors (72.7% vs. 25%, p=0.04). In the analysis of the event-free survival curve between elective and emergency procedures, there was a significant difference in the survival rate (p=0.025). Among the survivors there were more patients with multi-vessel disease, but a lower Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction grade in the culprit lesions was detected in the non-survivors, before PCI. Although we studied high-risk patients, there was no procedure-related mortality.
Our experience suggests that PCPS may be helpful in high risk patients treated with PCI, especially in elective cases. More aggressive and larger scale studies of PCPS should follow.
Pericardiectomy is the standard treatment in patients with chronic constrictive pericarditis who have persistent symptoms. However, myocardial atrophy with prolonged pericardial constriction and abrupt increase in venous return can lead to heart failure with volume overload after pericardial decompression, especially in the right ventricle (RV). We experienced a 44 year old male patient who developed transient RV failure after pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis. Echocardiography revealed a markedly dilated RV with decreased peak systolic velocity of the tricuspid annulus, suggesting severe RV dysfunction. After treatment with inotropics and diuretics, a follow-up echocardiography revealed an improved systolic function with decreased RV chamber size. This case demonstrates the importance of volume overload and RV dysfunction in patients with constrictive pericarditis undergoing pericardiectomy.
Right ventricular dysfunction; Constrictive pericarditis; Pericardiectomy
The efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with low dose unfractionated heparin (UFH) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with or without glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitor compared to UFH with or without Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor has not been elucidated. Between October 2005 and July 2007, 2,535 patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PCI in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) were assigned to either of two groups: a group with Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (n=476) or a group without Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (n=2,059). These groups were further subdivided according to the use of LMWH with low dose UFH (n=219) or UFH alone (n=257). The primary end points were cardiac death or myocardial infarction during the 30 days after the registration. The primary end point occurred in 4.1% (9/219) of patients managed with LMWH during PCI and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor and 10.8% (28/257) of patients managed with UFH and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (odds ratio [OR], 0.290; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.132-0.634; P=0.006). Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) with major bleeding was observed in LMHW and UFH with Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (1/219 [0.5%] vs 1/257 [0.4%], P=1.00). For patients with STEMI managed with a primary PCI and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor, LMWH is more beneficial than UFH.
Myocardial Infarction; Heparin; Blood Platelets; Prognosis