Quarantine measure for prevention of epidemic disease and further evaluations of their efficiency are possible only by elaborating analyses of imported cases. The purpose of this study was to analyze descriptive epidemiological characteristics of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) cases imported to Korea.
We collected two sets of data. The first set, comprised daily reported cases of H1N1 obtained from local cities in accordance with government policy about mandatory reporting of all H1N1 cases during May 1 to August 19, 2009. The second set, including 372 confirmed imported H1N1 cases, identified from 13 National Quarantine Stations in the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from May 24 to December 31, 2009. However, given the lack of information on the nature of the imported H1N1 cases from the two data sets during the over lapping period from May 24 to August 19, we express the number of imported cases as a range for this period.
We estimated that the number of imported H1N1 cases from May 1 to August 19, 2009, was between 1,098 and 1,291 and the total number of cases was 2,409 to 2,580. We found the number of imported cases was beginning to diminish as of August. A analysis of the second data set showed that the distribution of sex was similar (males 50.7%, females 49.3%) and the age distribution from 20 to 59 was 61.5% and that of 60 and over was 0.8% of the 372 cases. We identified 25 countries where people infected with H1N1 traveled and 67.5% were in Asia. But the proportion of cases (/1,000) by region shows Oceania (0.199), South America (0.118), Southeast Asia (0.071), North America (0.049), Europe (0.035), and Northeast Asia (0.016) in that order. The order of H1N1 peaking was the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics, and the Nothern Hemisphere.
This study provided information that could make possible the evaluation of the government quarantine measure for stopping imported disease from causing community-acquired spread in the future.
Pandemic influenza A (H1N1); Quarantine; Imported disease
Little is known about the effect of waist circumference (WC) on brachial artery pulse wave velocity (baPWV) independent of hip circumference (HC). Therefore, this study aimed to dissociate specific effect of WC on baPWV independent of HC.
Of 1,053 rural residents (2004-2005), 777 subjects with no known history of coronary artery diseases or diabetes mellitus over 40 yr were included. To reduce collinearity, we assessed the independent effect of WC with HC on PWV by residual method (WC [RM]).
In women, most correlation coefficients were significant between measures of abdominal obesity and baPWV, with the highest (0.32) in waist to hip ratio (WHR), whereas no significance was found in men. All mean values of baPWV among the abdominally obese were higher than those of normal group in women, which were in the order of WHR, WC (RM), and WC. Adjusted OR with 95% CI for baPWV was significantly elevated by increase of WC (RM) upto 4.8 (95% CI: 2.1-11.2), and as 4.3 by WHR (95% CI: 1.6-11.4).
Considering the difficulty in biologically interpreting WHR, WC (RM) may be a useful indicator of abdominal obesity among females in that it reflects the risk of pulse wave velocity.
Abdominal obesity; Waist circumference; Hip circumference; Pulse wave velocity; Residual method
The objective of this study was to identify the factors that determine serum homocysteine concentrations in Korean population. In a community-based study, 871 participants completed detailed questionnaires and physical examination. We found that increased age, male sex, family history of stroke, deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, and elevated serum creatinine significantly increased the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia. However, hormonal and behavioral factors (smoking, alcohol drinking, coffee consumption, and sedentary time) were not associated with the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia. The risk of hyperhomocysteinemia was steeply increased in subjects with two or more risk factors among four selected risk factors (deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, elevated creatinine, and family history of stroke) compared to subjects who did not have any risk factors, especially subjects over the age of 65 yr (odds ratio [OR], 33.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.71-302.0 in men; OR, 39.2; 95% CI, 7.95-193.2 in women). In conclusion, increased age, male sex, family history of stroke, deficiencies of serum folate and vitamin B12, and elevated serum creatinine are important determinants of serum homocysteine concentrations with interaction effects between these factors.
Homocysteine; Hyperhomocysteinemia; Folic Acid; Vitamin B12; Creatinine; Stroke; Behavior; Hormones; Korea
Adiponectin directly protects against cardiac remodeling. Despite this beneficial effect, most epidemiological studies have reported a negative relationship between adiponectin level and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). However, a positive relationship has also been reported in subjects at high risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Based on these conflicting results, we hypothesized that the relationship between serum adiponectin level and LVMI varies with the risk of LVH.
A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed on 1414 subjects. LVMI was measured by echocardiography. Log-transformed adiponectin levels (Log-ADPN) were used for the analysis.
Serum adiponectin level had a biphasic distribution (an increase after a decrease) with increasing LVMI. Although Log-ADPN did not correlate with LVMI, Log-ADPN was modestly associated with LVMI in the multivariate analysis (β = 0.079, p = 0.001). The relationship between adiponectin level and LVMI was bidirectional according to the risk of LVH. In normotensive subjects younger than 50 years, Log-ADPN negatively correlated with LVMI (r = −0.204, p = 0.005); however, Log-ADPN positively correlated with LVMI in ≥50-year-old obese subjects with high arterial stiffness (r = 0.189, p = 0.030). The correlation coefficient between Log-ADPN and LVMI gradually changed from negative to positive with increasing risk factors for LVH. The risk of LVH significantly interacted with the relationship between Log-ADPN and LVMI. In the multivariate analysis, Log-ADPN was associated with LVMI in the subjects at risk of LVH; however, Log-ADPN was either not associated or negatively associated with LVMI in subjects at low risk of LVH.
Adiponectin level and LVMI are negatively associated in subjects at low risk of LVH and are positively associated in subjects at high risk of LVH. Therefore, the relationship between adiponectin and LVMI varies with the risk of LVH.
This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the Korean population. Participants were recruited from five referral hospitals across the country in 2007 and from 11 hospitals in 2009. Patients with positive anti-HAV IgM antibody tests became the case group, while patients treated for non-contagious diseases at the same hospitals were recruited as controls. A total of 222 and 548 case-control pairs were studied in the 2007 and 2009 surveys, respectively. Data from the surveys were analyzed jointly. In a multivariate analysis, sharing the household with HAV-infected family members (OR, 6.32; 95% CI, 1.4-29.6), contact with other HAV-infected individuals (OR, 4.73; 95% CI, 2.4-9.4), overseas travel in 2007 (OR, 19.93; 95% CI, 2.3-174.4), consumption of raw shellfish (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.8-3.5), drinking bottled water (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4), and occupation that involve handling food (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4) increased the risk of HAV infection. Avoiding contact with HAV-infected individuals and avoiding raw foods eating could help minimize the risk of hepatitis A infection. Immunization must be beneficial to individuals who handle food ingredients occupationally or travel overseas to HAV-endemic areas.
Case-Control Studies; Hepatitis A; Korea; Risk Factors
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in the largest number of Korean individuals examined to date. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 229,595 Korean adults aged 19 yr and above who participated in a Korean Community Health Survey conducted in 2009. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used as the measurement tool for depressive symptoms (CES-D score over 16) and definite depression (CES-D score over 25). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations between sociodemographic factors and depressive symptoms. The percentages of depressive symptoms and definite depression in the total study population were 11% (7.8% for men, 14.0% for women) and 3.7%, (2.4% for men, 5.0% for women), respectively. Female gender, older age, disrupted marital status, low education and income level, multigenerational household composition and metropolitan residence were associated with greater risk of depressive symptoms. The present study provides a valid prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms, using the largest representative sample of the Korean general population to date. Various sociodemographic factors contribute to the prevalence and effects of depressive symptoms in Korea.
Depression; Epidemiology; Prevalence; Socioeconomic Factors
To evaluate the risk factors for overactive bladder (OAB) in a population aged 40 years and over in the community.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a community-based survey of OAB in a population aged 40 years and over in Guri City and Yangpyeong County, South Korea, by use of the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) questionnaire. A total of 926 subjects were included in the final analysis. The definition of OAB was more than 2 points for the urgency score and 3 points for the sum of scores. In addition, the subjects were asked about age, dwelling place, marital status, educational status, behavioral factors (smoking, drinking, etc), and medical history. Categorical variables were analyzed by using the logistic regression model and were adjusted for age by using the logistic regression model.
Overall OAB prevalence was 14.1% (130/926), made up of 49/403 males (12.2%) and 81/523 females (15.5%). OAB prevalence increased with age (p<0.0001). Risk factors for OAB were educational status (age-adjusted p=0.0487), stroke (p=0.0414), osteoporosis (p=0.0208), asthma (p=0.0091), rhinitis (p=0.0008), and cataract. Other factors (dwelling place, marital status, smoking, drinking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, angina, tuberculosis, atopic dermatitis, hepatitis B, and depression) were not associated with OAB.
The prevalence of OAB in our study was about 14.1% and the risk factors for OAB were educational status, stroke, osteoporosis, asthma, rhinitis, and cataract. Knowledge of these risk factors may help in the diagnosis and treatment of OAB.
Overactive bladder; Risk factors
Over the past several years, the incidence of hepatitis A infection has been increasing rapidly in the young-adult population in Korea. We examined the effects of area-level socioeconomic status and environmental hygiene on the incidence of hepatitis A.
This study is based on the registered national population of Korea and the national health insurance data from 2004 to 2008. A total of 73 459 individuals were confirmed to have had hepatitis A. The standardized incidences of hepatitis A in 232 districts adjusted for sex and age of people were calculated for each year, and the rate ratios of the incidence rates were estimated according to area-level socioeconomic status and environmental hygiene using multiple Poisson regression models.
The incidence rates of hepatitis A infection were 15.6 (per 100 000) in 2004, 19.0 (per 100 000) in 2005, 27.2 (per 100 000) in 2006, 25.1 (per 100 000) in 2007, and 61.7 (per 100 000) in 2008. The analysis of the area-level effects showed that residential areas of the less deprived than other regions, areas with higher levels of education, and heavily populated areas were significantly associated with increased risk.
There is a very strong possibility that both area-level socioeconomic status and environmental hygiene play a role in increasing the risk of hepatitis A infection in Korea. Therefore, to reduce hepatitis A infection, we need a nationwide strategy that considers these area-level characteristics.
Hepatitis A; Korea; Population characteristics; Risk factors
To evaluate whether genes that encode CagA-interacting molecules (SRC, PTPN11, CRK, CRKL, CSK, c-MET and GRB2) are associated with gastric cancer risk and whether an interaction between these genes and phytoestrogens modify gastric cancer risk.
In the discovery phase, 137 candidate SNPs in seven genes were analyzed in 76 incident gastric cancer cases and 322 matched controls from the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort. Five significant SNPs in three genes (SRC, c-MET and CRK) were re-evaluated in 386 cases and 348 controls in the extension phase. Odds ratios (ORs) for gastric cancer risk were estimated adjusted for age, smoking, H. pylori seropositivity and CagA strain positivity. Summarized ORs in the total study population (462 cases and 670 controls) were presented using pooled- and meta-analysis. Plasma concentrations of phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, equol and enterolactone) were measured using the time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.
SRC rs6122566, rs6124914, c-MET rs41739, and CRK rs7208768 showed significant genetic effects for gastric cancer in both the pooled and meta-analysis without heterogeneity (pooled OR = 3.96 [95% CI 2.05–7.65], 1.24 [95% CI = 1.01–1.53], 1.19 [95% CI = 1.01–1.41], and 1.37 [95% CI = 1.15–1.62], respectively; meta OR = 4.59 [95% CI 2.74–7.70], 1.36 [95% CI = 1.09–1.70], 1.20 [95% CI = 1.00–1.44], and 1.32 [95% CI = 1.10–1.57], respectively). Risk allele of CRK rs7208768 had a significantly increased risk for gastric cancer at low phytoestrogen levels (p interaction<0.05).
Our findings suggest that SRC, c-MET and CRK play a key role in gastric carcinogenesis by modulating CagA signal transductions and interaction between CRK gene and phytoestrogens modify gastric cancer risk.
In the present study, an accurate and reproducible method for quantifying cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in human blood was established and tested for its ability to predict gastric cancer in patients. Using ʻAlu81-qPCRʼ to amplify 81-bp Alu DNA sequences, we first estimated the amount of cfDNA in the serum or plasma of 130 patients with gastric cancer to identify which source of cfDNA is more suitable for the biomarker screening of these patients. The results of Alu81-qPCR revealed that the amount of cfDNA in the plasma was low compared with that in the serum, but was found at similar levels among the samples, indicating that the plasma may be a more suitable source of cfDNA for biomarker screening. For the 54 patients with gastric cancer and the 59 age-matched healthy controls, the mean levels of plasma cfDNA were 2.4-fold higher in the patient group compared with the control group, indicating that plasma cfDNA levels may be useful for predicting patients with gastric cancer. The results of our study suggest that Alu81-qPCR is a more reliable method than other techniques, such as the PicoGreen assay, for quantifying cfDNA in human blood, demonstrating the potential to complement current diagnostic procedures for the management of gastric cancer patients.
gastric cancer; cell-free DNA; serum; plasma; Alu sequence
CagA cellular interaction via activation of the ERK signaling pathway may be a starting point in the development of gastric cancer. This study aimed to evaluate whether genes involved in ERK downstream signaling pathways activated by CagA are susceptible genetic markers for gastric cancer.
In the discovery phase, a total of 580 SNPs within +/−5 kbp of 30 candidate genes were genotyped to examine an association with gastric cancer risk in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (100 incident gastric cancer case-control sets). The most significant SNPs (raw or permutated p value<0.02) identified in the discovery analysis were re-evaluated in the extension phase using unconditional logistic regression model (400 gastric cancer case-control sets). Combined analyses including pooled- and meta-analysis were conducted to summarize all the results.
24 SNPs in eight genes (ERK, Dock180, C3G, Rap1, Src, CrkL, Mek and Crk) were significantly associated with gastric cancer risk in the individual SNP analyses in the discovery phase (p<0.05). In the extension analyses, ERK rs5999749, Dock180 rs4635002 and C3G rs7853122 showed marginally significant gene-dose effects for gastric cancer. Consistently, final combined analysis presented the SNPs as significantly associated with gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.56, [95% CI: 1.19–2.06], OR = 0.61, [95% CI: 0.43–0.87], OR = 0.59, [95% CI: 0.54–0.76], respectively).
Our findings suggest that ERK rs5999749, Dock180 rs4635002 and C3G rs7853122 are genetic determinants in gastric carcinogenesis.
This study compared interview and telephone surveys to select the better method for regularly estimating nationwide vaccination coverage rates in Korea. Interview surveys using multi-stage cluster sampling and telephone surveys using stratified random sampling were conducted. Nationwide coverage rates were estimated in subjects with vaccination cards in the interview survey. The interview survey relative to the telephone survey showed a higher response rate, lower missing rate, higher validity and a less difference in vaccination coverage rates between card owners and non-owners. Primary vaccination coverage rate was greater than 90% except for the fourth dose of DTaP (diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis), the third dose of polio, and the third dose of Japanese B encephalitis (JBE). The DTaP4: Polio3: MMR1 fully vaccination rate was 62.0% and BCG1:HepB3:DTaP4:Polio3:MMR1 was 59.5%. For age-appropriate vaccination, the coverage rate was 50%-80%. We concluded that the interview survey was better than the telephone survey. These results can be applied to countries with incomplete registry and decreasing rates of landline telephone coverage due to increased cell phone usage and countries. Among mandatory vaccines, efforts to increase vaccination rate for the fourth dose of DTaP, the third dose of polio, JBE and regular vaccinations at recommended periods should be conducted in Korea.
Health Surveys; Interview; Telephone; Vaccination
An overactive bladder (OAB) affects a person's quality of life. Patients who suffer from OAB run to the toilet frequently to prevent incontinence, and this behavior increases their risk of falling and fear of falling. This study evaluated the influence of OAB on falls and concern about falling in females aged 40 and over living in urban and rural communities.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), the Korean version of Falls Efficacy Scale-International (KFES-I) and a questionnaire regarding falls, in females aged 40 and over in Guri city and Yangpyeong county. The data from 514 responders were analyzed. The definition of OAB was 'moderately' or 'a lot' of urgency, or urge incontinence in KHQ. Falls was defined as experience of falls in the last year. High fear of falling was defined as a score of 24 or over in KFES-I. The factors were analyzed by the exact chi-square test and Student's t-test. The multivariate logistic regression model was adopted in order to examine the effects of OAB on falls and concern about falling.
Of the 514 responders, 98 fitted the criterion of OAB. Eighty-nine (17.3%) of the responders had experienced falls in the last year: twenty-seven (27.5%) in the group with OAB and 62 (14.9%) in the group without OAB. There was a significant association between falls and OAB (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 3.08; P=0.0485), and between high fear of falling and OAB (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.42 to 5.20; P=0.0024).
Urgency and symptoms of urge incontinence increase the risk of falls in women aged 40 or older in the community. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may prevent falls and improve quality of life in OAB patients.
Urinary bladder; Overactive; Urinary incontinence; Urge; Accidental falls
In January 2008, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis at a waterpark was reported to the Bundang-gu Public Health Center in Seongnam, Korea. To determine the etiological agent and mode of transmission, a retrospective cohort study was done using structured questionnaires and stool samples from patients who had current gastrointestinal symptoms and three food handlers were tested. A total of 67 (31.0%) students and teachers developed acute gastroenteritis. No food items were associated with an increased risk of the illness. Norovirus was detected in 3 stool specimens collected from 6 patients who had severe diarrhea using semi-nested RT-PCR. All the specimens contained the genogroup I strains of the norovirus. Norovirus was also detected in the groundwater samples from the waterpark. In the nucleotide sequencing analysis, all the genogroup I noroviruses from the patients and groundwater samples were identified as the norovirus genotype I-4 strain. They were indistinguishable by DNA sequencing with a 97% homology. We conclude the outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by the norovirus was closely related to the contaminated groundwater.
Norovirus; Gastroenteritis; Disease Outbreaks; Contaminated Groundwater; DNA Sequencing
Background and Objectives
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a well known cardiovascular prognostic predictor. Osteoporosis has been suggested to be associated with cardiovascular disease. According to studies of primary hyperparathyroidism, a pathophysiological association between calcium metabolism and LVH has been suggested but is not yet fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in a general population.
Subjects and Methods
Data from 460 subjects among 543 subjects sampled from a general population in a rural area in Korea were analyzed. BMD, echocardiography, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement as well as the measurements of blood pressure, blood chemistry and metabolic parameters were analyzed. BMD was measured using the Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer (Hologic Inc., Mass., USA).
Age of the subjects was 59.4±12.4 years. Males were 42.2% (n=194). In a simple correlation analysis on female subjects, age and waist circumference showed negative correlation, and body mass index (BMI) showed positive correlation with BMD. However, only age showed negative correlation with BMD in male subjects. After adjusting baPWV and carotid IMT, we found that BMD was an independent determinant of LVMI in female subjects (β=-13.703, p=0.016), but not in male subjects (β=-1.235, p=0.841).
BMD is a consistent and independent determining factor of LVMI, BMI and carotid IMT in postmenopausal women.
Bone density; Hypertrophy; Heart ventricles
PTPRCAP (CD45-AP) is a positive regulator of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC (CD45), which activates Src family kinases implicated in tumorigenesis. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs869736 located at position -309 of the PTPRCAP promoter was associated with susceptibility to diffuse-type gastric cancer in the current case-control study. The minor-allele homozygote was significantly associated with a 2.5-fold increased susceptibility to diffuse-type gastric cancer (P = .0021, n = 252), but not to intestinal-type (P = .30, n = 178), versus the major-allele homozygote, when comparing unrelated Korean patients with healthy controls (n = 406). Nine other SNPs were in nearly perfect linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.97) with this SNP, exhibiting the same association, and spread out for 26 kb on chromosome 11q13.1 covering RPS6KB2, PTPRCAP, CORO1B, and GPR152. Among the four genes, however, only PTPRCAP expression was affected by haplotypes of the 10 SNPs. Endogenous transcript levels of PTPRCAP were linearly correlated with copy numbers (0, 1, and 2) of the risk-haplotype (P = .0060) in 12 lymphoblastoid cells derived from blood samples, but those of the other three genes were not. Furthermore, the cancer-risk, minor-allele T of rs869736 increased both promoter activity and specific nuclear protein-binding affinity than the nonrisk, major-allele G in luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, respectively. Accordingly, the minor allele of rs869736 in the PTPRCAP promoter is associated with increased susceptibility to diffuse-type gastric cancer by increasing PTPRCAP expression, possibly leading to activation of the oncogenic Src family kinases.
The Korean Society of Epidemiology publishes a scholarly journal titled 'Korean Journal of Epidemiology', which announces and discusses the results of epidemiological studies from the past 30 yr. Since its first publication in 1979, the journal has contributed to the advancement of epidemiology as well as the prevention and control of disease, and the promotion of health in Korea.
In 2009, the editorial board has decided to publish the journal in English to contribute internationally, and change the journal's name. The new name of the journal is 'Epidemiology and Health'.
The abstract and full text of articles will be published as an open access online journal, which will be posted onto the homepage (http://www.e-epih.org/) in real time for anyone in the world to access free of charge. Our editorial policy is that 'Epidemiology and Health' is open to every researcher in fields related to epidemiology, regardless of membership, his or her major and nationality.
Editorials, lectures, review papers, original articles, epidemic and case investigations, brief communications and letters will be published to generate active discussion through the journal along with the publication of the papers.
'Epidemiology and Health' welcomes articles from various fields of epidemiology, such as 1) infectious diseases epidemiology, 2) chronic diseases epidemiology, 3) nutritional epidemiology, 4) clinical epidemiology, 5) pharmacoepidemiology, 6) genetic or molecular epidemiology, 7) social epidemiology, 8) environmental or occupational epidemiology, 9) epidemiological methods and biostatistics, 10) disease prevention and control, 11) health promotion and, 12) all other fields related to epidemiology.
This study aimed to examine whether a dose-response relationship exists between psychological distress and types of physical activity (total, occupational, and leisure-time). The study subjects (233 men and 313 women) were recruited for a study on cardiovascular disease in the Yangpyeong community located in South Korea. The type and characteristics of physical activity were measured with a modified version of the Stanford 5 city project's questionnaire by well-trained interviewers using a standard protocol. The Psychological Well-being Index-Short Form was used to assess psychological distress. Both the intensity and duration of time in either total physical activity or occupational physical activity (OPA) were not related to the distress score. However, a long duration of time (1 hr/day) in severely intensive (≥6 metabolic equivalent) OPA was related to a high distress score in men (14.1 for none vs. 19.7, p-for-trend=0.005), even after the adjustment for leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). A long duration in time (1 hr/day) in LTPA was related to a lower distress score in men independent of their OPA (16.7 for none vs. 13.1, p-for-trend=0.02). In conclusion, the dose-response relationship of physical activity on psychological distress appeared to differ among the different types of activities. The type of activity may be an important determinant of whether physical activity produces psychological benefits.
Motor Activity; Distress; Dose-Response Relationship
This study aimed to estimate nationwide prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and to identify its association with cardiovascular diseases. The data on a national representative sample of 6,147 adults from 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey were analyzed. The syndrome was determined according to two kinds of modified definition from ATP III, in which abdominal obesity was determined by waist circumference (WC) standard for Asians and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Based on the former, prevalence was 22.1% in men and 27.8% in women. However, based on the latter, prevalence was 28.6% and 27.8%, respectively. Although age-specific prevalence was higher in men than in women among the younger group, it became higher in women among the older group because of its steeper rise with age. In multiple logistic regression, the syndrome was found to be positively associated with cardiovascular diseases (adjusted odds ratios (ORs)1.97 by WC and 1.48 by WHR in men, and 1.54 and 1.31 in women). Moreover, its effect size exceeded that of total cholesterol (adjusted ORs 1.21 in men, and 1.08 in women) or LDL cholesterol (1.58 in men and 1.22 in women). It is obvious that the metabolic syndrome prevails in Korea, and its importance regarding cardiovascular diseases is considerable. Prevention strategies should be implemented immediately to avoid cardiovascular epidemic in the near future.
Metabolic Syndrome X; Prevalence; Cardiovascular Diseases; Body Constitution; Waist hip ratios
The aim of this study was to determine the age-specific rubella seroprevalence and the related factors in Korean children. Subjects of the study were 5393 students from 8 elementary schools in Gyeonggi Province, Korea. Questionnaire surveys with blood sampling were conducted in 1993, 1996, and 1999. ELISA tests, used to detect rubella specific IgG antibody, were Imx (R) (Abbott, U.S.A.) in 1993 and 1999, and Enzygnost (Behring, Germany) in 1996. The age-adjusted rubella susceptibility rate was 22.9% (95% CI: 22.8-23.0%) and it increased with age from 14% to 28%. The susceptibility rates of vaccinees, nonvaccinees, and the unknown group were 21%, 35%, and 27%, respectively (p=0.000). The rates by parental education levels for elementary and below, middle school, high school, and college and over were 37%, 26%, 24%, and 20%, respectively. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) of nonvaccinees, the unknown group, and vaccinees were 47 IU/mL, 42 IU/mL, and 37 IU/mL, respectively (p=0.000). The susceptibility level was too high to prevent the rubella epidemic in Korea, which necessitates a programme that will enhance the coverage for 1st and 2nd MMR vaccination among school children. In particular, more attention should be paid to the vaccination of the children whose parental education level is relatively low.
The objective of the study was to investigate the role of genes (HSD3B1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, HSD17B2, HSD17B1) involved in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway and progesterone receptor (PGR) in the etiology of gastric cancer in a population-based two-phase genetic association study.
In the discovery phase, 108 candidate SNPs in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway related genes and PGR were analyzed in 76 gastric cancer cases and 322 controls in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort. Statistically significant SNPs identified in the discovery phase were re-evaluated in an extended set of 386 cases and 348 controls. Pooled- and meta-analyses were conducted to summarize the results.
Of the 108 SNPs in steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway related genes and PGR analyzed in the discovery phase, 23 SNPs in PGR in the recessive model and 10 SNPs in CYP19A1 in the recessive or additive models were significantly associated with increased gastric cancer risk (p<0.05). The minor allele frequencies of the SNPs in both the discovery and extension phases were not statistically different. Pooled- and meta-analyses showed CYP19A1 rs1004982, rs16964228, and rs1902580 had an increased risk for gastric cancer (pooled OR [95% CI] = 1.22 [1.01–1.48], 1.31 [1.03–1.66], 3.03 [1.12–8.18], respectively). In contrast, all PGR SNPs were not statistically significantly associated with gastric cancer risk.
Our findings suggest CYP19A1 that codes aromatase may play an important role in the association of gastric cancer risk and be a genetic marker for gastric cancer susceptibility.