Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. To understand the role of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pulmonary fibrosis, we evaluated the sequential dynamic change and different cellular sources of the 2 MMPs along the time course and their differential expression in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and in the lung parenchyma of the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis models in rats.
Materials and Methods
The level of MMPs in BAL fluid of 54 bleomycin-treated rats was assessed by zymography from 1 to 28 days after intratracheal bleomycin instillation. The level of MMPs in lung parenchyma was evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
MMP-2 and MMP-9 were markedly increased in both the BAL fluid and in the lung parenchyma of the bleomycin-treated rats, especially in the early phase with the peak on the 4th day. The levels of both MMPs in the BAL fluid correlated generally well to those in lung parenchyma, although the level of MMP-9 in BAL fluid was higher than MMP-2. In the lung parenchyma, the 2 MMPs, in early stage, were predominantly expressed in the inflammatory cells. In late stage, type II pneumocytes and alveolar epithelial cells at the periphery of the fibrotic foci retained MMP expression, which was more prominent in the cells showing features of cellular injury and/or repair.
In bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play important roles, especially in the early phase. In the late stage, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play a role in the process of repair.
Pulmonary fibrosis; bleomycin; matrix metalloproteinase; matrix-metalloproteinase-2; matrix metalloproteinase-9
We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis invading the mediastinum and the left atrium. A 70-year-old woman was hospitalized for dyspnea. She had been well controlled for her diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The chest X-ray disclosed mediastinal widening, and the computed tomography scan of the chest showed that there was a large mediastinal mass and this lesion extended into the left atrium and right bronchus. The cardiac echocardiography showed that a huge mediastinal cystic mass compressed in the right atrium and a hyperechoic polypoid lesion in the left. The pathology from the bronchoscopic biopsy observed abundant fungal hyphae which was stained with periodic acid-Schiff and Gomori's methenamine silver. Despite the treatment with antifungal agents, she died from cardiac tamponade after three months. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which involves the mediastinum and the heart, is very rare in immunocompetent patients.
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis; Immunocompetence; Mediastinal Neoplasms; Heart Neoplasms
Cold agglutinins are predominately immunoglobulin M autoantibodies that react at cold temperatures with surface antigens on the red blood cell. This can lead to hemagglutination at low temperatures, followed by complement fixation and subsequent hemolysis on rewarming. Development of hemagglutination or hemolysis in patients with cold agglutinins is a risk of cardiac surgery under hypothermia. In addition, there is the potential for intracoronary hemagglutination with inadequate distribution of cardioplegic solutions, thrombosis, embolism, ischemia, or infarction. We report a patient with incidentally detected cold agglutinin who underwent normothermic cardiac surgery with warm blood cardioplegia.
Cold agglutinins; Thoracic surgery; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Hemagglutination
A 43-year-old woman was diagnosed with an intravenous leiomyomatosis at a previous hospital and transferred to our hospital to undergo surgical treatment. Emergency one-stage operation for coincidental removal of intra-abdominal, right atrial, and intravenous masses were planned. Upon arriving at the operating room, she suffered a sudden onset of severe dyspnea and showed hemodynamic instability. Intraoperative TEE showed pulmonary embolization of a right atrial mass. Removal of the pulmonary artery mass and the intra-abdominal mass, and the cardiopulmonary bypass were performed without any complications.
Pulmonary artery; Embolization; Leiomyomatosis
Bortezomib, an inhibitor of 26S proteosome, is recently approved treatment option for multiple myeloma. Thalidomide, a drug with immunomodulating and antiangiogenic effects, has also shown promise as an effective treatment in multiple myeloma. Pulmonary complications are believed to be rare, especially interstitial lung disease. Here, we describe a patient with dyspnea and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates while receiving bortezomib and thalidomide in combination with dexamethasone for treatment-naïve multiple myeloma. Bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated a significant decrease in the ratio of CD4 : CD8 T lymphocytes (CD4/8 ratio, 0.54). Extensive workup for other causes, including infections, was negative. A lung biopsy under video-assisted thorascopic surgery revealed a diagnosis of nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. The symptoms and imaging study findings improved after initiating steroid treatment. Physicians should be aware of this potential complication in patients receiving the novel molecular-targeted antineoplastic agents, bortezomib and thalidomide, who present with dyspnea and new pulmonary infiltrates and fail to improve despite treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Interstitial lung diseases; thalidomide; bortezomib; multiple myeloma; adverse effects
Mediastinal (N2) lymph node involvement is heterogenous with huge variation in the extent and grouped together under stage IIIA. However, they showed a different survival even in the same stage. We tried to determine the prognostic implication of the multiple station N2 lymph node metastasis in stage IIIA N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The survival of stage IIIA N2 was analyzed according to the number of N2 station and their survival was compared with that of stage IIIB. In stage IIIA N2 NSCLC, multivariate analysis indicated that multiple station N2 was one of the independent prognostic factors for poor survival. The 5-yr survival of multiple station N2 IIIA (20.4%) was lower than that of single station N2 IIIA (33.8%) significantly (p=0.016). but when it was compared with that of stage IIIB (15.5%), there was no difference. Therefore, we suggest that multiple station N2 should be considered similar to stage IIIB disease with regard to predicting survival and accordingly should receive a new position in the TNM staging system.
Lung Neoplasms; Lymph Node, Neoplasm Metastasis; Prognosis
Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a rapidly progressive condition of unknown cause that occurs in a previously healthy individual and produces the histologic findings of diffuse alveolar damage. Since the term AIP was first introduced in 1986, there have been very few case reports of AIP in children. Here we present a case of AIP in a 3-yr-old girl whose other two siblings showed similar radiologic findings. The patient was confirmed to have AIP from autopsy showing histological findings of diffuse alveolar damage and proliferation of fibroblasts. Her 3-yr-old brother was also clinically and radiologically highly suspected as having AIP, and the other asymptomatic 8-yr-old sister was radiologically suspected as having AIP.
Lung Diseases, Interstitial; Child; Siblings
Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare interstitial lung disease. Its pathological features differ from other types of interstitial pneumonia that occur in adults and children. The mortality rate of CPI is high, even with treatment. We report a case of a 3 month old girl diagnosed with CPI after an open lung biopsy who improved after proper treatment.
Infants; interstitial lung disease; chronic pneumonitis of infancy
Although adriamycin (Doxorubicin) is one of the most effective and useful antineoplastic agents for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, its repeated administration can induce irreversible myocardial damage and resultant heart failure. Currently, no marker to detect early cardiac damage is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an assessment of the acoustic properties of the myocardium could enable the earlier detection of myocardial damage after adriamycin chemotherapy. Forty Wistar rats were treated with adriamycin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) once a week for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks consecutively. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated using M-mode echocardiography data. The magnitude of cardiac cycle dependent variation of integrated backscatter (CVIB) of the myocardium was measured in the mid segment of the septum and in the posterior wall of the left ventricle, using a real time two dimensional integrated backscatter imaging system. LVEF was significantly lower in the adriamycin-treated 8-week group than in the controls (75 ± 9 vs 57 ± 8%, p < 0.05). Myocyte damage was only seen in the 8-week adriamycin-treated group. However, no significant changes of CVIB were observed between baseline or during follow-up in the ADR or control group. In conclusion, serial assessment of the acoustic properties of the myocardium may not be an optimal tool for the early detection of myocardial damage after doxorubicin chemotherapy in a rat model.
Anthracycline; cardiotoxicity; echocardiography