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1.  A study based on whole-genome sequencing yields a rare variant at 8q24 associated with prostate cancer 
Nature genetics  2012;44(12):1326-1329.
Western countries, prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer of men, and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in men. Several genome-wide association studies have yielded numerous common variants conferring risk of prostate cancer. In the present study we analyzed 32.5 million variants discovered by whole-genome sequencing 1,795 Icelanders. One variant was found to be associated with prostate cancer in European populations: rs188140481[A] (OR = 2.90, Pcomb = 6.2×10−34) located on 8q24, with an average risk allele control frequency of 0.54%. This variant is only very weakly correlated (r2 ≤ 0.06) with previously reported risk variants on 8q24, and remains significant after adjustment for all of them. Carriers of rs188140481[A] were diagnosed with prostate cancer 1.26 years younger than non-carriers (P = 0.0059). We also report results for the previously described HOXB13 mutation (rs138213197[T]), confirming it as prostate cancer risk variant in populations from all over Europe.
PMCID: PMC3562711  PMID: 23104005
2.  Targeting tumour necrosis factor alleviates signs and symptoms of inflammatory osteoarthritis of the knee 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(5):R206.
Inflammation associated with synovial expression of TNFα is a recognised feature of osteoarthritis (OA), although no studies have yet reported beneficial effects of anti-TNFα therapy on clinical manifestations of inflammation in OA.
We conducted an open-label evaluation of adalimumab over 12 weeks in 20 patients with OA of the knee and evidence of effusion clinically. Inclusion criteria included daily knee pain for the month preceding study enrolment and a summed pain score of 125 to 400 mm visual analogue scale on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale. The primary outcome was the Osteoarthritis Research Society International/Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OARSI/OMERACT) response criterion at week 12. Secondary outcomes included the WOMAC pain score 20% and 50% improvement, WOMAC stiffness and function scores, patient and physician global visual analogue scale, as well as target joint swelling.
Treatment was well tolerated and completed by 17 patients with withdrawals unrelated to lack of efficacy or adverse events. By intention to treat, an OARSI/OMERACT response was recorded in 14 (70%) patients. WOMAC pain 20% and 50% responses were recorded in 14 (70%) patients and eight (40%) patients, respectively. Significant improvement was observed in mean WOMAC pain, stiffness, function, physician and patient global, as well as target joint swelling at 12 weeks (P < 0.0001 for all). After treatment discontinuation, 16 patients were available for assessment at 22 weeks and OARSI/OMERACT response compared with baseline was still evident in 10 (50%) patients.
Targeting TNFα may be of therapeutic benefit in OA and requires further evaluation in controlled trials.
Trial registration NCT00686439.
PMCID: PMC3580518  PMID: 23036475
3.  Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors 
Parkinson's Disease  2012;2012:603631.
The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson's disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.
PMCID: PMC3328150  PMID: 22567537
4.  Why are we still using pre-operative skin traction for hip fractures? 
International Orthopaedics  2002;26(6):361-364.
We performed a prospective randomised trial to evaluate the efficacy of pre-operative skin traction for proximal femoral fractures in 311 patients. We found a significant difference in pain score on the evening of admission and the first morning after admission between the groups with traction compared the group without. However, there was no corresponding increase in analgesic requirement during this period. The peak pain score pattern also was different in our population. No other objective benefit can be shown from using skin traction, and its routine use should be abandoned.
PMCID: PMC3620974  PMID: 12466869
5.  Effects of Hydration on Gentamicin Excretion and Renal Accumulation in Furosemide-Treated Rats 
The effect of furosemide on gentamicin excretion and tissue accumulation was studied with clearance techniques in anesthetized rats, at two different infusion rates of saline or Ringer solution. Gentamicin (∼20 mg/kg) was administered by constant intravenous infusion over a period of 3 h. With the low fluid infusion rate, furosemide (25 mg/kg intravenously) caused severe reduction in glomerular filtration rate and diminished urinary output of gentamicin. Serum and renal tissue levels of the antibiotic were significantly elevated. High fluid infusion prevented the decline of the glomerular filtration rate, with near normalization of all measurements. A fluid deficit incurred by furosemide was noted at both the low and high infusion rates. Complete correction of this fluid deficit by continuous adjustment of the infusion rate fully restored normal renal handling of gentamicin. These results suggest that furosemide had no direct effect on renal excretion of gentamicin. In comparison, renal handling of gentamicin in rats did not respond to changes in the rate of fluid infusion in the absence of furosemide therapy. It appears that gentamicin excretion and gentamicin accumulation in the renal cortex in furosemide-treated rats, in contrast with those in untreated rats, are influenced significantly by the rate of fluid infusion. Fluid administration sufficient to maintain the glomerular filtration rate was found to be necessary for appropriate gentamicin elimination, with consequent reduction in serum and renal tissue levels of the drug.
PMCID: PMC352435  PMID: 697349
6.  Chemotherapeutic Evaluation of 5-Episisomicin (Sch 22591), a New Semisynthetic Aminoglycoside 
5-episisomicin (Sch 22591) is a novel semisynthetic aminoglycoside with a spectrum and potency similar to gentamicin in its activity against susceptible bacterial strains, but with increased potency against Pseudomonas, Providencia, and Proteus rettgeri. It is also more active than tobramycin and amikacin against these last-mentioned species.
Against resistant strains, Sch 22591 is significantly more active than gentamicin or tobramycin. Against resistant gram-negative bacteria other than Pseudomonas, Sch 22591 has activity similar to that of amikacin, but Sch 22591 is more potent. Against Pseudomonas strains, it is active against most gentamicin- and tobramycin-resistant strains and is more active than the other three antibiotics. Some Pseudomonas strains are resistant to Sch 22591, but susceptible to amikacin. Against a selection of aminoglycoside-resistant staphylococci, Sch 22591 has very good activity against strains resistant to tobramycin, amikacin, and gentamicin. The superior in vitro potency of Sch 22591 against Pseudomonas has been confirmed in vivo in experimental infections in mice. Absorption in dogs is similar to that of other aminoglycoside antibiotics. The acute toxicity of Sch 22591 in mice is greater than that of gentamicin; its vestibular toxicity potential and nephrotoxicity potential in cats and rats appear to be similar to those of gentamicin.
PMCID: PMC352182  PMID: 626490
7.  Renal Pharmacology of Netilmicin 
Netilmicin (Sch 20569), a new semisynthetic aminoglycoside, was studied for its effects on kidney function and mechanisms by which it is handled by the kidneys. Measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinalysis in chronic rat studies indicated that the nephrotoxicity of netilmicin was remarkably less than that of gentamicin. Gentamicin caused a dose-related reduction in GFR in association with glucosuria and elevated fractional excretion of K+. By contrast, high doses of netilmicin produced only slight reduction in GFR with increased fractional excretion of K+ but without glucosuria. In separate experiments, rats were shown to excrete 71 to 90% of netilmicin or gentamicin in 24 h after daily intramuscular administration of doses of 20 or 40 mg/kg for 4 days. In acute experiments on anesthetized dogs, GFR and renal plasma flow were unaffected at serum levels of 11.0 ± 0.6 μg/ml maintained by constant infusion of netilmicin for 5 h. The renal clearance of netilmicin was significantly correlated with GFR. The urinary output of netilmicin was 80.0 ± 4.2% of the infusion rate and was independent of urine flow over the range of 0.04 to 0.33 ml/kg per min. Preferential accumulation of netilmicin occurred in the renal cortex; the cortex–serum and medulla–serum ratios were 9.9 ± 1.2 and 4.2 ± 0.6, respectively. In addition, the extraction ratio of netilmicin, which was lower than that of inulin, suggested that netilmicin reabsorption occurs in the proximal tubule and results in cortical accumulation. It is concluded that netilmicin, like gentamicin, is excreted by the dog kidney by glomerular filtration plus limited reabsorption. However, the new drug is characterized by low intrinsic nephrotoxicity in rats.
PMCID: PMC352082  PMID: 879737
8.  Renal Extraction of Gentamicin in Anesthetized Dogs 
The tubular handling of gentamicin (G) and its intrarenal distribution were determined to elucidate the mechanism of G accumulation in the kidney. At a serum level of 11.1 ± 0.5 μg/ml (10 animals), as maintained by constant infusion for 5 h, serum Na+ and K+, arterial pressure, effective renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate remained undisturbed. The clearance values in milliliters per minute for G, inulin, and p-aminohippuric acid were 40.3 ± 1.8, 49.9 ± 2.8, and 132 ± 14, respectively. The ratio of clearance of G to clearance of inulin was 0.82 ± 0.04 (P < 0.005), suggesting net reabsorption of G by the renal tubules. The renal cortex/serum ratio for G was 11.9 ± 2.1, and the medulla/serum ratio was 2.7 ± 0.4, indicating greater uptake of G by the cortex. The extraction ratio of p-aminohippuric acid was 0.74 ± 0.03. In contrast, the extraction ratio of G was 0.20 ± 0.03, which was significantly lower than that of inulin (0.30 ± 0.04). It is concluded that the accumulation of G in the cortex was due to tubular reabsorption. Probably some of the reabsorbed G became trapped in the epithelial cells after crossing the luminal membrane, whereas some returned to the circulation.
PMCID: PMC429735  PMID: 984769
9.  Kinking of the Aorta (Pseudocoarctation) 
Six patients with pseudocoarctation (or buckling) of the aorta were studied clinically and by means of cardiac catheterization. They are presented to bring this rarely reported and benign condition again to the attention of the practitioner. There were four males and two females, aged 2 months to 44 years. Coexisting congenital cardiac lesions were ventricular septal defect and aneurysm of the right coronary sinus in one patient, and bicuspid aortic valve in two others. All patients presented systolic ejection murmurs at the base, well transmitted to the back, and an ejection click was heard in two. Angiography revealed the typical buckled shadow in all. No complications resulted from the presence of the pseudocoarctation, but since aneurysms above and below the kink have been reported, periodic examination of such patients is advised.
PMCID: PMC1930571  PMID: 5506104

Results 1-9 (9)