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1.  Lung dendritic cells induce migration of protective T cells to the gastrointestinal tract 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2013;210(9):1871-1888.
Lung DCs induce the expression of gut-homing molecules on T cells, resulting in their migration to the GI tract and protection against Salmonella infection after immunization
Developing efficacious vaccines against enteric diseases is a global challenge that requires a better understanding of cellular recruitment dynamics at the mucosal surfaces. The current paradigm of T cell homing to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract involves the induction of α4β7 and CCR9 by Peyer’s patch and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) dendritic cells (DCs) in a retinoic acid–dependent manner. This paradigm, however, cannot be reconciled with reports of GI T cell responses after intranasal (i.n.) delivery of antigens that do not directly target the GI lymphoid tissue. To explore alternative pathways of cellular migration, we have investigated the ability of DCs from mucosal and nonmucosal tissues to recruit lymphocytes to the GI tract. Unexpectedly, we found that lung DCs, like CD103+ MLN DCs, up-regulate the gut-homing integrin α4β7 in vitro and in vivo, and induce T cell migration to the GI tract in vivo. Consistent with a role for this pathway in generating mucosal immune responses, lung DC targeting by i.n. immunization induced protective immunity against enteric challenge with a highly pathogenic strain of Salmonella. The present report demonstrates novel functional evidence of mucosal cross talk mediated by DCs, which has the potential to inform the design of novel vaccines against mucosal pathogens.
doi:10.1084/jem.20122762
PMCID: PMC3754860  PMID: 23960190
2.  Dendritic Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Atherosclerosis 
Molecules and Cells  2012;34(4):341-347.
Although macrophages and other immune system cells, especially T cells, have been shown to play disease-promoting roles in atherosclerosis, less is known about the role of antigen presenting cells. Functional, immune stimulating dendritic cells (DCs) have recently been detected in aortic intima, the site of origin of atherosclerosis. We had compared DCs with macrophages in mice with experimental atherosclerosis, to clearly define cell types by developmental and functional criteria. This review summarizes recent advances in studies of DCs in humans and in mouse models of atherosclerosis, as well as providing a simple strategy to measure regulatory T (Treg) cells in the mouse aorta.
doi:10.1007/s10059-012-0128-9
PMCID: PMC3887765  PMID: 22752759
atherosclerosis; dendritic cell; regulatory T cell
3.  A new synthetic TLR4 agonist, GLA, allows dendritic cells targeted with antigen to elicit Th1 T cell immunity in vivo 
European journal of immunology  2011;42(1):101-109.
SUMMARY
Protein-based vaccines offer safety and cost advantages but require adjuvants to induce immunity. Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA) is a new synthetic non-toxic analogue of lipopolysaccharide. In mice, in comparison to non-formulated LPS and another analog Monophosphoryl Lipid A, formulated GLA induced higher antibody titers and generated Type 1 T cell responses to HIV gag-p24 protein in spleen and lymph nodes, which was dependent on TLR4 expression. Immunization was greatly improved by targeting HIV gag p24 to dendritic cells (DCs) within anti-DEC antibody, a DC receptor for antigen uptake and processing. Subcutaneous immunization induced antigen-specific T cell responses in the intestinal lamina propria. Immunity did not develop in mice transiently depleted of DCs. To understand how GLA works, we studied DCs directly from the vaccinated mice. Within 4 hrs, GLA caused DCs in vivo to upregulate CD86 and CD40 and produce cytokines including IL-12p70. Importantly, DCs removed from mice 4 hrs after vaccination became immunogenic, capable of inducing T cell immunity upon injection into naïve mice. These data indicate that a synthetic and clinically feasible TLR4 agonist rapidly stimulates full maturation of DCs in vivo and this allows for adaptive immunity to develop many weeks to months later.
doi:10.1002/eji.201141855
PMCID: PMC3517108  PMID: 22002164
Adjuvants; Vaccination; Dendritic cells; mucosal immunity; Innate Immunity
4.  Expression of the zinc finger transcription factor zDC (Zbtb46, Btbd4) defines the classical dendritic cell lineage 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2012;209(6):1153-1165.
The zinc finger transcription factor zDC is uniquely expressed by the cDC lineage among immune cells, and the insertion of diphtheria toxin receptor cDNA into the zDC locus allows specific ablation of the cDC lineage in mice.
Classical dendritic cells (cDCs), monocytes, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) arise from a common bone marrow precursor (macrophage and DC progenitors [MDPs]) and express many of the same surface markers, including CD11c. We describe a previously uncharacterized zinc finger transcription factor, zDC (Zbtb46, Btbd4), which is specifically expressed by cDCs and committed cDC precursors but not by monocytes, pDCs, or other immune cell populations. We inserted diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor (DTR) cDNA into the 3′ UTR of the zDC locus to serve as an indicator of zDC expression and as a means to specifically deplete cDCs. Mice bearing this knockin express DTR in cDCs but not other immune cell populations, and DT injection into zDC-DTR bone marrow chimeras results in cDC depletion. In contrast to previously characterized CD11c-DTR mice, non-cDCs, including pDCs, monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, were spared after DT injection in zDC-DTR mice. We compared immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii and MO4 melanoma in DT-treated zDC- and CD11c-DTR mice and found that immunity was only partially impaired in zDC-DTR mice. Our results indicate that CD11c-expressing non-cDCs make significant contributions to initiating immunity to parasites and tumors.
doi:10.1084/jem.20112675
PMCID: PMC3371731  PMID: 22615130
5.  Microbial stimulation fully differentiates monocytes to DC-SIGN/CD209+ dendritic cells for immune T cell areas 
Cell  2010;143(3):416-429.
SUMMARY
Dendritic cells (DCs), critical antigen presenting cells for immune control, normally derive from bone marrow precursors distinct from monocytes. It is not yet established if the large reservoir of monocytes can develop into cells with critical features of DCs in vivo. We now show that fully differentiated Mo-DCs develop in mice and DC-SIGN/CD209a marks the cells. Mo-DCs are recruited from blood monocytes into lymph nodes by lipopolysaccharide and live or dead gram negative bacteria. Mobilization requires TLR4 and its CD14 coreceptor and Trif. When tested for antigen presenting function, Mo-DCs are as active as classical DCs, including cross presentation of proteins and live gram negative bacteria on MHC I in vivo. Fully differentiated Mo-DCs acquire DC morphology and localize to T cell areas via L-selectin and CCR7. Thus the blood monocyte reservoir becomes the dominant presenting cell in response to select microbes, yielding DC-SIGN+ cells with critical functions of DCs.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.09.039
PMCID: PMC3150728  PMID: 21029863
6.  New monoclonal anti-mouse DC-SIGN antibodies reactive with acetone-fixed cells 
Journal of immunological methods  2010;360(1-2):66-75.
Mouse DC-SIGN CD209a is a type II transmembrane protein, one of a family of C-type lectin genes syntenic and homologous to human DC-SIGN. Current anti-mouse DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are unable to react with DC-SIGN in acetone fixed cells, limiting the chance to visualize DC-SIGN in tissue sections. We first produced rabbit polyclonal PAb-DSCYT14 against a 14-aa peptide in the cytosolic domain of mouse DC-SIGN, and it specifically detected DC-SIGN and not the related lectins, SIGN-R1 and SIGN-R3 expressed in transfected CHO cells. MAbs were generated by immunizing rats and DC-SIGN knockout mice with the extracellular region of mouse DC-SIGN.. Five rat IgG2a or IgM MAbs, named BMD10, 11, 24, 25, and 30, were selected and each MAb specifically detected DC-SIGN by FACS and Western blots, although BMD25 was cross-reactive to SIGN-R1. Two mouse IgG2c MAbs MMD2 and MMD3 interestingly bound mouse DC-SIGN but at 10 fold higher levels than the rat MAbs. When the binding epitopes of the new BMD and two other commercial rat anti-DC-SIGN MAbs, 5H10 and LWC06, were examined by competition assays, the epitopes of BMD11, 24, and LWC06 were identical or closely overlapping while BMD10, 30, and 5H10 were shown to bind different epitopes. MMD2 and MMD3 epitopes were on a 3rd noncompeting region of mouse DC-SIGN. DC-SIGN expressed on the cell surface was sensitive to collagenase treatment, as monitored by polyclonal and MAb. These new reagents should be helpful to probe the biology of DC-SIGN in vivo.
doi:10.1016/j.jim.2010.06.006
PMCID: PMC2924951  PMID: 20558171
Monoclonal Antibody; Polyclonal Antibody; DC-SIGN; CD209a; Dendritic Cells
7.  Early complement factors in the local tissue immunocomplex generated during intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury 
Molecular immunology  2009;47(5):972.
Recent work reveals that the innate immune system is able to recognize self targets and initiate an inflammatory response similar to that of pathogens. One novel example of this innate autoimmunity is ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, in which reperfusion of the ischemic tissues elicits an acute inflammatory response activated by natural IgM (nIgM) binding to ischemia-specific self antigens, which are non-muscle myosin heavy chains type II (NMHC-II) subtype A and C. Subsequently, the complement lectin pathway is activated and eventually tissue injury occurs. Although earlier studies in the intestinal model showed that the classical complement pathway did not initiate I/R injury, C1q deposition was still observed in the local injured tissues by imaging analysis. Moreover, the involvement of the alternative complement pathway became unclear due to conflicting reports using different knockout mice. To explore the immediate downstream pathway following nIgM-ischemic antigen interaction, we isolated the nIgM-ischemic antigen immunocomplexes from the local tissue of animals treated in the intestinal I/R injury model, and examined the presence of initial molecules of three complement pathways. Our results showed that mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the early molecule of the lectin pathway, was present in the nIgM-ischemic Ag immunocomplex. In addition, C1q, the initial molecule of the classical pathway was also detected on the immunocomplex. However, Factor B, the early molecule in the alternative pathway, was not detected in the immunocomplex. To further examine the role of the alternative pathway in I/R injury, we utilized Factor B knockout mice in the intestinal model. Our results showed that Factor B knockout mice were not protected from local tissue injury, and their complement system was activated in the local tissues by nIgM during I/R. These results indicated that the lectin complement pathway operates immediately downstream of the nIgM-ischemic antigen interaction during intestinal I/R. Furthermore, the classical complement pathway also appears to interact with the of nIgM-ischemic antigen immunocomplex. Finally, the alternative complement pathway is not involved in I/R injury induction in the current intestinal model.
doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2009.11.022
PMCID: PMC2815171  PMID: 20004473
8.  Generation and application of new rat monoclonal antibodies against synthetic FLAG and OLLAS tags for improved immunodetection 
Journal of immunological methods  2007;331(1-2):27-38.
Previously, we prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by immunizing rats with the recombinant fusion proteins of mouse Langerin/CD207, which contained a flexible linker sequence from E. coli OmpF and a FLAG epitope. We found many of new rat mAbs were not reactive to mouse Langerin, and here we identify the epitopes of two of these IgG mAbs, L2 and L5, and assess their efficacy in various immunodetection methods. MAb L5 is a rat IgG mAb against the FLAG epitope, which detected both N-terminal and C-terminal FLAG tagged protein 2 to 8 times better than the conventional anti-FLAG mAb M2 by Western blot. For mAb L2, we found its epitope to be a 14 amino acid sequence SGFANELGPRLMGK which consisted of both sequences from the OmpF derived linker and mouse Langerin. This epitope sequence was named OLLAS (E. coli OmpF Linker and mouse Langerin fusion Sequence), and mAb L2 as mAb OLLA-2. When the OLLAS sequence was inserted into recombinant proteins at N-terminal, C-terminal, or internal sites, the OLLAS tag was detected by mAb OLLA-2 with very high sensitivity compared to other conventional epitope tags and anti-tag mAbs. MAb OLLA-2 recognized OLLAS tagged proteins with at least 100-fold more sensitivity than anti-FLAG M2 and anti-V5 mAbs in Western blot analyses. We also find the OLLAS epitope to be superior in immunoprecipitation and other immunodetection methods, such as fluorescent immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. In the process, we successfully utilized the OLLAS epitope sequence as an internal linker for fusion between the engineered mAb and the antigen, and thus achieved improved immunodetection.
doi:10.1016/j.jim.2007.10.012
PMCID: PMC2864634  PMID: 18054954
Monoclonal Antibody; Protein Tagging; FLAG Tag; OLLAS Tag
9.  Identification of antigen-presenting dendritic cells in mouse aorta and cardiac valves 
Presumptive dendritic cells (DCs) bearing the CD11c integrin and other markers have previously been identified in normal mouse and human aorta. We used CD11c promoter–enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) transgenic mice to visualize aortic DCs and study their antigen-presenting capacity. Stellate EYFP+ cells were readily identified in the aorta and could be double labeled with antibodies to CD11c and antigen-presenting major histocompatability complex (MHC) II products. The DCs proved to be particularly abundant in the cardiac valves and aortic sinus. In all aortic locations, the CD11c+ cells localized to the subintimal space with occasional processes probing the vascular lumen. Aortic DCs expressed little CD40 but expressed low levels of CD1d, CD80, and CD86. In studies of antigen presentation, DCs selected on the basis of EYFP expression or binding of anti-CD11c antibody were as effective as DCs similarly selected from the spleen. In particular, the aortic DCs could cross-present two different protein antigens on MHC class I to CD8+ TCR transgenic T cells. In addition, after intravenous injection, aortic DCs could capture anti-CD11c antibody and cross-present ovalbumin to T cells. These results indicate that bona fide DCs are a constituent of the normal aorta and cardiac valves.
doi:10.1084/jem.20082129
PMCID: PMC2699134  PMID: 19221394
10.  Production of monoclonal antibodies that recognize the extracellular domain of mouse Langerin/CD207 
Journal of immunological methods  2007;324(1-2):48-62.
Langerin CD207 is a type II transmembrane protein. It is responsible for the formation of Birbeck granules, which are intracellular organelles within Langerhans cells, the dendritic cells of stratified squamous epithelia like the epidermis. Because current anti-CD207 antibodies have limitations, we prepared new monoclonals by immunizing rats with the extracellular region of mouse Langerin followed by a boost with enriched Langerhans cells (LCs). We secured a large panel of mAbs, most of which reacted with the carboxy terminal carbohydrate recognition domain. These mAbs could be used to immunoblot and immunoprecipitate mouse Langerin and to stain the cell surface and intracellular pools of CD207 by FACS analysis. Labeling of Birbeck granules was also achieved by immunoelectron microscopy. Anti-CD207 identified LCs in the epidermis and skin draining lymph nodes of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but BALB/c mice had an additional Langerin+ population in spleen, thymus and mesenteric lymph node. This additional subset had higher levels of CD8 and CD205 than epidermal LCs, and also had a less mature phenotype, i.e., lower MHC II, CD40 and CD86. Subcutaneous injection of IgG but not IgM forms of these new anti-CD207 mAbs led to rapid and selective labeling of the Langerin+ cells in skin draining lymph nodes as well as spleen. The new IgG anti-CD207 mAbs should be useful for further research on LCs and dendritic cells including an evaluation of the consequences of antigen delivery within anti-CD207 mAbs in vivo.
doi:10.1016/j.jim.2007.05.001
PMCID: PMC2700064  PMID: 17553520
Monoclonal Antibody; Langerhans Cells; Langerin; CD207; Dendritic Cells
11.  Multiple Developmental Defects Derived from Impaired Recruitment of ASC-2 to Nuclear Receptors in Mice: Implication for Posterior Lenticonus with Cataract 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2002;22(24):8409-8414.
ASC-2, a recently isolated transcriptional coactivator molecule, stimulates transactivation by multiple transcription factors, including nuclear receptors. We generated a potent dominant negative fragment of ASC-2, encompassing the N-terminal LXXLL motif that binds a broad range of nuclear receptors. This fragment, termed DN1, specifically inhibited endogenous ASC-2 from binding these receptors in vivo, whereas DN1/m, in which the LXXLL motif was mutated to LXXAA to abolish the receptor interactions, was inert. Interestingly, DN1 transgenic mice but not DN1/m transgenic mice exhibited severe microphthalmia and posterior lenticonus with cataract as well as a variety of pathophysiological phenotypes in many other organs. Our results provide a novel insight into the molecular and histopathological mechanism of posterior lenticonus with cataract and attest to the importance of ASC-2 as a pivotal transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors in vivo.
doi:10.1128/MCB.22.24.8409-8414.2002
PMCID: PMC139866  PMID: 12446761

Results 1-11 (11)