STAT3 plays a critical role in initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer. However, therapeutically targeting STAT3 is failure in clinic. We previously identified HAb18G/CD147 as an effective target for cancer treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate potential role of HAb18G/CD147 in STAT3-involved pancreatic tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.
The expression of HAb18G/CD147, pSTAT3 and CD44s were determined in tissue microarrays. The tumorigenic function and molecular signaling mechanism of HAb18G/CD147 was assessed by in vitro cellular and clonogenic growth, reporter assay, immunoblot, immunofluorescence staining, immunoprecipitation, and in vivo tumor formationusing loss or gain-of-function strategies.
Highly expressed HAb18G/CD147 promoted cellular and clonogenic growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. CyPA, a ligand of CD147, stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation and its downstream genes cyclin D1/survivin through HAb18G/CD147 dependent mechanisms. HAb18G/CD147 was associated and co-localized with cancer stem cell marker CD44s in lipid rafts. The inhibitors of STAT3 and survivin, as well as CD44s neutralizing antibodies suppressed the HAb18G/CD147-induced cell growth. High HAb18G/CD147 expression in pancreatic cancer was significantly correlated with the poor tumor differentiation, and the high co-expression of HAb18G/CD147-CD44s-STAT3 associated with poor survival of patients with pancreatic cancer.
We identified HAb18G/CD147 as a novel upstream activator of STAT3 via interacts with CD44s and plays a critical role in the development of pancreatic cancer. The data suggest HAb18G/CD147 could be a promising therapeutic target for highly aggressive pancreatic cancer and a surrogate marker in the STAT3-targeted molecular therapies.
Pancreatic cancer; HAb18G/CD147; CD44; STAT3; tumor development
We tested the novel hypothesis that EMMPRIN/CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed in breast cancer cells, has a previously unknown role in transforming fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts, and that cancer-associated fibroblasts in turn induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells. Co-culture of fibroblasts with breast cancer cells or treatment of fibroblasts with breast cancer cell conditioned culture medium or recombinant EMMPRIN/CD147 induced expression of α-SMA in the fibroblasts in an EMMPRIN/CD147-dependent manner and promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells and enhanced cell migration potential. These findings support a novel role of EMMPRIN/CD147 in regulating the interaction between cancer and stroma.
EMMPRIN/CD147; Cancer-associated fibroblasts; Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; α-SMA; Cancer stroma
Basigin is a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein that is expressed in a broad range of tissues and is involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes. However, the in vivo role of basigin remains unknown. To better understand the physiological and pathological functions of basigin in vivo, we generated a conditional null allele by introducing two loxP sites flanking exons 2 and 7 of the basigin gene (Bsg). Bsgfl/fl mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio and showed a similar growth rate compared with wildtype mice. After crossing these mice with Lck-Cre transgenic mice, basigin expression was specifically inactivated in T cells in the resulting Lck-Cre; Bsgfl/fl mice. Although the birth and growth rate of Lck-Cre; Bsgfl/fl mice were similar to control mice, thymus development was partially arrested in Lck-Cre; Bsgfl/fl mice, specifically at the CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) and CD4 single-positive (CD4+CD8-, CD4SP) stages. In addition, CD4+ T cell activation was enhanced upon Concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation but not upon PMA/Ionomycin stimulation in the absence of basigin. Overall, this study provided the first in vivo evidence for the function of basigin in thymus development. Moreover, the successful generation of the conditional null basigin allele provides a useful tool for the study of distinct physiological or pathological functions of basigin in different tissues at different development stages.
Basigin; Cre-Loxp; gene targeting; thymocyte development; T cell activation
Acquisition of anoikis resistance is a prerequisite for the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Activation of growth factor signaling pathways and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton have been reported as vital steps in this process. However, key molecules involved in anoikis resistance remain to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CD147 on HCC cells resistant to anoikis. The human SMMC-7221 human HCC cell line was used. Immunofluorescence was used to investigate the expression levels of CD147. Anoikis-induced cell death was assessed using trypan blue exclusion. In the present study, the results showed that SMMC-7721 HCC cells exhibited significant morphological changes when suspended in culture medium supplemented with 1% methocel and a subpopulation of cells resistant to anoikis was acquired with higher viability and invasion ability. CD147 was identified to be significantly increased in cells resistant to anoikis, when compared to the parental cells. CD147 knockdown by siRNA notably induced cell anoikis, partially through the inactivation of PI3K/Akt pathway. All of these evidence provide a novel CD147-related mechanism underlying the metastasis of HCC cells.
anoikis resistance; CD147; PI3K/Akt; hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis
Basigin, which has four isoforms, plays an important role in invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Detailed transcriptional regulation and functions of the basigin isoforms have not been reported except in the case of the predominant isoform basigin-2, which act as inducer of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here we determined that basigin-2, basigin-3, and basigin-4 were the most abundant transcript variants in human cell lines. GeneRacer PCR and luciferase reporter assays showed that basigin-3 and basigin-4 were initiated from an alternative promoter. Basigin-3 and basigin-4 were widely expressed in various normal human tissues at the mRNA level and were upregulated in HCC tissues compared to in normal tissues. Western blotting and confocal imaging showed that glycosylated basigin-3 and basigin-4 were expressed and localized to the plasma membrane. However, in cultured cell lines, only native basigin-3, and not basigin-4, was detected at protein level. Overexpression of basigin-3 inhibited HCC cell proliferation, MMP induction, and cell invasion in vitro and in vivo. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated that basigin-3 interacted with basigin-2 to form hetero-oligomers. In conclusion, we systematically investigated the alternative splicing of basigin and found that basigin-3 could inhibit HCC proliferation and invasion, probably through interaction with basigin-2 as an endogenous inhibitor via hetero-oligomerization.
A new chimeric IgG1 antibody hCAb which could be specifically directed against a cell surface-associated glycoprotein of colorectal cancer cells was prepared by genetic engineering technology in our lab. In this study, we explored the potential therapeutic mechanisms and described the evaluation of hCAb directed against colorectal cancer. The standard 51Cr release assay showed that like many other clinically validated IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, hCAb primarily acts by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). The maximal cell lysis of ADCC induced by hCAb was over 50% in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, in vivo studies showed potent antitumor effects in nude mice with SW480 and Hce-8693 tumor xenografts. The treatment with hCAb induced a dramatic reduction (over 70%) in tumor volume in comparison to untreated control group. Furthermore, during the period of treatment, the animals treated by hCAb did not show signs of wasting or other visible signs of toxicity. No obvious tissue damage in vital organs was detected. The chimeric antibody hCAb may be a promising candidate in the treatment of human colorectal cancer. This study can provide a reference for the potential application of hCAb in clinical trial.
Growing evidence indicates that miR-146a is involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in several human malignancies. However, the molecular details underlying miR-146a mediated regulation of its target genes and its precise biological function in cancer, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear.
The expression levels of genes including miR-146a, APC, VEGF and HAb18G were examined in HCC cell lines and patient specimens were compared with control levels using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The functions of miR-146a and HAb18G in migration/invasion and liver metastasis formation were determined by transwell and spleen injection assays, respectively. miR-146a related genes were determined by PCR array. The potential regulatory targets of miR-146a were determined by bioinformatics and prediction tools, correlation with target protein expression, and luciferase reporter assay. DNA methylation status of miR-146a promoter were performed by PCR analysis of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA.
We demonstrated that miR-146a expression was markedly downregulated in hepatoma cells and hepatoma tissues compared to immortalized normal liver epithelial cells and normal hepatic tissues. DNA methylation of miR-146a promoter correlated with its downexpression and with liver cancer metastasis. The restoration of miR-146a dramatically suppressed HCC cell invasion and metastasis by repressing VEGF expression through upregulating APC, which inhibits β-catenin accumulation in nucleus, and downregulating NF-κB p65 by targeting HAb18G. In human HCC, miR-146a expression was negative correlated with increased HAb18G, VEGF, NF-κB p65 and beneficial prognosis.
This study identified a novel target of miR-146a and defined miR-146a as a crucial tumor suppressor in human HCC that acts through multiple pathways and mechanisms to suppress HCC invasion or metastasis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-4598-14-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; MicroRNA-146a; VEGF; HAb18G/CD147; Invasion; Metastasis
Focal adhesions (FAs), integrin-mediated macromolecular complexes located at the cell membrane extracellular interface, have been shown to regulate cell adhesion and migration. Our previous studies have indicated that HAb18G/CD147 (CD147) is involved in cytoskeleton reorganization and FA formation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. In the current study, we determined that CD147 was involved in vinculin-mediated FA focal adhesion formation in HCC cells. We also found that deletion of CD147 led to reduced vinculin-mediated FA areas (P<0.0001), length/width ratios (P<0.0001), and mean intensities (P<0.0001). CD147 promoted lamellipodia formation by localizing Arp2/3 to the leading edge of the cell. Deletion of CD147 significantly reduced the fluorescence (t1/2) recovery times (22.7±3.3 s) of vinculin-mediated focal adhesions (P<0.0001). In cell-spreading assays, CD147 was found to be essential for dynamic focal adhesion enlargement and disassembly. Furthermore, the current data showed that CD147 reduced tyrosine phosphorylation in vinculin-mediated focal adhesions, and enhanced the accumulation of the acidic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Together, these results revealed that CD147 is involved in vinculin-mediated focal adhesion formation, which subsequently promotes cytoskeleton reorganization to facilitate invasion and migration of human HCC cells.
As a surface glycoprotein, CD147 is capable of stimulating the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) from neighboring fibroblasts. The aim of the present study is to explore the role of soluble CD147 on MMPs secretion from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and to investigate the diagnostic value of serum soluble CD147 in the HCC detection.
We identified the form of soluble CD147 in cell culture supernate of HCC cells and serum of patients with HCC, and explored the role of soluble CD147 on MMPs secretion. Serum CD147 levels were detected by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the value of soluble CD147 as a marker in HCC detection was analyzed.
Full length soluble CD147 was presented in the culture medium of HCC cells and serum of patients with HCC. The extracellular domain of soluble CD147 promoted the expression of CD147 and MMP-2 from HCC cells. Knockdown of CD147 markedly diminished the up-regulation of CD147 and MMP-2 which induced by soluble CD147. Soluble CD147 activated ERK, FAK, and PI3K/Akt pathways, leading to the up-regulation of MMP-2. The level of soluble CD147 in serum of patients with HCC was significantly elevated compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.001). Soluble CD147 levels were found to be associated with HCC tumor size (P = 0.007) and Child-Pugh grade (P = 0.007). Moreover, soluble CD147 showed a better performance in distinguishing HCC compared with alpha-fetoprotein.
The extracellular domain of soluble CD147 enhances the secretion of MMP-2 from HCC cells, requiring the cooperation of membrane CD147 and activation of ERK, FAK, and PI3K/Akt signaling. The measurement of soluble CD147 may offer a useful approach in diagnosis of HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Soluble CD147; Matrix metalloproteinases; Alpha-fetoprotein; Serological marker
Glycosylation of glycoproteins is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications of proteins are closely associated with the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147, a tumor-associated antigen that is highly expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, is a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A significant biochemical property of CD147 is its high level of glycosylation. Studies on the structure and function of CD147 glycosylation provide valuable clues to the development of targeted therapies for cancer. Here, we review current understanding of the glycosylation characteristics of CD147 and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of CD147 N-glycans. Finally, we discuss proteins regulating CD147 glycosylation and the biological functions of CD147 glycosylation.
CD147; N-glycosylation; glycosyltransferases; matrix metalloproteinase; cancer invasion and metastasis
It has been reported that Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the roles of ANXA2 in the migration and invasion of HCC cells have not been determined. In this study, we found that ANXA2-specific siRNA (si-ANXA2) significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of HCC cells co-cultured with fibroblasts in vitro. In addition, the production of MMP-2 by fibroblasts cultured in supernatant collected from si-ANXA2-transfected HCC cells was notably down-regulated. ANXA2 was also found to be co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with CD147. Further investigation revealed that the expression of ANXA2 in HCC cells affected the shedding of CD147-harboring membrane microvesicles, acting as a vehicle for CD147 in tumor-stromal interactions and thereby regulating the production of MMP-2 by fibroblasts. Together, these results suggest that ANXA2 enhances the migration and invasion potential of HCC cells in vitro by regulating the trafficking of CD147-harboring membrane microvesicles.
RNA-seq is a powerful tool for comprehensive characterization of whole transcriptome at both gene and exon levels and with a unique ability of identifying novel splicing variants. To date, RNA-seq analysis of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been reported. In this study, we performed transcriptome analyses for 10 matched pairs of cancer and non-cancerous tissues from HCC patients on Solexa/Illumina GAII platform. On average, about 21.6 million sequencing reads and 10.6 million aligned reads were obtained for samples sequenced on each lane, which was able to identify >50% of all the annotated genes for each sample. Furthermore, we identified 1,378 significantly differently expressed genes (DEGs) and 24, 338 differentially expressed exons (DEEs). Comprehensive function analyses indicated that cell growth-related, metabolism-related and immune-related pathways were most significantly enriched by DEGs, pointing to a complex mechanism for HCC carcinogenesis. Positional gene enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were most significantly enriched at chromosome 8q21.3–24.3. The most interesting findings were from the analysis at exon levels where we characterized three major patterns of expression changes between gene and exon levels, implying a much complex landscape of transcript-specific differential expressions in HCC. Finally, we identified a novel highly up-regulated exon-exon junction in ATAD2 gene in HCC tissues. Overall, to our best knowledge, our study represents the most comprehensive characterization of HBV-related HCC transcriptome including exon level expression changes and novel splicing variants, which illustrated the power of RNA-seq and provided important clues for understanding the molecular mechanisms of HCC pathogenesis at system-wide levels.
Acquisition of resistance to "anoikis" facilitates the survival of cells under independent matrix-deficient conditions, such as cells in tumor progression and the production of suspension culture cells for biomedical engineering. There is evidence suggesting that CD147, an adhesion molecule associated with survival of cells in tumor metastasis and cell-cell contacts, plays an important role in resistance to anoikis. However, information regarding the functions of CD147 in mediating cell-cell contacts and anoikis-resistance remains limited and even self-contradictory.
An anoikis-resistant clone (HEK293ar), derived from anoikis-sensitive parental Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells, survived anoikis by the formation of cell-cell contacts. The expression of HAb18G/CD147 (a member of the CD147 family) was upregulated and the protein was located at cell-cell junctions. Upregulation of HAb18G/CD147 in suspended HEK293ar cells suppressed anoikis by mediating the formation of cell-cell adhesions. Anoikis resistance in HEK293ar cells also required E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts. Knock-down of HAb18G/CD147 and E-cadherin inhibited cell-cell contacts formation and increased anoikis sensitivity respectively. When HAb18G/CD147 was downregulated, E-cadherin expression in HEK293ar cells was significantly suppressed; however, knockdown of E-cadherin by E-cadherin siRNA or blocking of E-cadherin binding activity with a specific antibody and EDTA had no significant effect on HAb18G/CD147 expression. Finally, pretreatment with LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) inhibitor, disrupted cell-cell contacts and decreased cell number, but this was not the case in cells treated with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059.
Our results provide new evidence that HAb18G/CD147-mediated cell-cell contact confers anoikis resistance in an E-cadherin-dependent manner; and cell-cell contact mediated resistance to anoikis implicates PI3K pathway in a highly relevant cell model (HEK293ar). Understanding of the role of HAb18G/CD147 cell-cell contacts in anoikis resistance may help in understanding the survival of cells in anchorage-independent growth, such as cells in tumor metastasis and suspension culture produced for biomedical engineering. Our results also contribute to a better understanding of the biology of HEK293 cell spheroids, a major workhorse for producing human therapeutic agents and viral vaccines.
HAb18G/CD147 plays pivotal roles in invasion by hepatoma cells, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of HAb18G/CD147 promotes invasion by interacting with integrin α3β1. However, it has never been investigated whether α3β1 is solely responsible for this process or if other integrin family members also interact with HAb18G/CD147 in human hepatoma cells.
Human SMMC-7721 and FHCC98 cells were cultured and transfected with siRNA fragments against HAb18G/CD147. The expression levels of HAb18G/CD147 and integrin α6β1 were determined by immunofluorescent double-staining and confocal imaging analysis. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses were performed to examine the native conformations of HAb18G/CD147 and integrin α6β1. Invasion potential was evaluated with an invasion assay and gelatin zymography.
We found that integrin α6β1 co-localizes and interacts with HAb18G/CD147 in human hepatoma cells. The enhancing effects of HAb18G/CD147 on invasion capacity and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were partially blocked by integrin α6β1 antibodies (P < 0.01). Wortmannin, a specific phosphatidylinositol kinase (PI3K) inhibitor that reverses the effect of HAb18G/CD147 on the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, significantly reduced cell invasion potential and secretion of MMPs in human hepatoma cells (P < 0.05). Importantly, no additive effect between Wortmannin and α6β1 antibodies was observed, indicating that α6β1 and PI3K transmit the signal in an upstream-downstream relationship.
These results suggest that α6β1 interacts with HAb18G/CD147 to mediate tumor invasion and metastatic processes through the PI3K pathway.
Macrophage-like synoviocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are known as the most active cells of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are close to the articular cartilage in a position enabling them to invade the cartilage. Macrophage-like synoviocytes and FLS expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their interaction has aroused great interest. The present article studied the expression of CD147, also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, on monocytes/macrophages and FLS from RA patients and its potential role in enhancing MMPs and the invasiveness of synoviocytes. Expression of CD147 on FLS derived from RA patients and from osteoarthritis patients, and expression of CD147 on monocytes/macrophages from rheumatic synovial fluid and healthy peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. The levels of CD147, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA in FLS were detected by RT-PCR. The role of CD147 in MMP production and the cells' invasiveness in vitro were studied by the co-culture of FLS with the human THP-1 cell line or monocytes/macrophages, by gel zymography and by invasion assay. The results showed that the expression of CD147 was higher on RA FLS than on osteoarthritis FLS and was higher on monocytes/macrophages from rheumatic synovial fluid than on monocytes/macrophages from healthy peripheral blood. RT-PCR showed that the expressions of CD147, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA was higher in RA FLS than in osteoarthritis FLS. A significantly elevated secretion and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were observed in RA FLS co-cultured with differentiated THP-1 cells or RA synovial monocytes/macrophages, compared with those co-cultured with undifferentiated THP-1 cells or healthy control peripheral blood monocytes. Invasion assays showed an increased number of invading cells in the co-cultured RA FLS with differentiated THP-1 cells or RA synovial monocytes/macrophages. CD147 antagonistic peptide inhibited the MMP production and the invasive potential. Our studies demonstrated that the CD147 overexpression on monocytes/macrophages and FLS in RA patients may be responsible for the enhanced MMP secretion and activation and for the invasiveness of synoviocytes. These findings suggest that CD147 may be one of the important factors in progressive joint destruction of RA and that CD147 may be a potential therapeutic target in RA treatment.
Monocytes/macrophages play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. They can activate fibroblasts through many molecules, including IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but there have been very few reports on the role of CD147 in RA. In our study, the results of flow cytometry reveal that the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD147 expression on CD14+ monocytes of peripheral blood from RA patients was higher than that in normal control and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. The MFI of CD147 expression on the CD14+ monocytes in RA synovial fluid was higher than that in RA peripheral blood. Immunohistochemical staining shows that CD147 expression in RA synovium correlated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression. A double immunofluorescent assay shows that CD147 was expressed on CD68+ cells in RA synovium. The potential role of CD147 in cyclophilin A (CyPA)-mediated cell migration was studied using a chemotaxis assay in vitro and it was found that the addition of anti-CD147 antibody or a CD147 antagonistic peptide significantly decreased the chemotactic index of the mononuclear cells. The role of CD147 in MMP production and cell invasion in vitro were studied through the co-culture of human CD14+ monocytes or monocytic line THP-1 cells and human fibroblasts, as well as by gel zymography and an invasion assay. Significantly elevated release and activation of MMP-9 and/or MMP-2 were seen in the co-culture of human monocytes/THP-1 cells and fibroblasts compared with cultures of the cells alone. An increased number of cells invading through the filters in the invasion assays was also observed in the co-cultured cells. The addition of CD147 antagonistic peptide had some inhibitory effect, not only on MMP production but also on cell invasion in the co-culture. Our study demonstrates that the increased expression of CD147 on monocytes/macrophages in RA may be responsible for elevated MMP secretion, cell invasion and CyPA-mediated cell migration into the joints, all of which may contribute to the cartilage and bone destruction of RA. These findings, together with a better understanding of CD147, CyPA and RA, will help in the development of innovative therapeutic interventions for RA.
During infection and inflammation, circulating blood monocytes migrate from the intravascular compartments to the extravascular compartments, where they mature into tissue macrophages. The maturation process prepares the cells to actively participate in the inflammatory and immune responses, and many factors have been reported to be involved in the process. We found in our study that CD147 played a very important role in this process.
By using PMA-differentiated human monocyte cells line THP-1, we found that CD147 mediated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression of the leukemic THP-1 cells and thus enhanced the invasiveness of THP-1 cells. After 24 hours of PMA-induced monocyte differentiation, the mean fluorescence intensity of CD147 in differentiated THP-1 cells (289.61 ± 31.63) was higher than that of the undifferentiated THP-1 cells (205.1 ± 19.25). There was a significant increase of the levels of proMMP-2, proMMP-9 and their activated forms in the differentiated THP-1 cells. Invasion assays using reconstituted basement membrane showed a good correlation between the invasiveness of THP-1 cells and the production of MMP-2 and MMP-9. The difference in the MMPs expression and the invasive ability was significantly blocked by HAb18G/CD147 antagonistic peptide AP-9. The inhibitory rate of the secretion of proMMP-9 in the undifferentiated THP-1 cells was 45.07%. The inhibitory rate of the secretion of proMMP-9, the activated MMP-9 and proMMP-2 in the differentiated THP-1 cells was 52.90%, 53.79% and 47.80%, respectively. The inhibitory rate of invasive potential in the undifferentiated cells and the differentiated THP-1 cells was 41.82 % and 25.15%, respectively.
The results suggest that the expression of CD147 is upregulated during the differentiation of monocyte THP-1 cells to macrophage cells, and CD147 induces the secretion and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and enhances the invasive ability of THP-1 cells. The matured monocytes / macrophages, via their high expression of CD147, may play an important role in promoting the tissue repair or tissue damage during their inflammatory response.