Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected African Americans (AAs) may have a higher risk of cardiovascular complications. Our study suggests that vitamin D deficiency Is independently associated with silent coronary artery disease (CAD) in HIV-infected AAs without symptoms/clinical evidence of CAD. Further longitudinal studies are needed.
Background. Growing evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency Is associated with clinical coronary artery disease (CAD). The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and subclinical CAD in HIV-infected individuals is not well-characterized.
Methods. Computed tomographic (CT) coronary angiography was performed using contrast-enhanced 64-slice multidetector CT imaging, and vitamin D levels and the presence of traditional and novel risk factor for CAD were obtained in 674 HIV-infected African American (AA) participants aged 25–54 years in Baltimore, MD, without symptoms/clinical evidence of CAD.
Results. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D <10 ng/mL) was 20.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9–23.1). Significant (≥50%) coronary stenosis was present in 64 (9.5%) of 674 participants. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.17–4.10), diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg (adjusted OR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.02 –3.68), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.13–3.36), cocaine use for ≥15 years (adjusted OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.01–3.10), use of antiretroviral therapies for ≥6 months (adjusted OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.17–4.36), year of enrollment after 2005 (adjusted ORs for 2006–2007, 2008–2009, and 2010 were 0.32 [95% CI, 0.13–0.76], 0.26 [95% CI, 0.12–0.56], and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.15–0.65], respectively), and vitamin D deficiency (adjusted OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.23–4.21) were independently associated with significant coronary stenosis.
Conclusions. Both vitamin D deficiency and silent CAD are prevalent in HIV-infected AAs. In addition to management of traditional CAD risk factors and substance abuse, vitamin D deficiency should be evaluated in HIV-infected AAs. These data support the conduct of a prospective trial of vitamin D in this high-risk patient population.