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1.  Reduction of the domino effect in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures through short-segment fixation with intravertebral expandable pillars compared to percutaneous kyphoplasty: a case control study 
Background
Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture is the leading cause of disability and morbidity in elderly people. Treatment of this condition remains a challenge. Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures can be managed with various approaches, but each has limitations. In this study, we compared the clinical outcomes obtained using short-segment fixation with intravertebral expandable pillars (I-VEP) to those obtained with percutaneous kyphoplasty in patients who had suffered vertebral compression fractures.
Methods
The study included 46 patients with single-level osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures. Twenty-two patients in Group I underwent short-segment fixation with I-VEP and 24 patients in Group II underwent kyphoplasty. All patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively using a visual analogue scale, anterior height of the fractured vertebra, and kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebra. The latter 2 radiological parameters were measured at the adjacent segments as well.
Results
There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of gender or fracture level, but the mean age was greater in Group II patients (p = 0.008). At the 1-year follow-up, there were no significant differences in the visual analogue scale scores, anterior height of the fractured vertebra, or the value representing anterior height above the fractured vertebra and kyphotic angle below the fractured vertebra, after adjusting for the patients’ gender, fracture level, and age. When considered separately, the anterior height below the fractured vertebra was significantly higher and the kyphotic angle above the fractured vertebra was significantly smaller in Group I than in Group II (p = 0.029 and p = 0.008, respectively). The kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebra was significantly smaller in Group II than in Group I (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
In older individuals with vertebral compression fractures, kyphoplasty restored and maintained the collapsed vertebral body with less kyphotic deformity than that induced by short-segment fixation with I-VEP. Short-segment fixation with I-VEP was more effective in maintaining the integrity of adjacent segments, which prevented the domino effect often observed in patients with osteoporotic kyphotic spines.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-75
PMCID: PMC3598560  PMID: 23452614
Short-segment fixation; Intravertebral expandable pillar; Percutaneous kyphoplasty; Vertebral compression fracture
2.  Segmental correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by all-screw fixation method in adolescents and young adults. minimum 5 years follow-up with SF-36 questionnaire 
Scoliosis  2012;7:5.
Background
In our institution, the fixation technique in treating idiopathic scoliosis was shifted from hybrid fixation to the all-screw method beginning in 2000. We conducted this study to assess the intermediate -term outcome of all-screw method in treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).
Methods
Forty-nine consecutive patients were retrospectively included with minimum of 5-year follow-up (mean, 6.1; range, 5.1-7.3 years). The average age of surgery was 18.5 ± 5.0 years. We assessed radiographic measurements at preoperative (Preop), postoperative (PO) and final follow-up (FFU) period. Curve correction rate, correction loss rate, complications, accuracy of pedicle screws and SF-36 scores were analyzed.
Results
The average major curve was corrected from 58.0 ± 13.0° Preop to 16.0 ± 9.0° PO(p < 0.0001), and increased to 18.4 ± 8.6°(p = 0.12) FFU. This revealed a 72.7% correction rate and a correction loss of 2.4° (3.92%). The thoracic kyphosis decreased little at FFU (22 ± 12° to 20 ± 6°, (p = 0.25)). Apical vertebral rotation decreased from 2.1 ± 0.8 PreOP to 0.8 ± 0.8 at FFU (Nash-Moe grading, p < 0.01). Among total 831 pedicle screws, 56 (6.7%) were found to be malpositioned. Compared with 2069 age-matched Taiwanese, SF-36 scores showed inferior result in 2 variables: physical function and role physical.
Conclusion
Follow-up more than 5 years, the authors suggest that all-screw method is an efficient and safe method.
doi:10.1186/1748-7161-7-5
PMCID: PMC3314545  PMID: 22340624
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS); All-screw method; SF-36 questionnaire
3.  Vitamin-D Binding Protein Does Not Enhance Healing in Rat Bone Defects: A Pilot Study 
Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) has an anabolic effect on the skeleton and reportedly enhances bone ingrowth. We used an in vivo critical bone defect model to determine whether local administration of DBP promotes bone defect healing. We created a 5-mm segmental bone defect in the radial shaft in a rat model. Forty-eight rats were assigned to eight groups: local application of 1 μg, 5 μg, 10 μg, or 50 μg DBP (DBP-1, DBP-5, DBP-10, DBP-50), autogenous bone marrow mononuclear cells with or without 10 μg DBP (BM-DBP-10, BM), 80 μg BMP-2 delivered in gelatin sponge (BMP-2), and the sham operated group. Radiographic evaluation, histological stains, and epifluorescence microscopy were performed. Grossly, all bone gaps of the BMP-2 group were solidly bridged by callus, while all those in the sham operated group remained unhealed by 9 weeks. Only one specimen of the BM-DBP-10 and DBP-50 groups and three specimens of the BM group were solidly healed; pseudarthroses occurred in all of the other specimens. Histological study and radiographs of the specimens showed similar results. We did not observe the enhanced bone healing reported in a previous study.
doi:10.1007/s11999-009-0864-0
PMCID: PMC2772928  PMID: 19418105
4.  Clinical outcomes of microendoscopic decompressive laminotomy for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis 
European Spine Journal  2009;18(5):672-678.
The goal of surgical treatment for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is to effectively relieve the neural structures by various decompressive techniques. Microendoscopic decompressive laminotomy (MEDL) is an attractive option because of its minimally invasive nature. The aim of prospective study was to investigate the effectiveness of MEDL by evaluating the clinical outcomes with patient-oriented scoring systems. Sixty consecutive patients receiving MEDL between December 2005 and April 2007 were enrolled. The indications of surgery were moderate to severe stenosis, persistent neurological symptoms, and failure of conservative treatment. The patients with mechanical back pain, more than grade I spondylolisthesis, or radiographic signs of instability were not included. A total of 53 patients (36 women and 17 men, mean age 62.0) were included. Forty-five patients (84.9%) were satisfied with the treatment result after a follow-up period of 15.7 months (12–24). The clinical outcomes were evaluated with the Oswestry disability index (ODI) and the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. Of the 50 patients providing sufficient data for analysis, the ODI improved from 64.3 ± 20.0 to 16.7 ± 20.0. The JOA score improved from 9.4 ± 6.1 to 24.2 ± 6.0. The improvement rate was 73.9 ± 30.7% and 40 patients (80%) had good or excellent results. There were 11 surgical complications: dural tear in 5, wrong level operation in 2, and transient neuralgia in 4 patients. No wound-related complication was noted. Although the prevalence of pre-operative comorbidities was very high (69.8%), there was no serious medical complication. There was no post-operative instability at the operated segment as evaluated with dynamic radiographs at final follow-up. We concluded that MEDL is a safe and very effective minimally invasive technique for degenerative LSS. With an appropriate patient selection, the risk of post-operative instability is minimal.
doi:10.1007/s00586-009-0903-2
PMCID: PMC3234002  PMID: 19238459
Microendoscopic decompressive laminotomy; Minimally invasive surgical procedures; Spinal stenosis; Treatment outcomes
5.  Instrumented Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Adult Spondylolisthesis 
It is unclear whether using artificial cages increases fusion rates compared with use of bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. We hypothesized artificial cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion would provide better clinical and radiographic outcomes than bone chips alone. We assumed solid fusion would provide good clinical outcomes. We clinically and radiographically followed 34 patients with spondylolisthesis having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with mixed autogenous and allogeneic bone chips alone and 42 patients having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of artificial cages packed with morselized bone graft. Patients with the artificial cage had better functional improvement in the Oswestry disability index than those with bone chips alone, whereas pain score, patient satisfaction, and fusion rate were similar in the two groups. Postoperative disc height ratio, slip ratio, and segmental lordosis all decreased at final followup in the patients with bone chips alone but remained unchanged in the artificial cage group. The functional outcome correlated with radiographic fusion status. We conclude artificial cages provide better functional outcomes and radiographic improvement than bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis, although both techniques achieved comparable fusion rates.
Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0511-1
PMCID: PMC2628248  PMID: 18846411
6.  Comparison and prediction of pullout strength of conical and cylindrical pedicle screws within synthetic bone 
Background
This study was designed to derive the theoretical formulae to predict the pullout strength of pedicle screws with an inconstant outer and/or inner diameter distribution (conical screws). For the transpedicular fixation, one of the failure modes is the screw loosening from the vertebral bone. Hence, various kinds of pedicle screws have been evaluated to measure the pullout strength using synthetic and cadaveric bone as specimens. In the literature, the Chapman's formula has been widely proposed to predict the pullout strength of screws with constant outer and inner diameters (cylindrical screws).
Methods
This study formulated the pullout strength of the conical and cylindrical screws as the functions of material, screw, and surgery factors. The predicted pullout strength of each screw was compared to the experimentally measured data. Synthetic bones were used to standardize the material properties of the specimen and provide observation of the loosening mechanism of the bone/screw construct.
Results
The predicted data from the new formulae were better correlated with the mean pullout strength of both the cylindrical and conical screws within an average error of 5.0% and R2 = 0.93. On the other hand, the average error and R2 value of the literature formula were as high as -32.3% and -0.26, respectively.
Conclusion
The pullout strength of the pedicle screws was the functions of bone strength, screw design, and pilot hole. The close correlation between the measured and predicted pullout strength validated the value of the new formulae, so as avoid repeating experimental tests.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-10-44
PMCID: PMC2694760  PMID: 19402917
7.  Surgical removal of extravasated epidural and neuroforaminal polymethylmethacrylate after percutaneous vertebroplasty in the thoracic spine 
European Spine Journal  2006;16(Suppl 3):326-331.
Although extravasations of polymethylmetharylate during percutaneous vertebroplasty are usually of little clinical consequence, surgical decompression is occasionally required if resultant neurologic deficits are severe. Surgical removal of epidural polymethylmetharylate is usually necessary to achieve good neurologic recovery. Because mobilizing the squeezed spinal cord in a compromised canal can cause further deterioration, attempts to remove epidural polymethylmetharylate in the thoracic region need special consideration. A 66-year-old man had incomplete paraparesis and radicular pain on the chest wall after percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic compression fracture of T7. Radiological studies revealed polymethylmetharylate extravasations into the right lateral aspect of spinal canal that caused marked encroachment of the thecal sac and right neuroforamina. Progressive neurologic deficit and poor responses to medical managements were observed; therefore, surgical decompression was performed 4 months later. After laminectomy and removal of facet joints and T7 pedicle on the affected side, extravasated polymethylmetharylate posterior and anterior to the thecal sac was completely removed without retracting the dura mater. Spinal stability was reconstructed by supplemental spinal instrumentation and intertransverse arthrodesis with banked cancellous allografts. Myelopathy and radicular pain gradually resolved after decompression surgery. The patient was free of sensory abnormality and regained satisfactory ambulation two years after surgical decompression.
doi:10.1007/s00586-006-0237-2
PMCID: PMC2148084  PMID: 17053943
Vertebroplasty; Polymethylmethacrylate; Epidural extravasations; Thoracic myelopathy; Surgical removal
8.  Multiple parallel skin markers for minimal incision lumbar disc surgery; a technical note 
Background
Spinal surgery depends on accurate localization to prevent incorrect surgical approaches. The trend towards minimally invasive surgery that minimizes surgical exposure and reduces postoperative pain increasingly requires surgeons to accurately determine the operative level before an incision is made. Preoperative localization with a C-arm image intensifier is popular, but the exposure of both patients and theatre staff to radiation is a disadvantage, as well as being time-consuming.
Methods
We describe a simple surgical tool developed to help localize exact spinal levels in conjunction with a simple AP X-ray film immediately before surgery. Multiple parallel skin markers were made using a circular oven rack comprising multiple 1.5 cm spaced parallel wires attached to a circular outside rim. The longest line was placed on the line of the postero-superior iliac spine (PSIS) over the junction of the L5-S1 region.
Results and conclusions
Based on the film taken, the incision can be accurately made at the intended level. The incision wound can be minimized to 3.0 cm even when using conventional disc surgery instruments.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-5-8
PMCID: PMC394334  PMID: 15113431

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