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author:("chapel, Rocio")
1.  Analysis of Latino populations from GALA and MEC studies reveals genomic loci with biased local ancestry estimation 
Bioinformatics  2013;29(11):1407-1415.
Motivation: Local ancestry analysis of genotype data from recently admixed populations (e.g. Latinos, African Americans) provides key insights into population history and disease genetics. Although methods for local ancestry inference have been extensively validated in simulations (under many unrealistic assumptions), no empirical study of local ancestry accuracy in Latinos exists to date. Hence, interpreting findings that rely on local ancestry in Latinos is challenging.
Results: Here, we use 489 nuclear families from the mainland USA, Puerto Rico and Mexico in conjunction with 3204 unrelated Latinos from the Multiethnic Cohort study to provide the first empirical characterization of local ancestry inference accuracy in Latinos. Our approach for identifying errors does not rely on simulations but on the observation that local ancestry in families follows Mendelian inheritance. We measure the rate of local ancestry assignments that lead to Mendelian inconsistencies in local ancestry in trios (MILANC), which provides a lower bound on errors in the local ancestry estimates. We show that MILANC rates observed in simulations underestimate the rate observed in real data, and that MILANC varies substantially across the genome. Second, across a wide range of methods, we observe that loci with large deviations in local ancestry also show enrichment in MILANC rates. Therefore, local ancestry estimates at such loci should be interpreted with caution. Finally, we reconstruct ancestral haplotype panels to be used as reference panels in local ancestry inference and show that ancestry inference is significantly improved by incoroprating these reference panels.
Availability and implementation: We provide the reconstructed reference panels together with the maps of MILANC rates as a public resource for researchers analyzing local ancestry in Latinos at http://bogdanlab.pathology.ucla.edu.
Contact: bpasaniuc@mednet.ucla.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btt166
PMCID: PMC3661056  PMID: 23572411
2.  Case-control admixture mapping in Latino populations enriches for known asthma-associated genes 
Background
Polymorphisms in more than 100 genes have been associated with asthma susceptibility, yet much of the heritability remains to be explained. Asthma disproportionately affects different racial and ethnic groups in the United States, suggesting that admixture mapping is a useful strategy to identify novel asthma-associated loci.
Objective
We sought to identify novel asthma-associated loci in Latino populations using case-control admixture mapping.
Methods
We performed genome-wide admixture mapping by comparing levels of local Native American, European, and African ancestry between children with asthma and nonasthmatic control subjects in Puerto Rican and Mexican populations. Within candidate peaks, we performed allelic tests of association, controlling for differences in local ancestry.
Results
Between the 2 populations, we identified a total of 62 admixture mapping peaks at a P value of less than 10−3 that were significantly enriched for previously identified asthma-associated genes (P = .0051). One of the peaks was statistically significant based on 100 permutations in the Mexican sample (6q15); however, it was not significant in Puerto Rican subjects. Another peak was identified at nominal significance in both populations (8q12); however, the association was observed with different ancestries.
Conclusion
Case-control admixture mapping is a promising strategy for identifying novel asthma-associated loci in Latino populations and implicates genetic variation at 6q15 and 8q12 regions with asthma susceptibility. This approach might be useful for identifying regions that contribute to both shared and population-specific differences in asthma susceptibility.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.040
PMCID: PMC3593143  PMID: 22502797
Admixture mapping; genome-wide association study; asthma; Latino populations; population-specific risk factors
3.  The impact of secondhand smoke on asthma control among Black and Latino children 
Background
Among people with asthma, the clinical impact and relative contribution of maternal smoking during pregnancy (in utero smoking) and current secondhand smoke exposure on asthma control is poorly documented, and there is a paucity of research involving minority populations.
Objectives
To examine the association between poor asthma control and in utero smoking and current secondhand smoke exposure among Latino and Black children with asthma.
Methods
Case-only analysis of 2 multi-center case-control studies conducted from 2008–2010 using similar protocols. We recruited 2,481 Latinos and Blacks with asthma (ages 8–17) from the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of in utero smoking and current secondhand smoke exposures on National Heart Lung and Blood Institute-defined asthma control.
Results
Poor asthma control among children 8–17 years of age was independently associated with in utero smoking (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval = 1.5; 1.1–2.0). In utero smoking via the mother was also associated with secondary asthma outcomes, including early onset asthma (1.7; 1.1–2.4), daytime symptoms (1.6; 1.1–2.1), and asthma-related limitation of activities (1.6; 1.2–2.2).
Conclusions
Maternal smoking while in utero is associated with poor asthma control in Black and Latino subjects assessed at 8–17 years of age.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.03.017
PMCID: PMC3367092  PMID: 22552109
Secondhand smoke; prenatal exposure delayed effects; asthma; health status disparities
4.  Fast and accurate inference of local ancestry in Latino populations 
Bioinformatics  2012;28(10):1359-1367.
Motivation: It is becoming increasingly evident that the analysis of genotype data from recently admixed populations is providing important insights into medical genetics and population history. Such analyses have been used to identify novel disease loci, to understand recombination rate variation and to detect recent selection events. The utility of such studies crucially depends on accurate and unbiased estimation of the ancestry at every genomic locus in recently admixed populations. Although various methods have been proposed and shown to be extremely accurate in two-way admixtures (e.g. African Americans), only a few approaches have been proposed and thoroughly benchmarked on multi-way admixtures (e.g. Latino populations of the Americas).
Results: To address these challenges we introduce here methods for local ancestry inference which leverage the structure of linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral population (LAMP-LD), and incorporate the constraint of Mendelian segregation when inferring local ancestry in nuclear family trios (LAMP-HAP). Our algorithms uniquely combine hidden Markov models (HMMs) of haplotype diversity within a novel window-based framework to achieve superior accuracy as compared with published methods. Further, unlike previous methods, the structure of our HMM does not depend on the number of reference haplotypes but on a fixed constant, and it is thereby capable of utilizing large datasets while remaining highly efficient and robust to over-fitting. Through simulations and analysis of real data from 489 nuclear trio families from the mainland US, Puerto Rico and Mexico, we demonstrate that our methods achieve superior accuracy compared with published methods for local ancestry inference in Latinos.
Availability: http://lamp.icsi.berkeley.edu/lamp/lampld/
Contact: bpasaniu@hsph.harvard.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bts144
PMCID: PMC3348558  PMID: 22495753
5.  Meta-analysis of Genome-wide Association Studies of Asthma In Ethnically Diverse North American Populations 
Torgerson, Dara G. | Ampleford, Elizabeth J. | Chiu, Grace Y. | Gauderman, W. James | Gignoux, Christopher R. | Graves, Penelope E. | Himes, Blanca E. | Levin, Albert M. | Mathias, Rasika A. | Hancock, Dana B. | Baurley, James W. | Eng, Celeste | Stern, Debra A. | Celedón, Juan C. | Rafaels, Nicholas | Capurso, Daniel | Conti, David V. | Roth, Lindsey A. | Soto-Quiros, Manuel | Togias, Alkis | Li, Xingnan | Myers, Rachel A. | Romieu, Isabelle | Van Den Berg, David J. | Hu, Donglei | Hansel, Nadia N. | Hernandez, Ryan D. | Israel, Elliott | Salam, Muhammad T. | Galanter, Joshua | Avila, Pedro C. | Avila, Lydiana | Rodriquez-Santana, Jose R. | Chapela, Rocio | Rodriguez-Cintron, William | Diette, Gregory B. | Adkinson, N. Franklin | Abel, Rebekah A. | Ross, Kevin D. | Shi, Min | Faruque, Mezbah U. | Dunston, Georgia M. | Watson, Harold R. | Mantese, Vito J. | Ezurum, Serpil C. | Liang, Liming | Ruczinski, Ingo | Ford, Jean G. | Huntsman, Scott | Chung, Kian Fan | Vora, Hita | Li, Xia | Calhoun, William J. | Castro, Mario | Sienra-Monge, Juan J. | del Rio-Navarro, Blanca | Deichmann, Klaus A. | Heinzmann, Andrea | Wenzel, Sally E. | Busse, William W. | Gern, James E. | Lemanske, Robert F. | Beaty, Terri H. | Bleecker, Eugene R. | Raby, Benjamin A. | Meyers, Deborah A. | London, Stephanie J. | Gilliland, Frank D. | Burchard, Esteban G. | Martinez, Fernando D. | Weiss, Scott T. | Williams, L. Keoki | Barnes, Kathleen C. | Ober, Carole | Nicolae, Dan L.
Nature genetics  2011;43(9):887-892.
Asthma is a common disease with a complex risk architecture including both genetic and environmental factors. We performed a meta-analysis of North American genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of asthma in 5,416 asthma cases representing European Americans, African Americans/African Caribbeans, and Latinos, and replicated five regions among the most significant signals in 12,649 individuals from the same ethnic groups. Four were at previously reported loci on 17q21, and near the IL1RL1, TSLP, and IL33, genes, but we report for the first time that these loci are associated with asthma risk in three ethnic groups. In addition, we identified a novel association with asthma in the PYHIN1, gene that was specific to individuals of African descent (p=3.9×10−9). These results suggest that some asthma susceptibility loci are robust to differences in ancestry when sufficiently large samples sizes are investigated, and that ancestry-specific associations also contribute to the complex genetic architecture of asthma.
doi:10.1038/ng.888
PMCID: PMC3445408  PMID: 21804549
6.  Ethnic Variability in Persistent Asthma After In Utero Tobacco Exposure 
Pediatrics  2011;128(3):e623-e630.
BACKGROUND:
The effects of in utero tobacco smoke exposure on childhood respiratory health have been investigated, and outcomes have been inconsistent.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine if in utero tobacco smoke exposure is associated with childhood persistent asthma in Mexican, Puerto Rican, and black children.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
There were 295 Mexican, Puerto Rican, and black asthmatic children, aged 8 to 16 years, who underwent spirometry, and clinical data were collected from the parents during a standardized interview. The effect of in utero tobacco smoke exposure on the development of persistent asthma and related clinical outcomes was evaluated by logistic regression.
RESULTS:
Children with persistent asthma had a higher odds of exposure to in utero tobacco smoke, but not current tobacco smoke, than did children with intermittent asthma (odds ratio [OR]: 3.57; P = .029). Tobacco smoke exposure from parents in the first 2 years of life did not alter this association. Furthermore, there were higher odds of in utero tobacco smoke exposure in children experiencing nocturnal symptoms (OR: 2.77; P = .048), daily asthma symptoms (OR: 2.73; P = .046), and emergency department visits (OR: 3.85; P = .015) within the year.
CONCLUSIONS:
Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero was significantly associated with persistent asthma among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and black children compared with those with intermittent asthma. These results suggest that smoking cessation during pregnancy may lead to a decrease in the incidence of persistent asthma in these populations.
doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0640
PMCID: PMC3164096  PMID: 21859918
asthma; tobacco; Latino; African American; pregnancy
7.  Cosmopolitan and Ethnic-specific Replication of Genetic Risk Factors for Asthma in Two Latino Populations 
Background
Although Mexicans and Puerto Ricans are jointly classified as “Hispanic/Latino”, there are significant differences in asthma prevalence, severity, and mortality between the two groups. We sought to examine the possibility that population-specific genetic risks contribute to this disparity.
Objectives
Over 100 candidate genes have been associated with asthma and replicated in an independent population, and seven genomewide association studies in asthma have been performed. We compared the pattern of replication of these associations in Puerto Ricans and Mexicans.
Methods
We genotyped Mexican and Puerto Rican trios using an Affymetrix 6.0 Genechip, and used a family based analysis to test for genetic associations in 124 genes previously associated with asthma.
Results
We identified 32 SNPs in 17 genes associated with asthma in at least one of the two populations. Twenty-two of these SNPs in eleven genes were significantly associated with asthma in the combined population and showed no significant heterogeneity of association, while five SNPs were associated in only one population and showed statistically significant effect heterogeneity. In a gene-based approach, two additional genes were associated with asthma in the combined population and three additional genes displayed ethnic-specific associations with heterogeneity.
Conclusions
Our results show that only a minority of genetic association studies replicate in our population of Mexican and Puerto Rican asthmatics. Among SNPs that were successfully replicated, most showed no significant heterogeneity across populations. However, we identified several population-specific genetic associations.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.03.050
PMCID: PMC3129381  PMID: 21621256
asthma; genetics; Hispanics; Latinos; Mexicans; Puerto Ricans; replication; genomewide association; candidate genes; effect heterogeneity
8.  Development of a Panel of Genome-Wide Ancestry Informative Markers to Study Admixture Throughout the Americas 
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(3):e1002554.
Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R2>0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance). Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region.
Author Summary
Individuals from Latin America are descendants of multiple ancestral populations, primarily Native American, European, and African ancestors. The relative proportions of these ancestries can be estimated using genetic markers, known as ancestry informative markers (AIMs), whose allele frequency varies between the ancestral groups. Once determined, these ancestral proportions can be correlated with normal phenotypes, can be associated with disease, can be used to control for confounding due to population stratification, or can inform on the history of admixture in a population. In this study, we identified a panel of AIMs relevant to Latin American populations, validated the panel by comparing estimates of ancestry using the panel to ancestry determined from genome-wide data, and tested the panel in a diverse set of populations from the Americas. The panel of AIMs produces ancestry estimates that are highly accurate and appropriately controlled for population stratification, and it was used to genotype 18 populations from throughout Latin America. We have made the panel of AIMs available to any researcher interested in estimating ancestral proportions for populations from the Americas.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002554
PMCID: PMC3297575  PMID: 22412386
9.  ALOX5AP and LTA4H polymorphisms modify augmentation of bronchodilator responsiveness by leukotriene modifiers in Latinos 
Background
Understanding the effects of interactions between multiple genes and asthma medications may aid in the understanding of the heterogeneous response to asthma therapies.
Objective
To identify modulating effects of ALOX5AP and LTA4H gene polymorphisms on the drug-drug interaction between leukotriene modifiers and albuterol in Mexicans and Puerto Ricans.
Methods
In a cross-sectional study of 293 Mexicans and 356 Puerto Ricans with asthma, ALOX5AP and LTA4H genes were sequenced, and interactions between gene polymorphisms and bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol was analyzed between leukotriene modifier users and non-users.
Results
In heterozygotes and homozygotes for the minor allele at LTA4H SNP rs2540491 and heterozygotes for the major allele at LTA4H SNP rs2540487, leukotriene modifier use was associated with a clinically significant increase in percent change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after albuterol administration of 7.10% (p=0.002), 10.06% (p=0.001), and 10.03% (p<0.001), respectively. Presence of the major allele at ALOX5AP SNP rs10507391 or the minor allele at ALOX5AP SNP rs9551963 augmented this response. When stratified by ethnicity, these findings held true for Puerto Ricans, but not Mexicans.
Conclusions
LTA4H and ALOX5AP gene polymorphisms modify the augmentation of bronchodilator responsiveness by leukotriene modifiers in Puerto Ricans but not Mexicans with asthma.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.06.048
PMCID: PMC2950217  PMID: 20810156
asthma; leukotriene; leukotriene modifier; Latino; albuterol; drug responsiveness; association study; genetic polymorphism
10.  GSNO Reductase and β2 Adrenergic Receptor Gene-gene Interaction: Bronchodilator Responsiveness to Albuterol 
Pharmacogenetics and genomics  2010;20(6):351-358.
Background
Short-acting inhaled β2-agonists such as albuterol are used for bronchodilation and are the mainstay of asthma treatment worldwide. There is significant variation in bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol not only between individuals but also across racial/ethnic groups. The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is the target for β2-agonist drugs. The enzyme S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), which regulates levels of the endogenous bronchodilator S-nitrosoglutathione, has been shown to modulate the response to β2-agonists.
Objective
We hypothesized that there are pharmacogenetic interactions between GSNOR and β2AR gene variants which are associated with variable response to albuterol.
Methods
We performed family-based analyses to test for association between GSNOR gene variants and asthma and related phenotypes in 609 Puerto Rican and Mexican families with asthma. In addition, we tested these subjects for pharmacogenetic interaction between GSNOR and β2AR gene variants and responsiveness to albuterol using linear regression. Cell transfection experiments were performed to test the potential effect of the GSNOR gene variants.
Results
Among Puerto Ricans, several GSNOR SNPs and a haplotype in the 3′UTR were significantly associated with increased risk for asthma and lower bronchodilator responsiveness (p = 0.04 to 0.007). The GSNOR risk haplotype affects expression of GSNOR mRNA and protein, suggesting a gain of function. Furthermore, gene-gene interaction analysis provided evidence of pharmacogenetic interaction between GSNOR and β2AR gene variants and the response to albuterol in Puerto Rican (p = 0.03), Mexican (p = 0.15) and combined Puerto Rican and Mexican asthmatics (p = 0.003). Specifically, GSNOR+17059*β2AR+46 genotype combinations (TG+GG*AG and TG+GG*GG) were associated with lower bronchodilator response.
Conclusion
Genotyping of GSNOR and β2AR genes may be a useful in identifying Latino subjects, who might benefit from adjuvant therapy for refractory asthma.
doi:10.1097/FPC.0b013e328337f992
PMCID: PMC2883564  PMID: 20335826
Asthma; Bronchodilator responsiveness; GSNO Reductase; β2-Adrenergic Receptor; Latinos; Gene-gene interaction; Polymorphisms; Pharmacogenetics
11.  Genetic ancestry modifies pharmacogenetic gene–gene interaction for asthma 
Pharmacogenetics and genomics  2009;19(7):489-496.
Objective
A recent admixture mapping analysis identified interleukin 6 (IL6) and IL6 receptor (IL6R) as candidate genes for inflammatory diseases. In the airways during allergic inflammation, IL6 signaling controls the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. In addition, albuterol, a commonly prescribed asthma therapy, has been shown to influence IL6 gene expression. Therefore, we reasoned that interactions between the IL6 and IL6R genes might be associated with bronchodilator drug responsiveness to albuterol in asthmatic patients.
Methods
Four functional IL6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a nonsynonymous IL6R SNP were genotyped in 700 Mexican and Puerto Rican asthma families and in 443 African-American asthma cases and controls. Both family-based association tests and linear regression models were used to assess the association between individual SNPs and haplotypes with bronchodilator response. Gene–gene interactions were tested by using multiple linear regression analyses.
Results
No single SNP was consistently associated with drug response in all the three populations. However, on the gene level, we found a consistent IL6 and IL6R pharmacogenetic interaction in the three populations. This pharmacogenetic gene–gene interaction was contextual and dependent upon ancestry (racial background). This interaction resulted in higher drug response to albuterol in Latinos, but lower drug response in African-Americans. Herein, we show that there is an effect modification by ancestry on bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol.
Conclusion
Genetic variants in the IL6 and IL6R genes act synergistically to modify the bronchodilator drug responsiveness in asthma and this pharmacogenetic interaction is modified by the genetic ancestry.
doi:10.1097/FPC.0b013e32832c440e
PMCID: PMC2768127  PMID: 19503017
asthma genetics; African-Americans; ancestry; effect modification; gene–gene interaction; IL6; IL6 receptor; latinos
13.  Ancestry-related assortative mating in Latino populations 
Genome Biology  2009;10(11):R132.
Examination of ancestry-informative genetic markers shows that Puerto Rican and Mexican populations have shown strong assortative mating that continues to this day.
Background
While spouse correlations have been documented for numerous traits, no prior studies have assessed assortative mating for genetic ancestry in admixed populations.
Results
Using 104 ancestry informative markers, we examined spouse correlations in genetic ancestry for Mexican spouse pairs recruited from Mexico City and the San Francisco Bay Area, and Puerto Rican spouse pairs recruited from Puerto Rico and New York City. In the Mexican pairs, we found strong spouse correlations for European and Native American ancestry, but no correlation in African ancestry. In the Puerto Rican pairs, we found significant spouse correlations for African ancestry and European ancestry but not Native American ancestry. Correlations were not attributable to variation in socioeconomic status or geographic heterogeneity. Past evidence of spouse correlation was also seen in the strong evidence of linkage disequilibrium between unlinked markers, which was accounted for in regression analysis by ancestral allele frequency difference at the pair of markers (European versus Native American for Mexicans, European versus African for Puerto Ricans). We also observed an excess of homozygosity at individual markers within the spouses, but this provided weaker evidence, as expected, of spouse correlation. Ancestry variance is predicted to decline in each generation, but less so under assortative mating. We used the current observed variances of ancestry to infer even stronger patterns of spouse ancestry correlation in previous generations.
Conclusions
Assortative mating related to genetic ancestry persists in Latino populations to the current day, and has impacted on the genomic structure in these populations.
doi:10.1186/gb-2009-10-11-r132
PMCID: PMC3091325  PMID: 19930545
14.  Genome-Wide Association Study Implicates Chromosome 9q21.31 as a Susceptibility Locus for Asthma in Mexican Children 
PLoS Genetics  2009;5(8):e1000623.
Many candidate genes have been studied for asthma, but replication has varied. Novel candidate genes have been identified for various complex diseases using genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We conducted a GWAS in 492 Mexican children with asthma, predominantly atopic by skin prick test, and their parents using the Illumina HumanHap 550 K BeadChip to identify novel genetic variation for childhood asthma. The 520,767 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passing quality control were tested for association with childhood asthma using log-linear regression with a log-additive risk model. Eleven of the most significantly associated GWAS SNPs were tested for replication in an independent study of 177 Mexican case–parent trios with childhood-onset asthma and atopy using log-linear analysis. The chromosome 9q21.31 SNP rs2378383 (p = 7.10×10−6 in the GWAS), located upstream of transducin-like enhancer of split 4 (TLE4), gave a p-value of 0.03 and the same direction and magnitude of association in the replication study (combined p = 6.79×10−7). Ancestry analysis on chromosome 9q supported an inverse association between the rs2378383 minor allele (G) and childhood asthma. This work identifies chromosome 9q21.31 as a novel susceptibility locus for childhood asthma in Mexicans. Further, analysis of genome-wide expression data in 51 human tissues from the Novartis Research Foundation showed that median GWAS significance levels for SNPs in genes expressed in the lung differed most significantly from genes not expressed in the lung when compared to 50 other tissues, supporting the biological plausibility of our overall GWAS findings and the multigenic etiology of childhood asthma.
Author Summary
Asthma is a leading chronic childhood disease with a presumed strong genetic component, but no genes have been definitely shown to influence asthma development. Few genetic studies of asthma have included Hispanic populations. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study of asthma in 492 Mexican children with asthma, predominantly atopic by skin prick test, and their parents to identify novel genetic variation for childhood asthma. We implicated several polymorphisms in or near TLE4 on chromosome 9q21.31 (a novel candidate region for childhood asthma) and replicated one polymorphism in an independent study of childhood-onset asthmatics with atopy and their parents of Mexican ethnicity. Hispanics have differing proportions of Native American, European, and African ancestries, and we found less Native American ancestry than expected at chromosome 9q21.31. This suggests that chromosome 9q21.31 may underlie ethnic differences in childhood asthma and that future replication would be most effective in populations with Native American ancestry. Analysis of publicly available genome-wide expression data revealed that association signals in genes expressed in the lung differed most significantly from genes not expressed in the lung when compared to 50 other tissues, supporting the biological plausibility of the overall GWAS findings and the multigenic etiology of asthma.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000623
PMCID: PMC2722731  PMID: 19714205
15.  ORMDL3 Gene Is Associated with Asthma in Three Ethnically Diverse Populations 
Rationale: Independent replication of genetic associations in complex diseases, particularly in whole-genome association studies, is critical to confirm the association.
Objectives: A whole-genome association study identified ORMDL3 as a promising candidate gene for asthma in white populations. Here, we attempted to confirm the role of ORMDL3 genetic variants in asthma in three ethnically diverse populations: Mexican, Puerto Rican, and African American.
Methods: We used family-based analyses to test for association between seven candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and around the ORMDL3 gene and asthma and related phenotypes in 701 Puerto Rican and Mexican parent–child trios. We also evaluated these seven SNPs and an additional ORMDL3 SNP in 264 African American subjects with asthma and 176 healthy control subjects.
Measurements and Main Results: We found significant associations between two SNPs within ORMDL3 (rs4378650 and rs12603332) and asthma in Mexicans and African Americans (P = 0.028 and 0.001 for rs4378650 and P = 0.021 and 0.001 for rs12603332, respectively), and a trend toward association in Puerto Ricans (P = 0.076 and 0.080 for SNPs rs4378650 and rs12603332, respectively). These associations became stronger among Mexican and Puerto Rican subjects with asthma with IgE levels greater than 100 IU/ml. We did not find any association between ORMDL3 SNPs and baseline lung function or response to the bronchodilator albuterol.
Conclusions: Our results confirm that the ORMDL3 locus is a risk factor for asthma in ethnically diverse populations. However, inconsistent SNP-level results suggest that further studies will be needed to determine the mechanism by which ORMDL3 predisposes to asthma.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200711-1644OC
PMCID: PMC2408437  PMID: 18310477
asthma; genetics; ORMDL3; Latinos; African Americans
16.  Dissecting Complex Diseases in Complex Populations 
Asthma is a common but complex respiratory ailment; current data indicate that interaction of genetic and environmental factors lead to its clinical expression. In the United States, asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality vary widely among different Latino ethnic groups. The prevalence of asthma is highest in Puerto Ricans, intermediate in Dominicans and Cubans, and lowest in Mexicans and Central Americans. Independently, known socioeconomic, environmental, and genetic differences do not fully account for this observation. One potential explanation is that there may be unique and ethnic-specific gene–environment interactions that can differentially modify risk for asthma in Latino ethnic groups. These gene–environment interactions can be tested using genetic ancestry as a surrogate for genetic risk factors. Latinos are admixed and share varying proportions of African, Native American, and European ancestry. Most Latinos are unaware of their precise ancestry and report their ancestry based on the national origin of their family and their physical appearance. The unavailability of precise ancestry and the genetic complexity among Latinos may complicate asthma research studies in this population. On the other hand, precisely because of this rich mixture of ancestry, Latinos present a unique opportunity to disentangle the clinical, social, environmental, and genetic underpinnings of population differences in asthma prevalence, severity, and bronchodilator drug responsiveness.
doi:10.1513/pats.200701-029AW
PMCID: PMC2647623  PMID: 17607004
genes; environments; Latinos; Hispanics; asthma

Results 1-16 (16)