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1.  A comparison of the efficacy of darifenacin alone vs. darifenacin plus a Behavioural Modification Programme upon the symptoms of overactive bladder 
This study assessed the benefit of adding behavioural modification to darifenacin treatment for overactive bladder (OAB).
Materials and methods
The ABLE trial was a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre study of 12 weeks of darifenacin treatment [with voluntary up-titration from 7.5 mg once daily (qd) to 15 mg qd at week 2] alone or in combination with a Behavioural Modification Programme (BMP) for men and women with dry or wet OAB. Efficacy was assessed as the change in the number (per day) of micturitions (primary variable), urge urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes, urgency episodes, pads used and nocturnal voids. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also evaluated. Tolerability and safety assessments included adverse events and the number of discontinuations.
Of 592 patients screened, 395 were randomised, 190 to darifenacin alone and 205 to darifenacin + BMP. At baseline, the majority of subjects were dry (mean 2.8 and three UUI episodes per day in the darifenacin and darifenacin + BMP groups respectively). At study end, darifenacin alone and darifenacin + BMP both produced significant reductions from baseline in median numbers of micturitions, UUI episodes, urgency episodes and nocturnal voids (all p < 0.05), but not in the number of pads used. HRQoL also improved. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in efficacy or HRQoL variables.
Darifenacin treatment provides a degree of normalisation of micturition variables and improvement in HRQoL that cannot be further enhanced by behavioural therapy of the type used in this study. Whether behavioural modification would add benefit over darifenacin treatment in patients with more pronounced incontinence problems remains to be determined.
PMCID: PMC2325270  PMID: 18324952
2.  Effects of Cigarette Smoke Components on In Vitro Chemotaxis of Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes 
Infection and Immunity  1977;16(1):240-248.
Some ciliostatic components of cigarette smoke were studied as inhibitors of in vitro chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In comparison to their concentration in an inhibitory level of cigarette smoke, the unsaturated aldehydes acrolein and crotonaldehyde were the most potent inhibitors, whereas nicotine, cyanide, acetaldehyde, and furfural were the next strongest inhibitors. In contrast, sulfide, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and the phenols (phenol and o-, m-, and p-cresol) were relatively weak inhibitors of PMN chemotaxis. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde mimicked whole cigarette smoke in their effects on PMNs by not causing loss of PMN viability, yet their effects were prevented by the addition of cysteine. On the other hand, addition of nicotine, cyanide, acetaldehyde, and furfural to PMN suspensions resulted in a limited loss of cellular viabilities, and their effects on PMNs were not prevented by cysteine. Of the tested components, only cyanide significantly altered PMN glucose metabolism by increasing carbon flow via the glycolytic and hexose monophosphate pathways in a manner similar to that observed with whole cigarette smoke. The results of this study suggest that the unsaturated aldehydes, including acrolein and crotonaldehyde, are major contributors to the inhibitory properties of cigarette smoke. The inhibitory effects of these unsaturated aldehydes are probably due to a direct interaction of these oxidants and/or thiol-alkylating agents with PMNs, yet the glucose metabolism of these cells is unaffected. One interpretation of these data is that PMN chemotaxis is dependent upon particular cellular proteins containing one or more essential thiol group(s) but that these proteins are unrelated to glucose metabolism.
PMCID: PMC421514  PMID: 873608

Results 1-2 (2)