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1.  Integrin-free tetraspanin CD151 can inhibit tumor cell motility upon clustering and is a clinical indicator of prostate cancer progression 
Cancer research  2013;74(1):173-187.
Normal physiology relies on the organization of transmembrane proteins by molecular scaffolds, such as tetraspanins. Oncogenesis frequently involves changes in their organization or expression. The tetraspanin CD151 is thought to contribute to cancer progression through direct interaction with the laminin-binding integrins α3β1 and α6β1. However, this interaction cannot explain the ability of CD151 to control migration in the absence of these integrins or on non-laminin substrates. We demonstrate that CD151 can regulate tumor cell migration without direct integrin binding and that integrin-free CD151 (CD151free) correlates clinically with tumor progression and metastasis. Clustering CD151free through its integrin-binding domain promotes accumulation in areas of cell-cell contact leading to enhanced adhesion and inhibition of tumor cell motility in vitro and in vivo. CD151free clustering is a strong regulator of motility even in the absence of α3 expression but requires PKCα, suggesting that CD151 can control migration independent of its integrin associations. The histological detection of CD151free in prostate cancer correlates with poor patient outcome. When CD151free is present, patients are more likely to recur after radical prostatectomy and progression to metastatic disease is accelerated. Multivariable analysis identifies CD151free as an independent predictor of survival. Moreover, the detection of CD151free can stratify survival among patients with elevated PSA. Cumulatively these studies demonstrate that a subpopulation of CD151 exists on the surface of tumor cells that can regulate migration independent of its integrin partner. The clinical correlation of CD151free with prostate cancer progression suggests that it may contribute to the disease and predict cancer progression.
PMCID: PMC3947299  PMID: 24220242
cell migration; metastasis; prostate cancer; tumor markers and detection of metastasis; molecular diagnosis and prognosis
2.  Vibration Induced Osteogenic Commitment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells is Enhanced by Cytoskeletal Remodeling but not Fluid Shear 
Journal of biomechanics  2013;46(13):2296-2302.
Consistent across studies in humans, animals and cells, the application of vibrations can be anabolic and/or anti-catabolic to bone. The physical mechanisms modulating the vibration-induced response have not been identified. Recently, we developed an in vitro model in which candidate parameters including acceleration magnitude and fluid shear can be controlled independently during vibrations. Here, we hypothesized that vibration induced fluid shear does not modulate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and mineralization and that cell’s sensitivity to vibrations can be promoted via actin stress fiber formation. Adipose derived human MSCs were subjected to vibration frequencies and acceleration magnitudes that induced fluid shear stress ranging from 0.04Pa to 5Pa. Vibrations were applied at magnitudes of 0.15g, 1g, and 2g using frequencies of both 100Hz and 30Hz. After 14d and under low fluid shear conditions associated with 100Hz oscillations, mineralization was greater in all vibrated groups than in controls. Greater levels of fluid shear produced by 30Hz vibrations enhanced mineralization only in the 2g group. Over 3d, vibrations led to the greatest increase in total cell number with the frequency/acceleration combination that induced the smallest level of fluid shear. Acute experiments showed that actin remodeling was necessary for early mechanical up-regulation of RUNX-2 mRNA levels. During osteogenic differentiation, mechanically induced up-regulation of actin remodeling genes including Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein, a critical regulator of Arp2/3 complex, was related to the magnitude of the applied acceleration but not to fluid shear. These data demonstrate that fluid shear does not regulate vibration induced proliferation and mineralization and that cytoskeletal remodeling activity may play a role in MSC mechanosensitivity.
PMCID: PMC3777744  PMID: 23870506
Bone; Mechanical Signals; Vibrations; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Differentiation; Proliferation; In Vitro Cell Culture
4.  Association between high dietary intake of the n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and reduced risk of Crohn's disease 
There are plausible mechanisms for how dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, could prevent Crohn's disease (CD).
To conduct a prospective study to investigate the association between increased intake of DHA and risk of CD.
Overall, 229 702 participants were recruited from nine European centres between 1991 and 1998. At recruitment, dietary intakes of DHA and fatty acids were measured using validated food frequency questionnaires. The cohort was monitored through to June 2004 to identify participants who developed incident CD. In a nested case–control analysis, each case was matched with four controls; odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for quintiles of DHA intake, adjusted for total energy intake, smoking, other dietary fatty acids, dietary vitamin D and body mass index.
Seventy‐three participants developed incident CD. All higher quintiles of DHA intake were inversely associated with development of CD; the highest quintile had the greatest effect size (OR = 0.07; 95% CI = 0.02–0.81). The OR trend across quintiles of DHA was 0.54 (95% CI = 0.30–0.99, Ptrend = 0.04). Including BMI in the multivariate analysis, due to its correlation with dietary fat showed similar associations. There were no associations with the other dietary fatty acids studied.
There were inverse associations, with a biological gradient between increasing dietary docosahexaenoic acid intakes and incident Crohn's disease. Further studies in other populations should measure docosahexaenoic acid to determine if the association is consistent and the hypothesis tested in randomised controlled trials of purely docosahexaenoic acid supplementation.
PMCID: PMC4114542  PMID: 24611981
5.  High Fat Diet Rapidly Suppresses B Lymphopoiesis by Disrupting the Supportive Capacity of the Bone Marrow Niche 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90639.
The bone marrow (BM) niche is the primary site of hematopoiesis, and cues from this microenvironment are critical to maintain hematopoiesis. Obesity increases lifetime susceptibility to a host of chronic diseases, and has been linked to defective leukogenesis. The pressures obesity exerts on hematopoietic tissues led us to study the effects of a high fat diet (HFD: 60% Kcal from fat) on B cell development in BM. Seven week old male C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a high fat (HFD) or regular chow (RD) diet for periods of 2 days, 1 week and 6 weeks. B-cell populations (B220+) were not altered after 2 d of HFD, within 1 w B-cell proportions were reduced by −10%, and by 6 w by −25% as compared to RD (p<0.05). BM RNA was extracted to track the expression of B-cell development markers Il-7, Ebf-1 and Pax-5. At 2 d, the expression of Il-7 and Ebf-1 were reduced by −20% (p = 0.08) and −11% (p = 0.06) whereas Pax-5 was not significantly impacted. At one week, however, the expressions of Il-7, Ebf-1, and Pax-5 in HFD mice fell by -19%, −20% and −16%, and by six weeks were further reduced to −23%, −29% and −34% as compared to RD (p<0.05 for all), a suppression paralleled by a +363% increase in adipose encroachment within the marrow space (p<0.01). Il-7 is a critical factor in the early B-cell lineage which is secreted by supportive cells in the BM niche, and is necessary for B-cell commitment. These data indicate that BM Il-7 expression, and by extension B-cell differentiation, are rapidly impaired by HFD. The trend towards suppressed expression of Il-7 following only 2 d of HFD demonstrates how susceptible the BM niche, and the cells which rely on it, are to diet, which ultimately could contribute to disease susceptibility in metabolic disorders such as obesity.
PMCID: PMC3942453  PMID: 24595332
6.  The Potential Benefits and Inherent Risks of Vibration as a Non-Drug Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis 
Current osteoporosis reports  2013;11(1):36-44.
The delivery of mechanical signals to the skeleton using vibration is being considered as a non-drug treatment of osteoporosis. Delivered over a range of magnitudes and frequencies, vibration has been shown to be both anabolic and anti-catabolic to the musculoskeletal tissues, yet caution must be emphasized as these mechanical signals, particularly chronic exposure to higher intensities, is a known pathogen to many physiological systems. In contrast, accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that low intensity vibration (LIV) improves bone quality through regulating the activity of cells responsible for bone remodeling, as well as biasing the differentiation fate of their mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell progenitors. In vitro studies provide insights into the biologic mechanisms of LIV, and indicate that cells respond to these low magnitude signals through a distinct mechanism driven not by matrix strain but acceleration. These cell, animal and human studies may represent the foundation of a safe, non-drug means to protect and improve the musculoskeletal system of the elderly, injured and infirm.
PMCID: PMC3586310  PMID: 23371467
Low Intensity Vibration; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Hematopoietic Stem Cells; Mechanosensitivity; Nucleus Motion; Fluid Shear; Biomechanics; Sarcopenia; Osteopenia
8.  Post-Transplantation B Cell Function in Different Molecular Types of SCID 
Journal of clinical immunology  2012;33(1):96-110.
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome of diverse genetic cause characterized by profound deficiencies of T, B and sometimes NK cell function. Non-ablative HLA-identical or rigorously T cell-depleted haploidentical parental bone marrow transplantation (BMT) results in thymus-dependent genetically donor T cell development in the recipients, leading to a high rate of long-term survival. However, the development of B cell function has been more problematic. We report here results of analyses of B cell function in 125 SCID recipients prior to and long-term after non-ablative BMT, according to their molecular type.
Studies included blood immunoglobulin measurements; antibody titers to standard vaccines, blood group antigens and bacteriophage Φ × 174; flow cytometry to examine for markers of immaturity, memory, switched memory B cells and BAFF receptor expression; B cell chimerism; B cell spectratyping; and B cell proliferation.
The results showed that B cell chimerism was not required for normal B cell function in IL7Rα-Def, ADA-Def and CD3-Def SCIDs. In X-linked-SCID, Jak3-Def SCID and those with V-D-J recombination defects, donor B cell chimerism was necessary for B cell function to develop.
The most important factor determining whether B cell function develops in SCID T cell chimeras is the underlying molecular defect. In some types, host B cells function normally. In those molecular types where host B cell function did not develop, donor B cell chimerism was necessary to achieve B cell function. 236 words
PMCID: PMC3549311  PMID: 23001410
B cell function; B cell chimerism; bone marrow transplantation; severe combined immunodeficiency; molecular type; memory B cells
9.  Adrenal Insufficiency in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient Taking Megestrol Acetate 
PMCID: PMC3598252  PMID: 23349204
Megestrol acetate; end-stage renal failure; adrenal insufficiency; hypoadrenalism
11.  Separating Fluid Shear Stress from Acceleration during Vibrations in Vitro: Identification of Mechanical Signals Modulating the Cellular Response 
The identification of the physical mechanism(s) by which cells can sense vibrations requires the determination of the cellular mechanical environment. Here, we quantified vibration-induced fluid shear stresses in vitro and tested whether this system allows for the separation of two mechanical parameters previously proposed to drive the cellular response to vibration – fluid shear and peak accelerations. When peak accelerations of the oscillatory horizontal motions were set at 1g and 60Hz, peak fluid shear stresses acting on the cell layer reached 0.5Pa. A 3.5-fold increase in fluid viscosity increased peak fluid shear stresses 2.6-fold while doubling fluid volume in the well caused a 2-fold decrease in fluid shear. Fluid shear was positively related to peak acceleration magnitude and inversely related to vibration frequency. These data demonstrated that peak shear stress can be effectively separated from peak acceleration by controlling specific levels of vibration frequency, acceleration, and/or fluid viscosity. As an example for exploiting these relations, we tested the relevance of shear stress in promoting COX-2 expression in osteoblast like cells. Across different vibration frequencies and fluid viscosities, neither the level of generated fluid shear nor the frequency of the signal were able to consistently account for differences in the relative increase in COX-2 expression between groups, emphasizing that the eventual identification of the physical mechanism(s) requires a detailed quantification of the cellular mechanical environment.
PMCID: PMC3466610  PMID: 23074384
Osteoblasts; Mechanical Stimulation; Finite Element Modeling; Shear stress; Particle Image Velocimetry; Speckle Photometry
12.  Plasma extracellular vesicle protein content for diagnosis and prognosis of global cardiovascular disease 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2013;21(10):467-471.
Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem worldwide. Its growing burden is particularly ominous in Asia, due to increasing rates of major risk factors such as diabetes, obesity and smoking. There is an urgent need for early identification and treatment of individuals at risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Plasma extracellular vesicle proteins are novel biomarkers that have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis, risk stratification and prognostication of patients with cardiovascular disease. Ongoing parallel biobank initiatives in European (the Netherlands) and Asian (Singapore) populations offer a unique opportunity to validate these biomarkers in diverse ethnic groups.
PMCID: PMC3776081  PMID: 23975618
13.  The determinants of periorbital skin aging in participants of a melanoma case control study in the UK 
The British journal of dermatology  2011;165(5):1011-1021.
Skin aging is said to be caused by multiple factors. The relationship with sun exposure is of particular interest because the detrimental cutaneous effects of the sun may be a strong motivator to sun protection. We report a study of skin aging in participants of an epidemiological study of melanoma.
To determine the predictors of periorbital cutaneous aging and whether it could be used as an objective marker of sun exposure.
A photograph of the periorbital skin taken in 1341 participants was graded for wrinkles, degree of vascularity and blotchy pigmentation and the resultant data assessed in relation to reported sun exposure, sunscreen use, body mass index (BMI), smoking and the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene status. Data were analysed using proportional odds regression.
Wrinkling was associated with age and heavy smoking. Use of higher SPF sunscreen was protective (p=0.01). Age, male sex, MC1R variants (r, p=0.01; R, p=0.02), higher reported daily sun exposure (p=0.02), increased BMI (p=0.01) and smoking (p=0.02) were risk factors for hypervascularity. Blotchy pigmentation was associated with age, male sex, higher education and higher weekday sun exposure (p=0.03). More frequent sunscreen use (p=0.02) and MC1R variants (r, p=0.03; R, p=0.001) were protective.
Periorbital wrinkling was a poor biomarker of reported sun exposure. Vascularity was a better biomarker as was blotchy pigmentation, the latter in darker-skinned individuals. In summary, male sex, sun exposure, smoking, obesity and MC1R variants were associated with measures of cutaneous aging. Sunscreen use showed some evidence of being protective.
PMCID: PMC3202027  PMID: 21787368
14.  Microbiological cure times in acanthamoeba keratitis 
Eye  2011;25(9):1155-1160.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the duration of treatment necessary for sequential acanthamoeba laboratory tests from corneal scrapings to become negative, and to assess predictors that affect this duration period.
We included all patients with at least one positive acanthamoeba culture or Giemsa stain at the F.I. Proctor Foundation Microbiology Laboratory from 1996 to 2009. A parametric survival analysis was performed among patients with repeat cultures to assess significant predictors for extended clearance time. Simulations were performed to estimate clearance time in the entire patient population, assuming imperfect sensitivity.
Thirty-seven patients with laboratory evidence of acanthamoeba had testing at 69 time points. The median clearance time among eyes with repeat cultures was 42.5 days (interquartile range (IQR) 22.0–82.0 days; unadjusted parametric model). Initial visual acuity was the only predictor significantly associated with clearance time in univariate analyses (P<0.0001). Using initial visual acuity as a predictor for clearance time among the entire patient population, the estimated clearance time decreased to 38.7 days (95% confidence interval (CI) 27.9–53.5 days). When the imperfect sensitivity of the culture technique was also taken into account, the estimated clearance time was 44.1 days (95% CI 31.9–61.0 days).
The duration of infection with acanthamoeba keratitis undergoing treatment has not been well characterized. In this report we estimate a median clearance time of approximately 6 weeks, with an IQR of 22–82 days.
PMCID: PMC3178241  PMID: 21637300
acanthamoeba; keratitis; survival analysis; cornea
15.  The coronary CT angiography vision protocol: a prospective observational imaging cohort study in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery 
BMJ Open  2012;2(4):e001474.
At present, physicians have a limited ability to predict major cardiovascular complications after non-cardiac surgery and little is known about the anatomy of coronary arteries associated with perioperative myocardial infarction. We have initiated the Coronary CT Angiography (CTA) VISION Study to (1) establish the predictive value of coronary CTA for perioperative myocardial infarction and death and (2) describe the coronary anatomy of patients that have a perioperative myocardial infarction.
Methods and analysis
The Coronary CTA VISION Study is prospective observational study. Preoperative coronary CTA will be performed in 1000–1500 patients with a history of vascular disease or at least three cardiovascular risk factors who are undergoing major elective non-cardiac surgery. Serial troponin will be measured 6–12 h after surgery and daily for the first 3 days after surgery. Major vascular outcomes at 30 days and 1 year after surgery will be independently adjudicated.
Ethics and dissemination
Coronary CTA results in a measurable radiation exposure that is similar to a nuclear perfusion scan (10–12 mSV). Treating physicians will be blinded to the CTA results until 30 days after surgery in order to provide the most unbiased assessment of its prognostic capabilities. The only exception will be the presence of a left main stenosis >50%. This approach is supported by best available current evidence that, excluding left main disease, prophylatic revascularisation prior to non-cardiac surgery does not improve outcomes. An external safety and monitoring committee is overseeing the study and will review outcome data at regular intervals. Publications describing the results of the study will be submitted to major peer-reviewed journals and presented at international medical conferences.
PMCID: PMC3449273  PMID: 22855630
Cardiology; Coronary heart disease; Radiology & Imaging; Computed tomography; Radiology & Imaging; Cardiovascular imaging
16.  Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Rural Chinese Aged 16–34 Years - Socio-demographic Correlates in the Context of a Transforming China 
Journal of affective disorders  2010;130(3):438-446.
The distinctive epidemiologic profile of suicide in China, with notably high rates among rural young adult females, invites examination of possible underlying risk factors. Although there are accumulating data regarding the epidemiology of suicide among youth and young adults in China, there are meager data on suicidal ideation and attempts despite its importance.
Our study in 2005-06 sought to identify all potentially suitable rural participants, aged 16–34 years, from 10 representative villages in rural Sichuan Province. We conducted structured interviews regarding a range of socio-demographic characteristics and suicidal morbidity.
1654 of a potential 3008 participants participated; lifetime and one-year prevalence were: suicidal ideation (18.8%, 5.2%), serious ideation (8.6%, 2.3%), planning (5.8%, 1.5%), and attempt (2.7%, 0.5%). Comparisons among strata of socio-demographic characteristics showed more prevalent suicidal ideation associated with: female gender, lower education, poorer financial perception, greater rurality of residence, and marital status of “never married” or “others”. Suicidal attempt was associated with: female gender and a marital status of “others”.
The study was carried out in one province and caution is required when considering other rural regions of China. There were a substantial number of unapproachable subjects because of their migrant work at distant sites.
Our results revealed an apparently higher prevalence for suicide ideation and planning compared with residents of other countries, but a lower prevalence for attempts. These data suggests that the relatively high rate of suicide in rural China reflects an elevated case fatality ratio due to chosen methods. The results also revealed unique patterns for correlates with the occurrence of ideation and attempts.
PMCID: PMC3085596  PMID: 21106251
Suicide Morbidity; Prevalence; Socio-demographic Correlates; Rural Community; China
17.  Melanoma sentinel node biopsy and prediction models for relapse and overall survival 
British Journal of Cancer  2010;103(8):1229-1236.
To optimise predictive models for sentinal node biopsy (SNB) positivity, relapse and survival, using clinico-pathological characteristics and osteopontin gene expression in primary melanomas.
A comparison of the clinico-pathological characteristics of SNB positive and negative cases was carried out in 561 melanoma patients. In 199 patients, gene expression in formalin-fixed primary tumours was studied using Illumina's DASL assay. A cross validation approach was used to test prognostic predictive models and receiver operating characteristic curves were produced.
Independent predictors of SNB positivity were Breslow thickness, mitotic count and tumour site. Osteopontin expression best predicted SNB positivity (P=2.4 × 10−7), remaining significant in multivariable analysis. Osteopontin expression, combined with thickness, mitotic count and site, gave the best area under the curve (AUC) to predict SNB positivity (72.6%). Independent predictors of relapse-free survival were SNB status, thickness, site, ulceration and vessel invasion, whereas only SNB status and thickness predicted overall survival. Using clinico-pathological features (thickness, mitotic count, ulceration, vessel invasion, site, age and sex) gave a better AUC to predict relapse (71.0%) and survival (70.0%) than SNB status alone (57.0, 55.0%). In patients with gene expression data, the SNB status combined with the clinico-pathological features produced the best prediction of relapse (72.7%) and survival (69.0%), which was not increased further with osteopontin expression (72.7, 68.0%).
Use of these models should be tested in other data sets in order to improve predictive and prognostic data for patients.
PMCID: PMC2967048  PMID: 20859289
melanoma; prognosis; sentinel node biopsy; formalin-fixed tissue; osteopontin
18.  Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease in an Asian Memory Clinic – Evidence for a Clinical Spectrum 
To determine if mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a continuum of cognitive and functional deficits.
Clinical data of 164 subjects with no dementia (ND, n = 52), uncertain dementia (n = 69), and mild probable Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 43) were reviewed. Uncertain dementia patients were classified as pre-MCI (n = 11), early amnestic MCI (e-aMCI, n = 15) and late amnestic MCI (l-aMCI, n = 15). Cognitive assessments [Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) and a validated neuropsychological battery], functional assessments (Lawton's scale for instrumental activities of daily living) and neuroimaging (ischemic lesions and medial temporal lobe atrophy) were reviewed.
ND, aMCI and mild AD subjects demonstrated a significant trend for worsening performance for all cognitive and functional measures (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Pre-MCI subjects performed significantly better than aMCI subjects in all verbal memory domains (p < 0.001), while l-aMCI had worse functional performance (p = 0.007), a trend towards greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.05) and higher medial temporal lobe atrophy scores (p = 0.06). l-aMCI subjects were more likely than either pre-MCI or e-aMCI to progress to dementia over a mean follow-up period of 2.5 years (46.7 vs. 9.1 and 20.0%, respectively).
Clinical delineation of aMCI allows the differentiation of those likely to progress for better correlation to biomarker development.
PMCID: PMC3199896  PMID: 22163238
Alzheimer's disease; Clinical dementia rating; Disease spectrum; Mild cognitive impairment
19.  Degradation of foot-and-mouth disease virus during composting of infected pig carcasses 
The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation and degradation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus during composting of infected pig carcasses as measured by virus isolation in tissue culture and by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Three FMD-infected pig carcasses were composted in a mixture of chicken manure and wood shavings in a biocontainment level 3 facility. Compost temperatures had reached 50°C and 70°C by days 10 and 19, respectively. Under these conditions, FMD virus was inactivated in specimens in compost by day 10 and the viral RNA was degraded in skin and internal organ tissues by day 21. In comparison, at ambient temperatures close to 20°C, FMD virus survived to day 10 in the skin tissue specimen from the pig that had the highest initial level of viral RNA in its tissues and the viral RNA persisted to day 21. Similarly, beta-actin mRNA, tested as a PCR control, persisted to day 21 in specimens held at ambient temperatures, but it was degraded in the remnants of tissues recovered from compost on day 21. Results from this study provide evidence that composting could be used for safe disposal of pig carcasses infected with FMD virus.
PMCID: PMC2801310  PMID: 20357957
21.  Association of BANK1 and TNFSF4 with systemic lupus erythematosus in Hong Kong Chinese 
Genes and Immunity  2009;10(5):414-420.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with complex genetic inheritance. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BANK1 and TNFSF4 have been shown to be associated with SLE in Caucasian populations, but it is not known whether they are also involved in the disease in other ethnic groups. Recent data from our genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 314 SLE cases and 920 controls collected in Hong Kong identified SNPs in and around BANK1 and TNFSF4 to be associated with SLE risk. On the basis of the results of the reported studies and our GWAS, SNPs were selected for further genotyping in 949 SLE patients (overlapping with the 314 cases in our GWAS) and non-overlapping 1042 healthy controls. We confirmed the associations of BANK1 and TNFSF4 with SLE in Chinese (BANK1, rs3733197, odds ratio (OR)=0.84, P=0.021; BANK1, rs17266594, OR=0.61, P=4.67 × 10−9; TNFSF4, rs844648, OR=1.22, P=2.47 × 10−3; TNFSF4, rs2205960, OR=1.30, P=2.41 × 10−4). Another SNP located in intron 1 of BANK1, rs4522865, was separately replicated by Sequenom in 360 cases and 360 controls and was also confirmed to be associated with SLE (OR=0.725, P=2.93 × 10−3). Logistic regression analysis showed that rs3733197 (A383T in ankyrin domain) and rs17266594 (a branch point-site SNP) from BANK1 had independent contributions towards the disease association (P=0.037 and 6.63 × 10−8, respectively). In TNFSF4, rs2205960 was associated with SLE independently from the effect of rs844648 (P=6.26 × 10−3), but not vice versa (P=0.55). These findings suggest that multiple independent genetic variants may be present within the gene locus, which exert their effects on SLE pathogenesis through different mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC2834352  PMID: 19357697
SLE; BANK1; TNFSF4; Chinese; genetic association
22.  Patients' perceptions of nasopharyngeal aspiration in the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Hong Kong 
Nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) is the preferred method for collecting specimens for viral culture in patients with respiratory tract infection. As virus identification may influence admission and treatment decisions, it is important to perform NPA in the emergency department. The test may be uncomfortable and poorly tolerated. This prospective study investigated patients' perceptions of NPA. Patients in the emergency department with upper respiratory tract infection undergoing NPA between 9 March 2005 and 12 August 2005 were included. 86 patients (mean (SD) age 47 (23) years; 49 women) were recruited. 22 (26%) patients complained that NPA was very uncomfortable, 59 (69%) reported that it was mildly uncomfortable and 5 (6%) patients reported no discomfort. On a 10‐point scale, the median discomfort score was 4. 29 (34%) patients stated that NPA was more uncomfortable than blood taking, 19 (22%) patients felt that both were similar and 38 (44%) patients felt that NPA was less uncomfortable (p value not significant). NPA performed in the emergency department is well tolerated and should be considered in emergency departments when results may influence patient management.
PMCID: PMC2658151  PMID: 17183041
23.  Nasal CPAP reduces systemic blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and mild sleepiness 
Thorax  2006;61(12):1083-1090.
A randomised controlled study was undertaken to examine the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on 24 hour systemic blood pressure (BP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).
Patients were fitted with an ambulatory BP measuring device as outpatients during normal activities and recorded for 24 hours before starting therapeutic or subtherapeutic (4 cm H2O) CPAP treatment. BP monitoring was repeated before completion of 12 weeks of treatment. The primary end point was the change in 24 hour mean BP.
Twenty three of 28 participants in each treatment arm completed the study. There was no significant difference between the two groups in age, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Score, apnoea‐hypopnoea index, arousal index, and minimum Sao2. Twenty four patients were hypertensive. The pressure in the therapeutic CPAP group was 10.7 (0.4) cm H2O. CPAP usage was 5.1 (0.4) and 2.6 (0.4) hours/night for the therapeutic and subtherapeutic CPAP groups, respectively (p<0.001). After 12 weeks of treatment there were significant differences between the two CPAP groups in mean (SE) changes in 24 hour diastolic BP (−2.4 (1.2) v 1.1 (1.0) mm Hg (95% CI −6.6 to −0.5), p = 0.025); 24 hour mean BP (−2.5 (1.3) v 1.3 (1.1) mm Hg (95% CI −7.2 to −0.2), p = 0.037); sleep time systolic BP (−4.1 (2.1) v 2.2 (1.8) mm Hg (95% CI −11.8 to −0.7), p = 0.028); and sleep time mean BP (−3.6 (1.7) v 1.3 (1.4) mm Hg (95% CI −9.2 to −0.4), p = 0.033).
Compared with subtherapeutic CPAP, 12 weeks of treatment with therapeutic CPAP leads to reductions in 24 hour mean and diastolic BP by 3.8 mm Hg and 3.5 mm Hg, respectively, in mildly sleepy patients with OSA.
PMCID: PMC2117074  PMID: 16928705
blood pressure; continuous positive airway pressure; obstructive sleep apnoea
24.  Impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on pulmonary function, functional capacity and quality of life in a cohort of survivors 
Thorax  2005;60(5):401-409.
Objective: To examine the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among survivors.
Methods: 110 survivors with confirmed SARS were evaluated at the Prince of Wales Hospital, HK at the end of 3 and 6 months after symptom onset. The assessment included lung volumes (TLC, VC, RV, FRC), spirometry (FVC, FEV1), carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO adjusted for haemoglobin), inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle strength (Pimax and Pemax), 6 minute walk distance (6MWD), chest radiographs, and HRQoL by SF-36 questionnaire.
Results: There were 44 men and 66 women with a mean (SD) age of 35.6 (9.8) years and body mass index of 23.1 (4.8) kg/m2. Seventy (64%) were healthcare workers. At 6 months 33 subjects (30%) had abnormal chest radiographs; four (3.6%), eight (7.4%), and 17 (15.5%) patients had FVC, TLC, and TLCO below 80% of predicted values; and 15 (13.9%) and 24 (22.2%) had Pimax and Pemax values below 80 cm H2O, respectively. The 6MWD increased from a mean (SD) of 464 (83) m at 3 months to 502 (95) m (95% CI 22 to 54 m, p<0.001), but the results were lower than normal controls in the same age groups. There was impairment of HRQoL at 6 months. Patients who required ICU admission (n = 31) had significantly lower FVC, TLC, and TLCO than those who did not.
Conclusion: The exercise capacity and health status of SARS survivors was considerably lower than that of a normal population at 6 months. Significant impairment in surface area for gas exchange was noted in 15.5% of survivors. The functional disability appears out of proportion to the degree of lung function impairment and may be related to additional factors such as muscle deconditioning and steroid myopathy.
PMCID: PMC1758905  PMID: 15860716
25.  Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): epidemiology and clinical features 
Hui, D | Chan, M | Wu, A | Ng, P
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2004;80(945):373-381.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerged infectious disease with a significant morbidity and mortality. The major clinical features include persistent fever, chills/rigor, myalgia, malaise, dry cough, headache, and dyspnoea. Older subjects may present without the typical febrile response. Common laboratory features include lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, raised alanine transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase. The constellation of compatible clinical and laboratory findings, together with certain characteristic radiological features and lack of clinical response to broad spectrum antibiotics, should arouse suspicion of SARS. Measurement of serum RNA by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique has a detection rate of 75%–80% in the first week of the illness.
PMCID: PMC1743054  PMID: 15254300

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