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1.  One portal simultaneous bilateral endoscopic carpal tunnel release under local anaesthesia. Do the results justify the effort? 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(8):1501-1505.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether simultaneous bilateral endoscopic carpal tunnel release could be effectively and safely performed under local anaesthesia.
Methods
We prospectively evaluated 85 consecutive patients (62 females) who underwent simultaneous one portal endoscopic bilateral carpal tunnel release with subcutaneous injection of 2 mL 2 % lidocaine. In case of pain after discharge, all patients were advised to take paracetamol (i.e., acetaminophen) and to record the dose of drug taken. Patients were reviewed at regular intervals until one year postoperatively.
Results
The mean operative time was 31.2 min. Postoperatively, only nine patients (10.6 %) received on average 611 mg of paracetamol. Significant improvement was noticed in the parameters of numbness, pain, positive Phalen and Tinel tests, pinch strength, grip strength, tip pinch strength and Quick DASH Score. Patients returned fully to work after surgery in average 2.2 weeks. Conversion to open release took place in four wrists (2.4 %). Discomfort and pain from tourniquet pressure was reported from two patients (2.4 %). Two wrists (1.2 %) required revision surgery. One patient (1.2 %) reported temporary thenar numbness and another (1.2 %) had slight scar hypersensitivity.
Conclusions
Simultaneous bilateral endoscopic carpal tunnel release under local anaesthesia is well tolerated by patients. The technique may be of benefit in young, active, high-demand patients who require fast recovery, early return to work and less disability time.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1951-0
PMCID: PMC3728404  PMID: 23748463
2.  Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath of the digits. A systematic review 
Hand (New York, N.Y.)  2011;6(3):244-249.
Background
We reviewed the literature to evaluate the demographic, clinical and histological profile of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath of the digits (GCTTSD). The overall recurrence rate and the factors affecting tumour recurrence were also assessed.
Methods
We searched for published articles regarding the GCTTSD in the English literature the last 30 years using the PubMed search engine. All retrieved papers were analysed and their reference lists were also screened if relevant. Clinical studies with less than five patients and follow-up less than 2 years were excluded from further evaluation. For each report, information was gathered related to trial characteristics and study population. Location and multicentricity of lesions, kind and severity of symptoms, type of applied treatment modality and histopathological features of the excised tumours were additionally recorded. A meta-analysis for estimating the pooled recurrence rate after surgical excision was also conducted. Statistical significance was assumed for p ≤0.05.
Results
We found 21 studies with histological confirmation of GCTTS. However, only 10 studies including 605 patients were reviewed according to selection criteria (average follow-up 36.7 to 79 months). The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.47 (p < 0.005) and the mean age ranged from 32 to 51 years. Pain or sensory disturbances reported only in 15.7% and 4.57% of cases, respectively. A definite history of trauma recorded in 5% of lesions. The most frequent tumour location was the index finger (29.7%). In total, 14.8% of patients had tumour recurrence. Type I tumours (single lesions) were more frequently detected (78.7%) than type II tumours (two or more distinct tumours that were not joined together) (21.3%) but the latter were associated with a higher recurrence rate (p < 0.001). Study design also affected the possibility of recurrence as it was lower in prospective studies compared to retrospective studies (p = 0.003). Even though bone erosion was detected in 28.39%, recurrence was not more common in this group. In addition, recurrence was not significantly associated with a specific finger or phalanx.
Conclusions
Intrinsic biology of the tumour seems to play a more fundamental role in recurrence than tumour location or local invasiveness. More prospective well-designed studies including a large number of cases are necessary to identify tumours prone to recurrence and determine the proper treatment protocol for each individual patient.
doi:10.1007/s11552-011-9341-9
PMCID: PMC3153624  PMID: 22942846
Giant cell tumour; Tendon sheath; Digits; Hand
3.  Pulsed electromagnetic fields for the treatment of tibial delayed unions and nonunions. A prospective clinical study and review of the literature 
Background
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) stimulation for the treatment of bone nonunion or delayed union have been in use for several years, but on a limited basis. The aim of this study was to assess the overall efficacy of the method in tibial delayed unions and nonunions and identify factors that could affect the final outcome.
Methods
We prospectively reviewed 44 patients (27 men) with a mean age of 49.6 ± 18.4 years that received PEMF therapy due to tibial shaft delayed union or nonunion. In all cases, fracture gap was less than 1 cm and infection or soft tissue defects were absent.
Results
Fracture union was confirmed in 34 cases (77.3%). No relationship was found between union rate and age (p = 0.819), fracture side (left or right) (p = 0.734), fracture type (simple or comminuted, open or closed) (p = 0.111), smoking (p = 0.245), diabetes (p = 0.68) and initial treatment method applied (plates, nail, plaster of paris) (p = 0.395). The time of treatment onset didn’t affect the incidence of fracture healing (p = 0.841). Although statistical significance was not demonstrated, longer treatment duration showed a trend of increased probability of union (p = 0.081).
Conclusion
PEMF stimulation is an effective non-invasive method for addressing non-infected tibial union abnormalities. Its success is not associated with specific fracture or patient related variables and it couldn’t be clearly considered a time-dependent phenomenon.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-7-24
PMCID: PMC3441225  PMID: 22681718
PEMF; Tibia; Fracture; Nonunion; Delayed union
4.  Isolated thumb carpometacarpal joint dislocation: a case report and review of the literature 
Background
Isolated thumb carpometacarpal dislocation is a rare injury pattern and the optimal treatment option is still controversial.
Case Description
We present a 27-year-old basketball player who underwent an isolated dorsal dislocation of the thumb carpometacarpal joint after a fall. The dislocation was successfully reduced by closed means but the joint was found to be grossly unstable. Due to inherent instability, repair of the ruptured dorsoradial ligament and joint capsule was performed.
The ligament was detached from its proximal insertion into trapezium and subsequently stabilized via suture anchors. The torn capsule was repaired in an end-to-end fashion and immobilization of the joint was applied for 6 weeks.
Results
At 3-year follow up evaluation the patient was pain free and returned to his previous level of activity. No restriction of carpometacrpal movements or residual instability was noticed. Radiographic examination showed normal joint alignment and no signs of subluxation or early osteoarthritis.
Conclusion
Surgical stabilization of the dorsal capsuloligamentous complex may be considered the selected treatment option in isolated carpometacarpal joint dislocations, that remain unstable after closed reduction in young and high demand patients.
Level of Clinical Evidence: Level IV
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-5-16
PMCID: PMC2841114  PMID: 20219137
5.  Reamed interlocking intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures and aseptic nonunions. Can we expect an optimum result? 
The need for reaming and the number of locking screws to be used in intramedullary (IM) tibial nailing of acute fractures as well as routine bone grafting of tibial aseptic nonunions have not been clearly defined. We describe the results of reamed interlocked IM nails in 233 patients with 247 tibial fractures (190 closed, 27 open and 30 nonunions). Ninety-six percent of the fractures were united at review after an average of 4.9 years. No correlation was found between union and nail diameter (P = 0.501) or the number of locking screws used (P = 0.287). Nail dynamization was effective in 82% of fractures. Locking screw(s) breakage was associated with nonunion in 25% of cases. Bone grafting during IM nailing was found not to increase the healing rate in tibial nonunions (P = 0.623). None of the IM nails were removed or revised due to infection. A dropped hallux and postoperative compartment syndrome were found in 0.8 and 1.6% of cases, respectively. Anterior knee pain was reported in 42% of patients but nail removal did not alleviate the symptoms in almost half. This series confirms the place of reamed intramedullary nailing for the vast majority of tibial diaphyseal fractures. It provides an optimum outcome and minimizes the need for supplementary bone grafting in aseptic nonunions.
doi:10.1007/s11751-009-0065-0
PMCID: PMC2746276  PMID: 19705253
Tibia; Fracture; Open fracture; Intramedullary nail; Nonunion; Dynamization; Exchange nailing
6.  Reamed interlocking intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures and aseptic nonunions. Can we expect an optimum result? 
The need for reaming and the number of locking screws to be used in intramedullary (IM) tibial nailing of acute fractures as well as routine bone grafting of tibial aseptic nonunions have not been clearly defined. We describe the results of reamed interlocked IM nails in 233 patients with 247 tibial fractures (190 closed, 27 open and 30 nonunions). Ninety-six percent of the fractures were united at review after an average of 4.9 years. No correlation was found between union and nail diameter (P = 0.501) or the number of locking screws used (P = 0.287). Nail dynamization was effective in 82% of fractures. Locking screw(s) breakage was associated with nonunion in 25% of cases. Bone grafting during IM nailing was found not to increase the healing rate in tibial nonunions (P = 0.623). None of the IM nails were removed or revised due to infection. A dropped hallux and postoperative compartment syndrome were found in 0.8 and 1.6% of cases, respectively. Anterior knee pain was reported in 42% of patients but nail removal did not alleviate the symptoms in almost half. This series confirms the place of reamed intramedullary nailing for the vast majority of tibial diaphyseal fractures. It provides an optimum outcome and minimizes the need for supplementary bone grafting in aseptic nonunions.
doi:10.1007/s11751-009-0065-0
PMCID: PMC2746276  PMID: 19705253
Tibia; Fracture; Open fracture; Intramedullary nail; Nonunion; Dynamization; Exchange nailing
7.  Surgical treatment of a giant tibial high-grade mixofibrosarcoma with preservation of limb function: a case report 
Myxofibrosarcoma is one of the most common sarcomas in elderly patients showing a slight male prevalence. The tumor is mainly located in lower and upper extremities and rarely in trunk, neck and feet. We present a case of a 84-year-old man referred to our tumour center with a giant and neglected high-grade tibial myxofibrosarcoma in the anteromedial side of tibial mid-diaphysis. Large size lesions in association with older age may jeopardise the maintenance of limb vitality, vascularity and stability.
Authors performed a complete tumour resection, followed by reconstruction of bone and soft tissue defects with cement, plate and a musculocutaneous gastrocnemius flap, in order to cover the underlying bone and promote uneventful healing and perfusion of the operated extremity.
At 2 years postoperatively, limb salvage, good functional outcome and no tumour recurrence were reported while the patient was able to effectively perform the majority of the daily activities.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-6-16
PMCID: PMC2753323  PMID: 19761609
8.  Closed subtalar dislocation with non-displaced fractures of talus and navicular: a case report and review of the literature 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8793.
Closed subtalar dislocations associated with talus and navicular fractures are rare injuries. We report on a case of a 43-year-old builder man with medial subtalar dislocation that was further complicated by minimally displaced talar and navicular fractures. Successful closed reduction under general anesthesia was followed by non-weight bearing and ankle immobilization with a below-knee cast for 6 ;weeks. At 3 years post-injury, the subtalar joint was stable, the foot and ankle mobility was in normal limits and the patient could still work as a builder. However, he complained for occasionally mild pain due to the development of post-traumatic arthritis in subtalar and ankle joints. Our search in literature revealed that conservative treatment of all the successfully reduced and minimally displaced subtalar fracture-dislocations has given superior results compared to surgical management. However, even in cases with no or slight fracture displacement, avascular necrosis of the talus or arthritis of the surrounding joints can compromise the final functional outcome.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-8793
PMCID: PMC2769472  PMID: 19918402
9.  Does repeat tibial tubercle osteotomy or intramedullary extension affect the union rate in revision total knee arthroplasty? 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(4):426-431.
Background and purpose Tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) is an established surgical technique for exposing the stiff knee in revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA). The osteotomy is usually performed through the anterior metaphyseal cancellous bone of the tibia but it can be extended into the intramedullary canal if tibial stem and cement removal are necessary. Furthermore, repeat osteotomy may be required in another RTKA. We assessed whether intramedullary extension of TTO or repeat osteotomy affected the healing rate in RTKA.
Methods We retrospectively evaluated 74 consecutive patients (39 women) with an average age of 60 (29–89) years who underwent 87 TTOs during RTKA. 1 patient had bilateral TTO. 10 patients had repeat TTO and 1 patient received 3 TTOs in the same knee. The osteotomy was extramedullary in 57 knees and intramedullary in 30 knees. Osteotomy repair was performed with bicortical screws and/or wires.
Results Bone healing occurred in all the cases. The median time to union was 15 (6–47) weeks. The median healing time for the extramedullary osteotomy group was 12 weeks and for the intramedullary osteotomy group it was 21 weeks (p = 0.002). Repeat osteotomy was not associated with delayed union. Neither intramedullary nor repeat osteotomy was found to increase the complication rate of the procedure.
Interpretation Reliable bone healing can be expected with intramedullary extension or repeat TTO in RTKA. However, intramedullary extension of the osteotomy prolongs the union time of the tibial tubercle.
doi:10.3109/17453670903110683
PMCID: PMC2823182  PMID: 19562562
10.  High hip center bipolar hemiarthroplasty for non-reconstructable pelvic discontinuity 
Acta Orthopaedica  2009;80(2):190-192.
doi:10.3109/17453670902876797
PMCID: PMC2823180  PMID: 19404801
11.  Reconstruction of a missed posterior locked shoulder fracture-dislocation with bone graft and lesser tuberosity transfer: a case report 
Introduction
Posterior shoulder fracture-dislocation is a rare emergency condition with poor prognosis when there is a delay in diagnosis and presence of associated injuries.
Case presentation
We present a case of a neglected four-part fracture-dislocation of the proximal humerus in a 34-year-old Greek woman. Except from the substantially displaced and comminuted tuberosity fractures, an anterolateral defect of approximately 50% of the articular surface was apparent. Open reduction of the humeral head was followed by reconstruction of the proximal humerus with allograft impaction, transfer of lesser tuberosity to the humeral defect and anatomic fixation of the greater tuberosity and humeral neck fractures. At two and a half years postoperatively, the humeral head was revascularised and properly articulated with the glenoid fossa.
Conclusion
The presented case underlines the variability of injury pattern, the potential of missed diagnosis and the need for preserving the humeral head in young patients regardless of the amount of articular surface defect and disruption of soft tissue attachments.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-260
PMCID: PMC2531121  PMID: 18681972
12.  Spinal cord compression by a solitary metastasis from a low grade leydig cell tumour: a case report and review of the literature 
Background
Leydig tumour is rare and there are only three cases with metastatic disease reported.
Case presentation
A 52 year-old Caucasian male was admitted, on emergency basis to the Orthopaedic Department with six weeks history of increasing midthoracic back pain, change in gait, poor balance, subjective weakness and numbness of the lower trunk and legs. MRI scan showed change in the signal intensity of T4 and T5 vertebral body but their height were maintained. Urgent T4 and T5 corpectomies, decompression of the spinal cord and reconstruction of the vertebral bodies were performed followed by radiotherapy. Neurological status significantly improved with a mild residual numbness over the dorsum of the right foot. The histology of the excised tumour was identical to the primary. At 2 years follow-up visit the patient is neurologically stable and disease free without other organs metastases.
Conclusion
This is the first case in English literature, which shows that spinal metastases could occur even in the early stage of Leydig cell tumour, without other organs involvement. Aggressive surgical management of spinal metastases combined with post operative radiotherapy can give a better chance for long survivorship.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-6-75
PMCID: PMC2483278  PMID: 18616814
13.  Has the management of shoulder dislocation changed over time? 
International Orthopaedics  2006;31(3):385-389.
Anterior shoulder dislocation is a disabling injury affecting all ages, young and old alike. Recently, the treatment of traumatic shoulder dislocation has included immobilisation for varying periods of time followed by physiotherapy. This study is the first in this country to address the demographic data and recurrence rates of shoulder dislocation. Three hundred and eight patients (170 men and 138 women) were followed up for an average of 5.9 years. The most frequent mechanism of injury was a fall (65.66% of cases), and in 92.1% of the patients, the shoulder was reduced in the Emergency Department without the need for sedation or general anaesthesia. The overall recurrence rate in all ages was 50%, but rose to 88.9% in the 14–20-year age group. The duration of immobilisation did not affect the rate of re-dislocation of the humeral head. We believe that conventional shoulder immobilisation in a sling offers no benefits, and it would be preferable not to immobilise the shoulder at all.
doi:10.1007/s00264-006-0183-y
PMCID: PMC2267594  PMID: 16909255
14.  Reconstruction of a Severe Open Distal Humerus Fracture With Complete Loss of Medial Column by Using a Free Fibular Osteocutaneous Graft 
Eplasty  2008;8:e24.
Objective: Open intra-articular fractures of the distal humerus can be associated with considerable bone loss and extensive soft tissue damage. The management of these injuries is quite challenging, and the restoration of elbow anatomy may require multiple bone and soft tissue surgical procedures. The purpose of this case report is to present the option of addressing at the same time a complex skin, muscular, and bone distal humerus defect by using a composite vascularized graft. Methods: We present a case of a high-energy open fracture of the distal humerus in a polytrauma young patient. Apart from the significant damage of all skin layers and underlying muscle units at the posterolateral side of the elbow, the medial column of the distal humerus (6 cm in length) was completely absent. After patient resuscitation and wound debridement, a free vascularized osteocutaneous fibular graft was used for the reconstruction of the bone defect and the restoration of elbow anatomy. Results: No complications were encountered during the postoperative period, and both bone and soft tissues progressed to sound healing. At 26 months follow-up, the patient had a functional and stable elbow and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 85 points, which is equivalent to a good result. Conclusions: Vascularized osteocutaneous fibular graft could effectively address complex traumatic defects of the elbow joint and enhance the potential for bone healing and early functional recovery.
PMCID: PMC2374498  PMID: 18509480
15.  Exophytic growth of a neglected giant subcutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of the lower extremity. A case report 
Background
Superficial leiomyosarcoma is an exceedingly uncommon malignant tumor which could be located either to cutaneous or subcutaneous tissues. Increased mass size and depth, advanced tumor staging and inadequate surgical excision are the main prognostic factors for poor result.
Case presentation
We report a rare case of a 71-year-old man with an extensive exophytic lesion (12 × 10 cm) in the anterior-medial side of the proximal right tibia. The lesion was painless and consistently neglected by the patient until a skin trauma caused ulceration of the affected area. Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed a soft-tissue mass which was well defined from the surrounding bone and muscles. As initial biopsy in another hospital hadn't clarified the true nature of the lesion, new samples were taken and the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was established. Laboratory examination showed no distant metastasis and wide excision of the neoplasm was decided. After tumor resection, the remaining soft tissue and skin defect was covered with a gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap. The postoperative period was uneventful and wound healing was followed by local radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy. At 3 years follow up, no recurrence or metastasis was identified and the patient was able to walk and stand without impairment of his ambulatory status.
Conclusion
Proper surgical management of soft tissue leiomyosarcoma continues to remain the cornerstone of treatment efficacy and the most important prognostic factor for patients' survival. Reconstruction of the remaining soft tissue defect should be always performed at the same operative time when removal of giant size tumors leaves an uncovered cavity with an inadequate sleeve of muscular and skin tissues.
doi:10.1186/1477-7800-5-11
PMCID: PMC2409359  PMID: 18495007
16.  Is tension band wiring technique the "gold standard" for the treatment of olecranon fractures? A long term functional outcome study 
Background
Tension band wiring (TBW) remains the most common operative technique for the internal fixation of olecranon fractures despite the potential occurrence of subjective complaints due to subcutaneous position of the hardware. Aim of this long term retrospective study was to evaluate the elbow function and the patient-rated outcome after TBW fixation of olecranon fractures.
Methods
We reviewed 62 patients (33 men and 29 women) with an average age of 48.6 years (range, 18–85 years) who underwent TBW osteosynthesis for isolated olecranon fractures. All patients were assessed both clinically with measurement of flexion-extension and pronation-supination arcs and radiologically with elbow X-Rays. Functional outcome was estimated using the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) subjective pain score and VAS patient satisfaction score. Follow up: 6–13 years (average 8.2 years).
Results
There was a higher prevalence of fractures among men until the 5th decade of life and among women in elderly (p = 0.032). Slip or simple fall onto the arm was the main mechanism of injury for 38 fractures (61.3%) while high energy trauma, such as fall from a height (> 2 m) or road accident, was reported in 24 fractures (38.7%). Hardware removal performed in 51 patients (82.3%) but 34 of them (66.6% of removals) were still complaining for mild pain during daily activities. The incidence of pin migration and loosening was not statistically decreased when penetration of the anterior ulnar cortex was accomplished (p = 0.304). Supination was more often affected than pronation (p = 0.027). According to MEPS, 53 patients (85.5%) had a good to excellent result, 6 (9.7%) fair and 3 (4.8%) poor result. The average satisfaction rating was 9.3 out of 10 (range, 6–10) with 31 patients (50%) to remain completely satisfied from the final result. Degenerative changes recorded in 30 elbows (48.4%). However, no correlation could be found between radiographic findings and MEPS (p = 0.073).
Conclusion
Tension band wiring fixation remains the "gold standard" for the treatment of displaced and minimally comminuted olecranon fractures. In long term, low levels of pain may be evident regardless of whether the metalware is removed and degenerative changes have been developed.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-3-9
PMCID: PMC2265682  PMID: 18294381
17.  Carpal tunnel syndrome due to an atypical deep soft tissue leiomyoma: The risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement 
Background
Leiomyomas of the deep soft tissue are quite uncommon and occur even more rarely in upper extremity.
Case presentation
A 32-year old manual laborer man presented with a two-year history of numbness, tingling and burning pain in the palmar surface of the left hand and fingers. His medical history was unremarkable and no trauma episode was reported. According to the clinical examination and the result of median nerve conduction study (NCS) the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome was established. Operative release of the transverse carpal ligament was subsequently performed but the patient experienced only temporary relief of his symptoms. MRI examination revealed a deep palmary located mass with well-defined margins and ovoid shape. Intraoperatively, the tumor was in continuity with the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon of the middle finger causing substantial compression to median nerve. Histopathological findings of the resected mass were consistent with leiomyoma. After two years the patient was pain-free without signs of tumor recurrence.
Conclusion
Despite the fact that reports on deep soft tissue leiomyoma are exceptional, this tumor had to be considered as differential diagnosis in painful non-traumatic hand syndromes especially in young patients.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-5-92
PMCID: PMC1971266  PMID: 17686170
18.  The intra-articular use of ropivacaine for the control of post knee arthroscopy pain 
Aims
The purpose of this prospective randomised study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and the appropriate dose of the ropivacaine in the control of post-knee arthroscopy pain.
Methods
We randomised 60 patients in two groups to receive 10 ml/7.5 mg/ml ropivacaine (Group B) or 20 ml/7.5 mg/ml (Group A) at the end of a routine knee arthroscopy. We monitored the patient's blood pressure, heart rate, allergic reactions, headache, nausea, we assessed the pain using the visual analogue score at intervals of 1,2,3,4 and 6 hours after the operation. and we recorded the need for extra analgesia.
Results
The intraarticular use of the ropivacaine provided excellent control of pain after knee arthroscopy. At two hours post-operatively there wasn't any difference between the two groups. Afterwards, the Group A showed increased pain and need for supplementary medication.
Conclusion
We believe that intraarticular use of ropivacaine is effective to reduce post-operative pain minimising the use of systematic analgesia.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-1-17
PMCID: PMC1769474  PMID: 17187686

Results 1-18 (18)