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author:("cutin, karyas")
1.  Recent Time Trends in the Epidemiology of Stage IV Prostate Cancer in the United States: Analysis of Data From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program* 
Urology  2009;75(6):1396-1404.
OBJECTIVES
To describe recent epidemiologic trends in stage IV prostate cancer. Although advances in screening and diagnostic techniques have led to earlier detection of prostate cancer, a portion of patients still present with late-stage disease.
METHODS
Population-based cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (cases from 1988 to 2003, follow-up through 2005) were used to calculate annual age-adjusted incidence rates of stage IV prostate cancer (overall and for the subset presenting with distant metastases) and to assess time trends in patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics and survival.
RESULTS
From 1988 to 2003, the age-adjusted incidence of stage IV prostate cancer significantly declined by 6.4% each year. The proportion of men diagnosed at younger ages, with poorly differentiated tumors, or who underwent a radical prostatectomy significantly increased over time. Five-year relative survival improved across the study period (from 41.6% to 62.3%), particularly in those diagnosed at younger ages or with moderately to well-differentiated tumors. Later years of diagnosis were independently associated with a decreased risk of death (from all causes and from prostate cancer specifically) after controlling for important patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Tumor grade and receipt of radical prostatectomy appeared to be the strongest independent prognostic indicators. Temporal trends were similar in the subset presenting with distant metastases, except that no significant improvement in survival was observed.
CONCLUSIONS
As younger men may expect to live longer with advanced prostate cancer, there remains a need to widen the range of therapeutic and supportive care options.
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2009.07.1360
PMCID: PMC4249683  PMID: 19969335
2.  Methods and rationale used in a matched cohort study of the incidence of new primary cancers following prostate cancer 
Clinical Epidemiology  2013;5:429-437.
Objectives
We describe several methodological issues that were addressed in conducting a Danish population-based matched cohort study comparing rates of new primary cancers (NPCs) in men with and without prostate cancer (PC).
Methods
We matched 30,220 men with PC to 151,100 men without PC (comparators) on age (±2 years) and PC diagnosis/index date. We focused on several methodological issues: 1) to address survival differences between the cohorts we compared rates with and without censoring comparators on the date their matched PC patient died or was censored; 2) to address diagnostic bias, we excluded men with a history of cancer from the comparator cohort; 3) to address prostate cancer immunity, we graphed the hazard of NPC in both cohorts, with and without prostate cancer as an outcome; 4) we used empirical Bayes methods to explore the effect of adjusting for multiple comparisons.
Results
After 18 months of follow-up, cumulative person-time was lower in the PC than comparator cohort due to higher mortality among PC patients. Terminating person-time in comparators at the matched PC patient’s death or loss to follow-up resulted in comparable person-time up to 30 months of follow-up and lower person-time among comparators thereafter. The hazard of NPC was lower among men with PC than comparators throughout follow-up. There was little difference in rates beyond the first four years of follow-up after removing PC as an outcome. Empirical Bayes adjustment for multiple comparisons had little effect on the estimates.
Conclusion
Addressing the issues of competing risks, treatment interference or diagnostic bias, prostate cancer immunity due to radical prostatectomy, and multiple comparisons lowered the deficit rate of NPCs among men with a history of PC compared with those without PC. However, the differing rates of NPCs may also be due to risk factor differences between the cohorts.
doi:10.2147/CLEP.S49713
PMCID: PMC3817011  PMID: 24204172
prostate cancer; cohort study; cancer epidemiology; new primary cancer; incidence rate; competing risks; multiple comparisons
3.  Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Cataract Incidence Among Elderly Prostate Cancer Patients in the United States 
Annals of epidemiology  2010;21(3):156-163.
Purpose
The side-effects associated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) include weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. As cataracts have been linked to these metabolic abnormalities, an increased risk of cataract may be another adverse consequence of ADT use.
Methods
Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database, we estimated risk of cataract associated with ADT among 65,852 prostate-cancer patients. ADT treatment was defined as at least one dose of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or orchiectomy within 6 months after prostate cancer diagnosis. The outcome measure was a first claim of cataract diagnosis identified in Medicare claim files. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the effects of ADT treatment, controlling for confounders.
Results
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist use was associated with a modest increase in cataract incidence (HR 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.12). rchiectomy was also associated with an increased risk of cataract among men with no history of cataract prior to prostate cancer diagnosis (HR 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.07–1.47).
Conclusions
In the first systematic investigation of the association between ADT and cataract, our results suggest an elevation in the incidence of cataract among ADT users. Further study, preferably prospective in design, is needed to provide additional evidence to support or refute these findings.
doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.10.003
PMCID: PMC3792579  PMID: 21109456
Epidemiology; GnRH Agonist; Lens Opacities; Orchiectomy; Prostate Cancer; SEER-Medicare
4.  Estimated number of prevalent cases of metastatic bone disease in the US adult population 
Clinical Epidemiology  2012;4:87-93.
Background
The prevalence of metastatic bone disease in the US population is not well understood. We sought to estimate the current number of US adults with metastatic bone disease using two large administrative data sets.
Methods
Prevalence was estimated from a commercially insured cohort (ages 18–64 years, MarketScan database) and from a fee-for-service Medicare cohort (ages ≥65 years, Medicare 5% database) with coverage on December 31, 2008, representing approximately two-thirds of the US population in each age group. We searched for claims-based evidence of metastatic bone disease from January 1, 2004, using a combination of relevant diagnosis and treatment codes. The number of cases in the US adult population was extrapolated from age- and sex-specific prevalence estimated in these cohorts. Results are presented for all cancers combined and separately for primary breast, prostate, and lung cancer.
Results
In the commercially insured cohort (mean age = 42.3 years [SD = 13.1]), we identified 9505 patients (0.052%) with metastatic bone disease. Breast cancer was the most common primary tumor type (n = 4041). In the Medicare cohort (mean age = 75.6 years [SD = 7.8]), we identified 6427 (0.495%) patients with metastatic bone disease. Breast (n = 1798) and prostate (n = 1862) cancers were the most common primary tumor types. We estimate that 279,679 (95% confidence interval: 274,579–284,780) US adults alive on December 31, 2008, had evidence of metastatic bone disease in the previous 5 years. Breast, prostate, and lung cancers accounted for 68% of these cases.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that approximately 280,000 US adults were living with metastatic bone disease on December 31, 2008. This likely underestimates the true frequency; not all cases of metastatic bone disease are diagnosed, and some diagnosed cases might lack documentation in claims data.
doi:10.2147/CLEP.S28339
PMCID: PMC3345874  PMID: 22570568
bone neoplasms; epidemiology; metastasis; prevalence
5.  Timing of androgen deprivation therapy use and fracture risk among elderly men with prostate cancer in the United States 
Purpose
Fractures are a recognized consequence of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, less is known about the incidence of fracture in relation to the timing of ADT use or the impact of fracture on mortality in men with prostate cancer.
Methods
Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) using time-dependent Cox regression for fracture incidence related to the recency of exposure and dose among prostate cancer patients on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, as well as mortality associated with fractures.
Results
In our cohort of 80 844 patients, ADT was associated with an increased rate of fracture in both non-metastatic patients (aHR = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–1.39) and metastatic patients (aHR = 1.51; 95%CI = 1.36–1.67). Fracture rates increased with increasing cumulative GnRH dose but decreased with increasing number of months since last use in each dose category. The mortality rate doubled for men experiencing a fracture after their diagnosis compared with that for men who did not experience a fracture (aHR = 2.05; 95%CI = 1.98–2.12).
Conclusions
ADT in elderly men with prostate cancer increased the incidence of fractures, and the effect appears to diminish with increasing time since the last dose of a GnRH agonist. Experiencing a fracture after the diagnosis of prostate cancer was associated with decreased survival.
doi:10.1002/pds.2258
PMCID: PMC3313550  PMID: 22114014
epidemiology; prostate cancer; GnRH agonist; orchiectomy; SEER–Medicare; mortality; skeletal-related events
6.  Survival by histologic subtype in stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer based on data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program 
Clinical Epidemiology  2011;3:139-148.
Background:
The role of histology in the targeted management of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has garnered renewed attention in recent years. We provide contemporary population-based estimates of survival and an assessment of important prognostic factors in stage IV NSCLC by major histologic subtype.
Methods:
Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, we stratified 51,749 incident stage IV NSCLC patients (1988–2003 with follow-up through 2006) by major histologic subtype. We used Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods to describe overall survival and the prognostic influence of select patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics for each histologic subgroup.
Results:
Survival was highest in patients with bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma (1-year survival: 29.1%) and lowest in those with large cell tumors (1-year survival: 12.8%). Diagnosis in later years, female gender, younger age, either Asian/Pacific Islander or Hispanic race/ethnicity, lower tumor grade, and surgery or beam radiation as part of first-line treatment were generally independently associated with a decreased risk of death, but the prognostic significance of some of these factors (age, ethnicity, tumor grade) varied according to histologic subtype.
Conclusion:
Findings demonstrate a poor prognosis across histologic subtypes in stage IV NSCLC patients but highlight differences in both absolute survival and the relative importance of select prognostic factors by histologic subclassification. More research using other sources of population-based data could help clarify the role of histology in the presentation, management, and prognosis of late-stage NSCLC.
doi:10.2147/CLEP.S17191
PMCID: PMC3096514  PMID: 21607015
epidemiology; nonsmall cell lung cancer; histology; survival
7.  The epidemiology of malignant giant cell tumors of bone: an analysis of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (1975–2004) 
Rare Tumors  2009;1(2):e52.
Malignant giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a rare tumor with debilitating consequences. Patients with GCT of bone typically present with mechanical difficulty and pain as a result of bone destruction and are at an increased risk for fracture. Because of its unusual occurrence, little is known about the epidemiology of malignant GCT of bone. This report offers the first reliable population-based estimates of incidence, patient demographics, treatment course and survival for malignancy in GCT of bone in the United States. Using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, we estimated the overall incidence and determinants of survival among patients diagnosed with malignant GCT of bone from 1975–2004. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate demographic and clinical determinants of survival among malignant GCT cases. Based on analyses of 117 malignant GCT cases, the estimated annual incidence in the United States was 1.6 per 10,000,000 persons per year. Incidence was highest among adults aged 20 to 44 years (2.4 per 10,000,000 per year) and most patients were diagnosed with localized (31.6%) or regional (29.9%) disease compared to distant disease (16.2%). Approximately 85% of patients survived at least 5 years, with survival poorest among older patients and those with evidence of distant metastases at time of diagnosis. The current study represents the largest systematic investigation examining the occurrence and distribution of malignancy in GCT of bone in the general U.S. population. We confirm its rare occurrence and suggest that age and stage at diagnosis are strongly associated with long-term survival.
doi:10.4081/rt.2009.e52
PMCID: PMC2994468  PMID: 21139931
giant cell tumor of bone; surveillance; epidemiology and end results; descriptive epidemiology; incidence; survival; osteosarcoma.

Results 1-7 (7)