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1.  Molecular Modeling of Lectin-Like Protein from Acacia farnesiana Reveals a Possible Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:253483.
Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β-strand (posterior β sheets) and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction.
doi:10.1155/2013/253483
PMCID: PMC3893743  PMID: 24490151
2.  Toxicity and Binding Profile of Lectins from the Genus Canavalia on Brine Shrimp 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:154542.
Lectins are sugar-binding proteins widely distributed in nature with many biological functions. Although many lectins have a remarkable biotechnological potential, some of them can be cytotoxic. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of five lectins, purified from seeds of different species of Canavalia genus. In order to determine the toxicity, assays with Artemia nauplii were performed. In addition, a fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate the binding of lectins to Artemia nauplii. In order to verify the relationship between the structure of lectins and their cytotoxic effect, structural analysis was carried out to evaluate the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of each lectin. The results showed that all lectins exhibited different toxicities and bound to a similar area in the digestive tract of Artemia nauplii. Concerning the structural analysis, differences in spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may explain the variation of the toxicity exhibited by each lectin. To this date, this is the first study that establishes a link between toxicity and structure of CRD from Diocleinae lectins.
doi:10.1155/2013/154542
PMCID: PMC3860074  PMID: 24380079
3.  Complete Genome Sequence of Burkholderia phenoliruptrix BR3459a (CLA1), a Heat-Tolerant, Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont of Mimosa flocculosa 
Journal of Bacteriology  2012;194(23):6675-6676.
The genus Burkholderia represents a challenge to the fields of taxonomy and phylogeny and, especially, to the understanding of the contrasting roles as either opportunistic pathogens or bacteria with biotechnological potential. Few genomes of nonpathogenic strains, especially of diazotrophic symbiotic bacteria, have been sequenced to improve understanding of the genus. Here, we contribute with the complete genome sequence of Burkholderia phenoliruptrix strain BR3459a (CLA1), an effective diazotrophic symbiont of the leguminous tree Mimosa flocculosa Burkart, which is endemic to South America.
doi:10.1128/JB.01821-12
PMCID: PMC3497515  PMID: 23144415
4.  Characterization of Isoforms of the Lectin Isolated from the Red Algae Bryothamnion seaforthii and Its Pro-Healing Effect 
Marine Drugs  2012;10(9):1936-1954.
Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of proteins that have specific binding sites for carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Because of their biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The present study aimed to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin isolated from the marine red alga Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL). The lectin was purified using ion exchange chromatography with DEAE cellulose and characterized using tandem mass spectrometry. For healing tests, skin wounds were induced in the dorsal thoracic region of mice. These animals were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to topical treatment for 12 days with BSL, bovine serum albumin and 150 mM NaCl. To evaluate the potential of each treatment, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed on days 2, 7 and 12, respectively. The parameters evaluated included the wound area, the proportion of wound closure and the histological diagnosis. The wound closure was more effective with BSL (Postoperative Day 7 and 12) than controls. The luminal epithelium was completely restructured; the presence of collagen in the dermis and the strongly active presence of young skin annexes demonstrate the potential of treatment with BSL compared with controls. Our findings suggest that BSL has pro-healing properties and can be a potential medical process in the treatment of acute wounds.
doi:10.3390/md10091936
PMCID: PMC3475265  PMID: 23118713
lectins; algal proteins; wound healing
5.  Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2012;43(2):770-778.
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256μg/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health.
doi:10.1590/S1517-83822012000200042
PMCID: PMC3768816  PMID: 24031889
Yeast; sensitivity; lectins
6.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the lectin from Canavalia boliviana Piper seeds 
Canavalia boliviana lectin (Cbol) was purified using a Sephadex G-50 column and crystallized in the presence of X-Man by hanging-drop vapour diffusion at 293 K. After optimization, crystals suitable for diffraction were obtained using 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5 and 3.0 M sodium formate.
Plant lectins are the most studied group of carbohydrate-binding proteins. Despite the high similarity between the members of the Diocleinae subtribe (Leguminosae) group, they present differing biological activities. Canavalia boliviana lectin (Cbol) was purified using a Sephadex G-50 column and crystallized in the presence of X-Man by hanging-drop vapour diffusion at 293 K. After optimization, crystals suitable for diffraction were obtained under the condition 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5 and 3.0 M sodium formate. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 126.70, b = 66.64, c = 64.99 Å, α = 90.0, β = 120.8, γ = 90.0°. Assuming the presence of a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be about 46%. A complete data set was collected at 1.5 Å resolution.
doi:10.1107/S1744309109000797
PMCID: PMC2650465  PMID: 19255467
lectins; Canavalia boliviana Piper
7.  Lectins from the Red Marine Algal Species Bryothamnion seaforthii and Bryothamnion triquetrum as Tools to Differentiate Human Colon Carcinoma Cells 
The carbohydrate-binding activity of the algal lectins from the closely related red marine algal species Bryothamnion triquetrum (BTL) and Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL) was used to differentiate human colon carcinoma cell variants with respect to their cell membrane glyco-receptors. These lectins interacted with the cells tested in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the fluorescence spectra of both lectins clearly differentiated the cells used as shown by FACS profiles. Furthermore, as observed by confocal microscopy, BTL and BSL bound to cell surface glycoproteins underwent intense internalization, which makes them possible tools in targeting strategies.
doi:10.1155/2009/862162
PMCID: PMC2990109  PMID: 21152207
8.  New crystal forms of Diocleinae lectins in the presence of different dimannosides 
The crystallization and preliminary X-­ray data of Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL) and C. maritima lectin (CML) complexed with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe, Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe in two crystal forms [the complexes with Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group P32 and those with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group I222], which differed from those of the native proteins (P21212 for CML and C222 for CGL), are reported.
Studying the interactions between lectins and sugars is important in order to explain the differences observed in the biological activities presented by the highly similar proteins of the Diocleinae subtribe. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-­ray data of Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL) and C. maritima lectin (CML) complexed with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe, Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe in two crystal forms [the complexes with Man(α1-3)Man(α1)OMe and Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group P32 and those with Man(α1-2)Man(α1)OMe crystallized in space group I222], which differed from those of the native proteins (P21212 for CML and C222 for CGL), are reported. The crystal complexes of ConA-like lectins with Man(α1-4)Man(α1)OMe are reported here for the first time.
doi:10.1107/S1744309106038887
PMCID: PMC2225211  PMID: 17077488
lectin–sugar interactions; Dioocleinae lectins
9.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an anti-H(O) lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus seeds 
The seed lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA) has been crystallized. The best crystals grew over several days and were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293 K.
The seed lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA) has been crystallized. The best crystals grew over several days and were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293 K. A complete structural data set was collected at 2.00 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. LTA crystals were found to be monoclinic, belonging to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.89, b = 65.83, c = 102.53 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 92°. Molecular replacement yielded a solution with a correlation coefficient and R factor of 34.4 and 51.6%, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the molecular-replacement solution indicates a new quaternary association in the LTA structure. Crystallographic refinement is under way.
doi:10.1107/S1744309106021312
PMCID: PMC2242948  PMID: 16820693
LTA; Lotus tetragonolobus
10.  Modulation of the pharmacological effects of enzymatically-active PLA2 by BTL-2, an isolectin isolated from the Bryothamnion triquetrum red alga 
BMC Biochemistry  2008;9:16.
Background
An interaction between lectins from marine algae and PLA2 from rattlesnake was suggested some years ago. We, herein, studied the effects elicited by a small isolectin (BTL-2), isolated from Bryothamnion triquetrum, on the pharmacological and biological activities of a PLA2 isolated from rattlesnake venom (Crotalus durissus cascavella), to better understand the enzymatic and pharmacological mechanisms of the PLA2 and its complex.
Results
This PLA2 consisted of 122 amino acids (approximate molecular mass of 14 kDa), its pI was estimated to be 8.3, and its amino acid sequence shared a high degree of similarity with that of other neurotoxic and enzymatically-active PLA2s. BTL-2 had a molecular mass estimated in approximately 9 kDa and was characterized as a basic protein. In addition, BTL-2 did not exhibit any enzymatic activity.
The PLA2 and BTL-2 formed a stable heterodimer with a molecular mass of approximately 24–26 kDa, estimated by molecular exclusion HPLC. In the presence of BTL-2, we observed a significant increase in PLA2 activity, 23% higher than that of PLA2 alone. BTL-2 demonstrated an inhibition of 98% in the growth of the Gram-positive bacterial strain, Clavibacter michiganensis michiganensis (Cmm), but only 9.8% inhibition of the Gram-negative bacterial strain, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv passiflorae (Xap). PLA2 decreased bacterial growth by 27.3% and 98.5% for Xap and Cmm, respectively, while incubating these two proteins with PLA2-BTL-2 inhibited their growths by 36.2% for Xap and 98.5% for Cmm.
PLA2 significantly induced platelet aggregation in washed platelets, whereas BTL-2 did not induce significant platelet aggregation in any assay. However, BTL-2 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by PLA2. In addition, PLA2 exhibited strong oedematogenic activity, which was decreased in the presence of BTL-2. BTL-2 alone did not induce oedema and did not decrease or abolish the oedema induced by the 48/80 compound.
Conclusion
The unexpected results observed for the PLA2-BTL-2 complex strongly suggest that the pharmacological activity of this PLA2 is not solely dependent on the presence of enzymatic activity, and that other pharmacological regions may also be involved. In addition, we describe for the first time an interaction between two different molecules, which form a stable complex with significant changes in their original biological action. This opens new possibilities for understanding the function and action of crude venom, an extremely complex mixture of different molecules.
doi:10.1186/1471-2091-9-16
PMCID: PMC2443151  PMID: 18534036
11.  Purification, partial characterization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a mannose-specific lectin from Cymbosema roseum seeds 
A lectin from C. roseum seeds (CRL) has been purified, characterized and crystallized.
A lectin from Cymbosema roseum seeds (CRL) was purified, characterized and crystallized. The best crystals grew in a month and were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method using a precipitant solution consisting of 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 7.8, 8%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.2 M proline at a constant temperature of 293 K. A data set was collected to 1.77 Å resolution at a synchrotron-radiation source. CRL crystals are orthorhombic, belonging to space group P212121. Crystallographic refinement and full amino-acid sequence determination are in progress.
doi:10.1107/S174430910600371X
PMCID: PMC2197170  PMID: 16511310
Cymbosema roseum; Diocleinae; lectins
12.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the lectin from Dioclea rostrata Benth seeds 
D. rostrata lectin was crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group I222 and diffracted to 1.87 Å resolution.
Lectins from the Diocleinae subtribe (Leguminosae) are highly similar proteins that promote various biological activities with distinctly differing potencies. The structural basis for this experimental data is not yet fully understood. Dioclea rostrata lectin was purified and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion at 293 K. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.51, b = 88.22, c = 87.76 Å.  Assuming the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be about 47.9%. A complete data set was collected at 1.87 Å resolution.
doi:10.1107/S1744309106001801
PMCID: PMC2150952  PMID: 16511292
lectins; Dioclea rostrata
13.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis  
The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a red marine alga lectin isolated from H. musciformis is reported.
HML, a lectin from the red marine alga Hypnea musciformis, defines a novel lectin family. Orthorhombic crystals of HML belonging to space group P212121 grew within three weeks at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected at 2.4 Å resolution. HML is the first marine alga lectin to be crystallized.
doi:10.1107/S1744309105033671
PMCID: PMC1978131  PMID: 16511217
red marine algal lectin; Hypnea musciformis; novel lectin family
14.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a new chitin-binding protein from Parkia platycephala seeds 
Crystals of P. platycephala chintinase/lectin (PPL-2) belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.19, b = 59.95, c = 76.60 Å. The preliminary cystal structure of PPL-2 was solved at a resolution of 1.73 Å by molecular replacement, presenting a correlation coefficient of 0.558 and an R factor of 0.439.
A chitin-binding protein named PPL-2 was purified from Parkia platycephala seeds and crystallized. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.19, b = 59.95, c = 76.60 Å, and grew over several days at 293 K using the hanging-drop method. Using synchrotron radiation, a complete structural data set was collected to 1.73 Å resolution. The preliminary crystal structure of PPL-2, determined by molecular replacement, presents a correlation coefficient of 0.558 and an R factor of 0.439. Crystallographic refinement is in progress.
doi:10.1107/S1744309105024462
PMCID: PMC1978108  PMID: 16511174
chitin-binding proteins; chitinases; Parkia platycephala; lectins
15.  Structure of a lectin from Canavalia gladiata seeds: new structural insights for old molecules 
Background
Lectins are mainly described as simple carbohydrate-binding proteins. Previous studies have tried to identify other binding sites, which possible recognize plant hormones, secondary metabolites, and isolated amino acid residues. We report the crystal structure of a lectin isolated from Canavalia gladiata seeds (CGL), describing a new binding pocket, which may be related to pathogen resistance activity in ConA-like lectins; a site where a non-protein amino-acid, α-aminobutyric acid (Abu), is bound.
Results
The overall structure of native CGL and complexed with α-methyl-mannoside and Abu have been refined at 2.3 Å and 2.31 Å resolution, respectively. Analysis of the electron density maps of the CGL structure shows clearly the presence of Abu, which was confirmed by mass spectrometry.
Conclusion
The presence of Abu in a plant lectin structure strongly indicates the ability of lectins on carrying secondary metabolites. Comparison of the amino acids composing the site with other legume lectins revealed that this site is conserved, providing an evidence of the biological relevance of this site. This new action of lectins strengthens their role in defense mechanisms in plants.
doi:10.1186/1472-6807-7-52
PMCID: PMC1955443  PMID: 17683532
16.  Energetics of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-d-mannose binding to the Parkia platycephala seed lectin and its use for MAD phasing 
The first crystal structure of a Mimosoideae lectin, Parkia platycephala has been solved by MAD phasing using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-d-mannose as an anomalous X-ray scatterer. This strategy may be useful for structure elucidation of novel lectins or when molecular replacement methods fail.
Parkia platycephala belongs to the most primitive group of Leguminosae plants. Its seed lectin is made up of three homologous β-prism repeats and exhibits binding specificity for mannose/glucose. The properties of the association between the lectin from P. platycephala seeds and monosaccharide ligands were analysed by isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The results are consistent with the lectin bearing three thermodynamically identical binding sites for mannose/glucose per monomer with dissociation constants in the millimolar range. Binding of each ligand by the lectin is enthalpically driven. Crystals have been obtained of the lectin in complex with a brominated derivative of mannose (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-α-d-mannose), which were suitable for deriving an electron-density map by MAD phasing. In agreement with the thermodynamic data, six Br atoms were found in the asymmetric unit of the monoclinic P21 crystals, which contained two P. platycephala lectin molecules. The availability of other Br derivatives of monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, fucose) may make this strategy widely useful for structure elucidation of novel lectins or when (as in the case of the P. platycephala lectin) molecular-replacement methods fail.
doi:10.1107/S1744309105004835
PMCID: PMC1952276  PMID: 16511032
protein–carbohydrate interactions; Parkia platycephala lectin; isothermal titration calorimetry; surface plasmon resonance; β-prism domain; MAD phasing
17.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds 
A lectin from C. maritima was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method and crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%, refinement is in progress.
A lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds (ConM) was purified and submitted to crystallization experiments. The best crystals were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293 K and grew in 7 d. A complete structural data set was collected to 2.1 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The ConM crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.15, b = 70.90, c = 97.37 Å. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%. Crystallographic refinement is under way.
doi:10.1107/S1744309104029197
PMCID: PMC1952371  PMID: 16508099
lectins; Canavalia maritima

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