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1.  Coping Profiles Common to Older African American Cancer Survivors: Relationships to Quality of Life 
Journal of pain and symptom management  2010;10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.04.013.
Context
Cancer survivors employ distinct sets of coping behaviors that vary in their associations with psychological health and quality of life. However, existing research has largely focused on white and middle class subjects.
Objectives
This study explores whether clusters with differing coping profiles could be identified among older African American cancer survivors and whether these profiles varied on cultural factors and physical, psychological, and relationship well-being.
Methods
Four hundred forty-nine older African American cancer survivors recruited from outpatient oncology clinics completed a questionnaire booklet containing the Ways of Helping Questionnaire (WHQ), the Brief Index of Race-Related Stress (IRRS), the Religious Involvement Scale, Mutuality Scale, and the Short Form 12 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-12). A k-means cluster analysis was conducted using the WHQ.
Results
Four distinct coping profiles were identified and labeled High Coping, Low Encouraging Healthy Behaviors, Low Coping and Strong/Distracting Behaviors. Coping profiles were associated with participant’s gender, age, and living alone. Controlling for these demographic differences, coping profiles were associated with religiosity, experiences with racism, and physical, psychological and relationship well-being.
Conclusions
The findings from this study lend support for examining coping profiles and health outcomes among African American cancer survivors. This research also suggests that these profiles vary on cultural factors. This information should prove useful to researchers as they develop culturally appropriate interventions for this underserved population.
doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.04.013
PMCID: PMC3029503  PMID: 20832984
cancer; African Americans; coping profiles; cluster analysis; religious involvement; experienced racism; quality of life
2.  Reliability and Validity of the Perspectives of Support From God Scale 
Nursing research  2010;59(2):102-109.
Background
Existing spiritual support scales for use with cancer survivors focus on the support believed to come from a religious community, clergy, or health care providers.
Objective
The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a new measure of spiritual support believed to come from God in older Christian African American cancer survivors.
Methods
The Perceived Support From God Scale was administered to 317 African American cancer survivors aged 55–89 years. Psychometric evaluation involved identifying underlying factors, conducting item analysis and estimating reliability, and obtaining evidence on the relationship to other variables or the extent to which the Perceived Support From God Scale correlates with religious involvement and depression.
Results
The Perceived Support From God Scale consists of 15 items in two subscales (Support From God and God’s Purpose for Me). The two subscales explained 59% of the variance. Cronbach’s α coefficients were .94 and .86 for the Support From God and God’s Purpose for Me subscales, respectively. Test–retest correlations were strong, supporting the temporal stability of the instrument. Pearson’s correlations to an existing religious involvement and beliefs scale were moderate to strong. Subscale scores on Support From God were negatively correlated to depression.
Discussion
Initial support for reliability and validity was demonstrated for the Perceived Support From God Scale. The scale captures a facet of spirituality not emphasized in other measures. Further research is needed to evaluate the scale with persons of other racial/ethnic groups and to explore the relationship of spirituality to other outcome measures.
doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181d1b265
PMCID: PMC2867661  PMID: 20216012
African Americans; cancer; spiritual support

Results 1-2 (2)