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1.  Recombinant equine interleukin-1β induces putative mediators of articular cartilage degradation in equine chondrocytes  
Interleukin-1 is considered a central mediator of cartilage loss in osteoarthritis in several species, however an equine recombinant form of this cytokine is not readily available for in vitro use in equine osteoarthritis research. Equine recombinant interleukin-1β was cloned and expressed and its effects on the expression and activity of selected chondrocytic proteins implicated in cartilage matrix degradation were characterized. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods were used to amplify the entire coding region of the equine IL-1β mRNA, which was cloned into an expression vector, expressed in E. coli, and purified using a Ni2+ chromatographic method. The effects of the recombinant peptide on chondrocyte gene expression were determined by Northern blotting using RNA from equine chondrocyte cultures hybridized to probes for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 1, MMP 3, MMP 13), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP 1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2). Effects on selected mediators of cartilage degradation (nitrite concentrations and MMP activity) were determined using conditioned medium from reIL-1β-treated equine cartilage explant cultures. A recombinant peptide of approximately 21 kd was obtained. Northern blotting analyses revealed a marked up-regulation of expression of all MMPs, TIMP 1, and COX 2 in mRNA from treated chondrocytes. Furthermore, cartilage explants exposed to reIL-1β had augmented collagenase/gelatinase and stromelysin activities as well as increased concentration of nitrite in conditioned media. The development of a biologically active, species-specific IL-1β provides a valuable tool in the study of osteoarthritis pathophysiology and its treatment in horses.
PMCID: PMC226977  PMID: 11858644
2.  Caudal epidural analgesia in cattle using xylazine. 
Each of 25 mature Holstein cows were given a single 5 mL epidural injection of one of four different concentrations of xylazine or saline. The onset, magnitude and duration of caudal epidural analgesia was quantitated with the use of a low voltage DC current applied to the perineal area. The dose that produced the longest duration of analgesia and produced the least ataxia or sedation was approximately 0.05 mg/kg (25 mg in 5 mL diluent). The analgesia produced by this xylazine dose was compared to a standard dose of epidural lidocaine (100 mg/5 mL) by the same method. To investigate the role of systemic absorption in the production of epidural analgesia, the previously utilized epidural xylazine dosage was given intramuscularly to four adult cows. Analgesia was quantitated as before and the results compared with epidural xylazine. Epidural xylazine produced a significantly greater duration of analgesia, as measured by this model, than did epidural lidocaine. Xylazine, given epidurally, produced greater perineal analgesia than did xylazine given intramuscularly.
PMCID: PMC1255581  PMID: 2590877
3.  Bilateral Carpus Valgus with Cranial Bowing of the Distal Radius in a Foal 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1986;27(6):242-244.
Bilateral carpus valgus with concomitant outward rotation and cranial bowing of the distal radii was diagnosed in a crossbred foal. The foal was not lame on admission and showed no radiographic evidence of carpal bone abnormalities. Surgery was limited to the most severely affected leg, and consisted of a combination of growth promotion (periosteal transection and stripping) and temporary physeal retardation (transphyseal bridging) procedures. Correction of the valgus deformity was nearly complete in the operated limb and substantial improvement was observed in the cranial bowing and outward rotation in both limbs, five months postoperatively.
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PMCID: PMC1680257  PMID: 17422668
Horse; angular limb deformity; surgery; carpus valgus
4.  Cryptosporidiosis in Two Foals 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1985;26(4):132-134.
Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified by phase contrast microscopy on smears from flotations of greenish-yellow pasty feces obtained from two foals. One foal, a one week old Percheron was recumbent, anorectic and lethargic, believed to be the result of a septicemia of undetermined etiology. Despite therapy and nursing care the animal died. Using light and electron microscopy, numerous stages of Cryptosporidium sp. were seen protruding from the surface of epithelial cells of intestinal villi. The other foal, a six week old Arabian had a mild diarrhea. The diarrhea and passage of oocysts eventually ceased. Immunological tests on sera of both these foals provided no evidence of abnormal immune function. This report is the first to describe cryptosporidiosis in apparently immunocompetent horses.
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PMCID: PMC1680017  PMID: 17422522
Cryptosporidiosis; neonatal diarrhea; coccidia; protozoa; horse
5.  Tracheal Perforation and Widespread Subcutaneous Emphysema in a Horse 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1984;25(9):339-341.
A twelve year old Quarterhorse mare exhibited subcutaneous emphysema of the head, neck, upper forelimbs and thorax, and walked with a stiff gait, characterized by decreased flexion of the forelimbs. Endoscopy of the trachea revealed a small tracheal wound ninety centimeters from the external nares. The location of the lesion corresponded with a seroma present at the base of the neck. The subcutaneous emphysema and the seroma resolved without specific therapy. Blunt trauma was suggested as the cause of the tracheal lesion and subsequent subcutaneous emphysema.
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PMCID: PMC1790635  PMID: 17422449
Horse; trachea; tracheal perforation; subcutaneous emphysema
6.  Effect of longeing and glucosamine supplementation on serum markers of bone and joint metabolism in yearling quarter horses. 
The effect of longeing and glucosamine supplementation on known biological markers of joint disease was studied in yearling quarter horses. Twenty-one yearling quarter horses were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments: 1) longeing (longeing 20 min daily) supplement control (LN); 2) longeing/glucosamine (LG); 3) walking (mechanical walker for 120 min daily (WN)); and 4) walking/glucosamine (WG). Oral glucosamine was administered at 5.5 g b.i.d. weeks 1-4, 3.5 g b.i.d. during weeks 5-6, and 2.0 g b.i.d. during weeks 7-8. Serum was obtained weekly for 8 wk and analyzed for keratan sulfate and osteocalcin concentrations. Walked horses receiving glucosamine showed slight elevation in serum keratan sulfate compared to controls (P = 0.04). Glucosamine or longeing exercise had no significant effect (6 > or = 0.08) on serum osteocalcin concentrations. Under these conditions, longeing and/or glucosamine supplementation did not significantly alter serum concentrations of keratan sulfate or osteocalcin.
PMCID: PMC1189567  PMID: 10534010
7.  Osteochondritis dessicans and subchondral cystic lesions in draft horses: a retrospective study. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1998;39(10):627-633.
The clinical features, radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome in 51 draft horses with osteochondritis dessicans (OCD) or subchondral cystic lesions (SC) are reported. Clydesdale and Percheron were the most commonly affected breeds, and affected animals represented only 5% of the hospital population of draft horses. Horses were most frequently affected in the tibiotarsal joints and 73% (24 of 33 cases) of the horses with tibiotarsal effusion were affected bilaterally. Osteochondritis dessicans of the distal intermediate ridge was the most common lesion found in the tibiotarsal joint. The stifle was also frequently affected; 87% (13 of 15 cases) of horses with femoropatellar OCD only were lame, and lesions were most commonly located on the lateral trochlear ridge. Sixteen cases were managed conservatively, 30 received surgery, and 5 were euthanized. Lameness, effusion, or both clinical signs resolved in more than 50% of surgically treated cases, but clinical signs improved in 30% of conservatively-managed cases.
PMCID: PMC1539460  PMID: 9789673

Results 1-7 (7)