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Journal of Virology (1)
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Carbone, Mariarosaria (2)
Amati, Paolo (1)
Ascione, Giuseppe (1)
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MyoD regulates p57kip2 expression by interacting with a distant cis-element and modifying a higher order chromatin structure
Nucleic Acids Research
The bHLH transcription factor MyoD, the prototypical master regulator of differentiation, directs a complex program of gene expression during skeletal myogenesis. The up-regulation of the cdk inhibitor p57kip2 plays a critical role in coordinating differentiation and growth arrest during muscle development, as well as in other tissues. p57kip2 displays a highly specific expression pattern and is subject to a complex epigenetic control driving the imprinting of the paternal allele. However, the regulatory mechanisms governing its expression during development are still poorly understood. We have identified an unexpected mechanism by which MyoD regulates p57kip2 transcription in differentiating muscle cells. We show that the induction of p57kip2 requires MyoD binding to a long-distance element located within the imprinting control region KvDMR1 and the consequent release of a chromatin loop involving p57kip2 promoter. We also show that differentiation-dependent regulation of p57kip2, while involving a region implicated in the imprinting process, is distinct and hierarchically subordinated to the imprinting control. These findings highlight a novel mechanism, involving the modification of higher order chromatin structures, by which MyoD regulates gene expression. Our results also suggest that chromatin folding mediated by KvDMR1 could account for the highly restricted expression of p57kip2 during development and, possibly, for its aberrant silencing in some pathologies.
Chromosome-Protein Interactions in Polyomavirus Virions
Journal of Virology
In this work, we sought to determine whether the components of the murine polyomavirus capsid establish specific interactions with the minichromosome encapsidated into the mature viral particles by using the cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) cross-linking reagent. Our data indicated that VP1, but not minor capsid proteins, interacts with the viral genome in vivo. In addition, semiquantitative PCR assays performed on cross-linked DNA complexes revealed that VP1 binds to all regions of the viral genome but significantly more to the regulatory region. The implications of such an interaction for viral infectivity are discussed.
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