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1.  Reversal of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism by Cimetidine in Chronically Uremic Dogs 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1981;67(6):1753-1760.
Chronic cimetidine therapy has been shown to suppress circulating concentrations of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) in hemodialysis patients. To evaluate the long-term metabolic effects of cimetidine treatment, we studied seven chronically uremic dogs for 20 wk. The dogs were studied under metabolic conditions before, during, and after cimetidine therapy. iPTH fell progressively in the five treated dogs from 536±70 μleq/ml (mean±SE) (nl < 100 μleq/ml) before treatment to 291±25 μleq/ml at 12 wk (P < 0.001) and 157±32 μleq/ml at 20 wk (P < 0.001). The control dogs showed no consistent change in iPTH. The fall in iPTH was not associated with a change in serum ionized calcium. However, serum phosphorus decreased from 5.7±0.9 mg/dl to 3.4±0.2 mg/dl by the 20th wk (P < 0.05). By contrast, the serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increased in all treated dogs from 33.4±4.3 pg/ml to 51.8±2.4 pg/ml during treatment (P < 0.01). Calcium balance was negative in all seven dogs before cimetidine (−347±84 mg/72 h) and remained so in the control dogs; it became positive in the five treated dogs after 12 wk (1,141±409 mg/72 h) (P < 0.05). Phosphorus balance, 24-h fractional phosphate excretion, and creatinine clearance remained unchanged. Pooled samples of serum obtained during the control and 20th wk of therapy were fractionated by gel filtration and the eluates assayed for immunoreactivity. The decrease in iPTH was associated with a decrease in all the immunoreactive species, indicating suppression of parathyroid gland secretion.
These observations indicate that cimetidine suppressed circulating concentration of biologically active parathyroid hormone. A probable net decrease in the loss of phosphorus from bone to blood ensued, resulting in a fall in serum phosphorus. This may have stimulated synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and led to a positive calcium balance, thereby maintaining the serum ionized calcium concentration. The maintenance of phosphate balance, despite suppression of iPTH by cimetidine, indicates that factors other than hyperparathyroidism relate to phosphate homeostasis in chronically uremic dogs.
PMCID: PMC370753  PMID: 7240419
2.  Metabolic Consequences of Oral Administration of 24,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol to Uremic Dogs 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1980;65(3):571-576.
24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [24,25-(OH)2D3], once considered a relatively inert metabolite of vitamin D3, has been recently recognized as a metabolically active product in some species. In previous studies, we have shown that infusion of 24,25(OH)2D3 into the thyroid artery of normal dogs results in prompt and complete suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. In this study, we have examined the metabolic consequences of oral administration of this metabolite in dogs with experimentally induced renal hyperparathyroidism. Dogs with comparable degrees of renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate, 10-15 ml/min) were treated for 3 wk with daily doses of either 2 μg of 24,25(OH)2D3 or 50% ethanol, the vehicle in which the metabolite was suspended. After a 6-wk recovery period, treatments were reversed: dogs who had previously served as controls received the metabolite while dogs previously treated with metabolite received the vehicle. Administration of 24,25(OH)2D3 resulted in a 40-60% decrease of immunoreactive PTH. This was associated with a small (0.1-0.2 mg/dl) but unequivocal decrease of serum ionized calcium. Calcium balance, which was slightly negative under control conditions, became slightly but definitively positive on treatment with 24,25(OH)2D3. All other parameters measured, including total serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, creatinine, electrolytes, phosphorus excretion, and phosphorus balance, remained unchanged. The data support the hypothesis that 24,25(OH)2D3 not only decreases PTH secretion but also functions as an anabolic hormone in bone under the conditions of this experiment.
PMCID: PMC371397  PMID: 7354130
3.  Inhibition of Parathyroid Hormone Secretion by 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol and 24,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol in the Dog 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1978;61(5):1375-1383.
We studied the effects of vitamin D metabolites on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Test materials were injected into the cranial thyroid artery of the dog, and immunoreactive PTH was measured frequently in serum samples from the inferior thyroid vein and the femoral vein. This model for the study of secretion had previously been validated with the use of known modulators on PTH secretion. In control experiments, injection of 100% ethanol, the vehicle in which cholecalciferol (D3) metabolites were suspended, resulted in no change in PTH secretion. Likewise, native vitamin D3, in doses ranging from 250 to 1,250 ng had no effect on PTH secretion. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol, 25-(OH)D3, in doses of 125-240 ng, caused complete suppression of PTH secretion. When 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 24,25-(OH)2D3, was injected in doses of 50-250 ng, suppression of PTH secretion was again complete; in doses of 5 ng, injection of this metabolite resulted in significant but incomplete suppression of secretion. In doses of 50-250 ng, 1,25-(OH)2D3 strongly stimulated PTH secretion, but in a dose of 5 ng this metabolite had no effects. Injection of equal doses of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 resulted in significant suppression of PTH secretion. Hypocalcemia-induced stimulation of PTH secretion was suppressed by 24,25-(OH)2D3 while hypercalcemia-induced suppression of PTH secretion was stimulated by 1,25-(OH)2D3. In all experiments showing suppression of PTH secretion, peripheral PTH decreased. Arguments are presented for considering the suppressive effects of D3 metabolites as physiologic modulators. However, this stimulating effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 occurred only in pharmacologic doses and hence probably has no physiologic relevance.
PMCID: PMC372660  PMID: 659599
4.  Activation of Renal Cortical Adenylate Cyclase by Circulating Immunoreactive Parathyroid Hormone Fragments 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1973;52(2):524-527.
Three distinct immunoreactive species of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are present in human serum. One has an estimated mol wt of 9,500 and probably represents glandular hormone, the second 7,000-7,500 mol wt, and the third 4,500-5,000 mol wt. In order to assess the biological activity of these circulating forms of PTH, we determined their ability to activate renal cortical adenylate cyclase. The 9,500 mol wt and 4,500-5,000 mol wt fractions produced four- to sixfold increases in cyclic 3′,5′-AMP accumulation above control; the 7,000-7,500 mol wt fraction was inactive. None of the fragments had any effects on phosphodiesterase activity. Antiserum to bovine PTH did not block the activation of adenylate cyclase by either the gragments or bovine PTH. The data suggest that a large proportion of circulating immunoreactive human PTH is biologically active and that the biologically and immunologically active sites of the hormone are distinct.
PMCID: PMC302284  PMID: 4346008
5.  Evidence for Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Idiopathic Hypercalciuria 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1973;52(1):134-142.
Circulating levels of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured in 40 patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) before and during reversal of hypercalciuria with thiazide, and in four normal subjects before and during induction of hypercalciuria with furosemide. 26 patients with IH had elevated serum PTH levels. The remaining patients had normal levels. Although the correlation was not complete, high PTH levels were generally found in patients who had more severe average urinary calcium losses. When initially elevated. PTH levels fell to normal or nearly normal values during periods of thiazide administration lasting up to 22 months. When initially normal, PTH levels were not altered by thiazide. Reversal of hyperparathyroidism by thiazide could not be ascribed to the induction of hypercalcemia, since serum calcium concentration failed to rise in a majority of patients. Renal hypercalciuria produced by furosemide administration elevated serum PTH to levels equivalent to those observed in patients with IH.
The findings in this study help to distinguish between several current alternative views of IH and its relationship to hyperparathyroidism. Alimentary calcium hyperabsorption cannot be the major cause of IH with high PTH levels, because this mechanism could not elevate PTH. Idiopathic hypercalciuria cannot be a variety of primary hyperparathyroidism, as this disease is usually defined, because PTH levels are not elevated in all patients and, when high, are lowered by reversal of hypercalciuria. Primary renal loss of calcium could explain the variable occurrence of reversible hyperparathyroidism in IH, since renal hypercalciuria from furosemide elevates serum PTH in normal subjects. Consequently, a reasonable working hypothesis is that IH is often due to a primary renal defect of calcium handling that leads, by unknown pathways, to secondary hyperparathyroidism.
PMCID: PMC302235  PMID: 4682379
6.  Circadian rhythm in serum parathyroid hormone concentration in human subjects: correlation with serum calcium, phosphate, albumin, and growth hormone levels 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1972;51(8):2040-2046.
A circadian variation in serum calcium, albumin and PTH concentration in normal subjects has been demonstrated. The levels of the three blood constituents were remarkably constant during the day, but striking night and early morning changes occurred. Serum calcium levels were highest at 8:00 p.m. and reached a nadir between 2:00 and 4:00 a.m. Serum albumin levels were parallel to those of serum calcium. PTH levels began to rise after 8:00 p.m., reached the highest levels between 2:00 and 4:00 a.m., and fell to baseline values by 8:00 a.m. The nocturnal fall in serum calcium levels appears to be secondary to dilution of serum proteins by increasing blood volume. The nocturnal rise in PTH levels appears to be independent of serum calcium levels within the normal range but it can be abolished by induced hypercalcemia.
Serum phosphate levels were lowest between 8:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. and highest between 2:00 a.m. and 4:00 a.m. The data presented suggest that circadian changes in serum phosphate levels are not mediated in toto by parathyroid hormone but they are exaggerated when the secretion of this hormone is inhibited. They are independent of growth hormone levels and activity but they are greatly modified during a prolonged fast.
PMCID: PMC292360  PMID: 5054463
7.  On the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism in chronic experimental renal insufficiency in the dog 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1971;50(3):492-499.
Healthy adult dogs were subjected to stepwise reduction of nephron population so as to create the transition from normal renal function to advanced renal insufficiency. Studies were performed at each level of renal function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal phosphate clearance, and serum radioimmunoassayable parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were measured. Two groups of animals were studied. In one, phosphorous intake was maintained at 1200 mg/day. As GFR declined, fractional phosphate excretion rose reciprocally, and PTH levels increased over 20-fold. In the second group, phosphorous intake was maintained at less than 100 mg/day. As GFR fell, fractional phosphate excretion changed little, and no increment in PTH levels occurred. The data suggest that the control system regulating phosphate excretion contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism in advancing renal insufficiency.
PMCID: PMC291955  PMID: 5545116
8.  The role of phosphate in the secretion of parathyroid hormone in man 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1970;49(11):2146-2149.
In man, oral administration of 1 g of phosphorus resulted in a 60-125% increase in serum immunoassayable parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration. Peak PTH levels were attained in 1 hr, and PTH returned to base line levels in 2 hr. This increase in PTH appeared to be initiated by a very small decrease of total and ionized calcium and was abolished by a calcium infusion. There was no correlation between serum phosphorus and PTH. The experiments show that oral phosphorus administration initiates a calcium-mediated control system for PTH secretion and that this system operates very sensitively in man.
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PMCID: PMC535790  PMID: 5475987

Results 1-8 (8)