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1.  Use of Cone-Beam Computerized Tomography for Evaluation of Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaws in an Experimental Rat Model 
Background: Bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BONJ) is a frequently reported complication. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological presentation of BONJ with the Hounsfield score and to evaluate the reliability of the score for determining necrosis in an animal model.
Material/Methods: Eighty rats were prospectively and randomly divided into two groups of 40 each: a control group and an experimental group. Half of the animals from each group underwent extraction of the left mandibular molars, and the other half underwent extraction of the left maxillary molars under pentobarbital-induced general anesthesia. All animals were euthanized 28 days after tooth extraction. Maxillae and mandibles were extracted, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed, and Hounsfield scores were evaluated.
Results: The Hounsfield scores of the experimental group were found to be compatible with chronic osteomyelitis and periosteal reactions. The Hounsfield scores of the control group were compatible with a healthy healing period.
Conclusion: In light of these results, both cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the Hounsfield Units (HU) evaluations together are thought to be efficient in the diagnosis of BONJ.
PMCID: PMC3204436  PMID: 22135613
Bisphosphonate; Osteonecrosis; Jaws; Hounsfield unit
2.  Oral and Maxillofacial Considerations in Gardner's Syndrome 
Gardner's Syndrome is a variant of familial adenomatosis polyposis (FAP) with a triad consisting of polyps of the colon, multiple osteomas and surface tumors of soft and hard tissue. The intestinal polyps have a %100 risk of undergoing malignant transformation, therefore early identification of this disease is very important. There are several symptoms of Gardner's syndrome in the oral and maxillofacial surgery, which can be discovered during routine dental examination. We report a case of a 25-year old male patient with Gardner's syndrome who has not any intestinal polyps but osteomas in the mandible and jaw deformalities.
PMCID: PMC3258555  PMID: 22253560
Gardner's syndrome; jaw; dental deformalities
3.  Iatrogenic Mandibular Fracture Associated with Third Molar Removal 
Third molar extraction is one of the most common procedures performed in oral and maxillofacial surgery units. It is sometimes accompanied by complications such as alveolar osteitis, secondary infection, hemorrhage, dysesthesia and, most severely, iatrogenic fracture. This article describes two mandibular angle fractures that occurred in two patients during the surgical extraction of one erupted and one unerupted third molar, including a brief review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC3180770  PMID: 21960746
third molar extraction; complication; iatrogenic fracture; mandible
4.  Evaluation of Light-Emitting Diode (LED-660 Nm) Application over Primary Osteoblast-Like Cells on Titanium Surfaces: An In Vitro Study 
Background: The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of neonatal rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells cultured on different implant surfaces and exposed once or three times to a 660-nm light-emitting diode (LED).
Methods: An LED with a 660-nm wavelength was applied once or three times to cultured cells on standard and modified sandblasted acid-etched surfaces (SLA and SLActive; Straumann, Basel, Switzerland). To analyze the effect of the LED on cell proliferation, numbers, and viability, cells were cultured on titanium discs, and measurements were taken after 72 h. Cell proliferation rates were assessed using a bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical technique. Cell morphologies were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Results: Osteoblast-like cells proliferated on all tested surfaces, with differences among groups in cell counts and DNA synthesis values. The application of one LED treatment caused a significant increase in cell count in the SLActive group in comparison with the SLA group (p = 0.001), whereas the application of three LED treatments caused a significant decrease in cell count in the SLA group compared with the SLActive group (p < 0.001). After 72 h, the number of cells was highest in the SLActive group exposed once to the LED.
Conclusions: One LED application in the SLActive group resulted in significantly increased cell numbers. However, these findings were not exactly compatible with the SEM findings, which demonstrated fewer cells and weak attachments between cells and to the surface. Thus, further studies using different LED application times are needed to clarify the reason for the increased number of cells that are apparently incapable of attaching to the titanium surfaces after 72 h.
PMCID: PMC3198254  PMID: 22022211
Light-emitting diode; SLA and SLActive surface; primary osteoblast cell culture

Results 1-4 (4)