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2.  Complex Issues Affecting Student Pharmacist Debt 
It is time for colleges and schools of pharmacy to examine and confront the rising costs of pharmacy education and the increasing student loan debt borne by graduates. These phenomena likely result from a variety of complex factors. The academy should begin addressing these issues before pharmacy education becomes cost-prohibitive for future generations. This paper discusses some of the more salient drivers of cost and student debt load and offers suggestions that may help alleviate some of the financial pressures.
doi:10.5688/ajpe787131
PMCID: PMC4174373  PMID: 25258436
student loan; debt; tuition; higher education
3.  Should TED Talks Be Teaching Us Something? 
doi:10.5688/ajpe786113
PMCID: PMC4140479  PMID: 25147385
4.  Four Rights of the Pharmacy Educational Consumer 
Professional students and their families invest a significant amount of time and finances to obtain a degree. While education is not a typical consumer good and should not be treated as such, there are certain expectations that colleges and schools should be prepared to meet. This article contrasts academic entitlement issues with 4 fundamental rights underpinning colleges’ and schools’ fiduciary responsibilities to students. The authors submit that students, in their roles as higher education consumers, have the following rights: (1) to have the opportunity to learn, (2) to learn from faculty members dedicated to best teaching practices, (3) to learn within a curriculum designed to prepare them for the profession, and (4) to have access to resources necessary to succeed.
doi:10.5688/ajpe786115
PMCID: PMC4140481  PMID: 25147387
academic entitlement; student consumerism; academia; higher education; student rights
5.  Pharmacy Student Debt and Return on Investment of a Pharmacy Education 
Objective. To describe the current landscape within the profession of pharmacy regarding student tuition, indebtedness, salaries, and job potential.
Methods. Pharmacy tuition and student debt data were obtained through the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Institutional Research website. Tuition was defined as average first-year tuition and fees for accredited schools. Debt was defined as the total average amount borrowed. Median salaries and numbers of jobs were obtained from the United States Department of Labor.
Results. In-state tuition at public schools rose an average of $1,211 ± 31 (r2 = 0.996), whereas out-of-state tuition at public schools rose significantly faster at $1,838 ± 80 per year (r2 = 0.988). The average tuition cost for pharmacy school has increased 54% in the last 8 years. The average pharmacist salary has risen from $75,000 to over $112,000 since 2002. The increase in salary has been nearly linear (r2 = 0.988) rising $4,409 ± $170 dollars per year. However, average salary in 2011 was $3,064 below the predicted value based upon a linear regression of salaries over 10 years. The number of pharmacist jobs in the United States has risen from 215,000 jobs in 2003 to 275,000 in 2010. However, there were 3,000 fewer positions in 2012 than in 2011. In 2011, average indebtedness for pharmacy students ($114,422) was greater than average first-year salary ($112,160).
Conclusion. Rising tuition and student indebtedness is a multifaceted problem requiring attention from a number of parties including students, faculty members, universities, and accreditation and government entities.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7815
PMCID: PMC3930253  PMID: 24558273
6.  Factors Associated With Pharmacy Student Interest in International Study 
Objectives. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school.
Methods. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy.
Results. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (p<0.001), and level of diversity involvement (p<0.001) were associated with international study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge.
Conclusions. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance.
doi:10.5688/ajpe77354
PMCID: PMC3631729  PMID: 23610472
study abroad; curriculum; international education
7.  Academic Entitlement in Pharmacy Education 
The constructs of academic entitlement and student consumerism refer to students’ attitudes toward education as a commodity and the underlying belief that as consumers, they should be catered to and given the opportunity to participate in the education process according to their preferences. Most discussions regarding these attitudes are anecdotal, but the pervasiveness of these accounts and the troubling effects that ensue warrant attention. Grade inflation, student incivility, altered classroom practices, and decreased faculty morale are all potential aftereffects of teaching students who hold academic entitlement beliefs. Numerous factors are posited as attributing to academic entitlement including personal issues, societal pressures, and broad academic practices. This paper discusses these factors and offers faculty members and administrators recommendations regarding practices that may curb or alleviate issues associated with academically entitled students.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7610189
PMCID: PMC3530051  PMID: 23275654
academic entitlement; students; academia; higher education; student evaluations
9.  Using Facebook as an Informal Learning Environment 
Objective. To create, implement, and assess the effectiveness of an optional Facebook activity intended to expose students to contemporary business issues not covered in the core content of a pharmacy management and leadership course and to perspectives of experts and thought leaders external to their university.
Design. An informal learning strategy was used to create a Facebook group page and guest experts were identified and invited to submit posts pertaining to business-related topics. Students were given instructions for joining the Facebook group but informed that participation was optional.
Assessment. A mixed-methods approach using a student questionnaire, results on examination questions, and a student focus group was used to assess this activity. The informal design with no posting guidelines and no participation requirement was well received by students, who appreciated the unique learning environment and exposure to external experts.
Conclusions. Facebook provides an informal learning environment for presenting contemporary topics and the thoughts of guest experts not affiliated with a college or school, thereby exposing students to relevant “real world” issues.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7510207
PMCID: PMC3279026  PMID: 22345726
Facebook; social media; Web 2.0; teaching; learning; business
10.  To Record or Not to Record? 
doi:10.5688/ajpe758149
PMCID: PMC3220330  PMID: 22102739
11.  Educational Technology Use Among US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To develop a searchable database of educational technologies used at schools and colleges of pharmacy.
Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was used to determine what educational technologies were being used and to identify an individual at each institution who could serve as an information resource for peer-to-peer questions.
Results. Eighty-nine survey instruments were returned for a response rate of 75.4%. The resulting data illustrated the almost ubiquitous presence of educational technology. The most frequently used technology was course management systems and the least frequently used technology was microblogging.
Conclusions. Educational technology use is trending toward fee-based products for enterprise-level applications and free, open-source products for collaboration and presentation. Educational technology is allowing educators to restructure classroom time for something other than simple transmission of factual information and to adopt an evidence-based approach to instructional innovation and reform.
doi:10.5688/ajpe75587
PMCID: PMC3142974  PMID: 21829261
educational technology; instructional technology; online learning
12.  Legal and Ethical Issues Regarding Social Media and Pharmacy Education 
Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education. Social communications have traditionally been considered private; however, now that much of this information is published online to the public, more insight is available to students' attitudes, opinions, and character. Pharmacy educators and administrators may struggle with the myriad of ethical and legal issues pertaining to social media communications and relationships with and among students. This article seeks to clarify some of these issues with a review of the legal facets and pertinent court cases related to social media. In addition, 5 core ethical issues are identified and discussed. The article concludes with recommendations for pharmacy educators with regard to preparing for and addressing potential legal issues pertaining to social media.
PMCID: PMC3058471  PMID: 21436925
social media; law; ethics; eprofessionalism; technology
14.  Web 2.0 and Pharmacy Education 
New types of social Internet applications (often referred to as Web 2.0) are becoming increasingly popular within higher education environments. Although developed primarily for entertainment and social communication within the general population, applications such as blogs, social video sites, and virtual worlds are being adopted by higher education institutions. These newer applications differ from standard Web sites in that they involve the users in creating and distributing information, hence effectively changing how the Web is used for knowledge generation and dispersion. Although Web 2.0 applications offer exciting new ways to teach, they should not be the core of instructional planning, but rather selected only after learning objectives and instructional strategies have been identified. This paper provides an overview of prominent Web 2.0 applications, explains how they are being used within education environments, and elaborates on some of the potential opportunities and challenges that these applications present.
PMCID: PMC2779632  PMID: 19960079
Web 2.0; technology; learning; Internet
15.  Pharmacy Students' Facebook Activity and Opinions Regarding Accountability and E-Professionalism 
Objective
To assess pharmacy students' Facebook activity and opinions regarding accountability and e-professionalism and determine effects of an e-professionalism education session on pharmacy students' posting behavior.
Methods
A 21-item questionnaire was developed, pilot-tested, revised, and administered to 299 pharmacy students at 3 colleges of pharmacy. Following a presentation regarding potential e-professionalism issues with Facebook, pharmacy students with existing profiles answered an additional question concerning changes in online posting behavior.
Results
Incoming first-year pharmacy students' Facebook usage is consistent with that of the general college student population. Male students are opposed to authority figures' use of Facebook for character and professionalism judgments and are more likely to present information they would not want faculty members, future employers, or patients to see. More than half of the pharmacy students planned to make changes to their online posting behavior as a result of the e-professionalism presentation.
Conclusions
There is high social media usage among pharmacy students and many do not fully comprehend the issues that arise from being overly transparent in online settings. Attitudes toward accountability for information supplied via social networking emphasize the need for e-professionalism training of incoming pharmacy students.
PMCID: PMC2769526  PMID: 19885073
online social networking; e-professionalism; Facebook; technology; professionalism
16.  An Audience Response System Strategy to Improve Student Motivation, Attention, and Feedback 
Objective
To implement an audience response system (ARS) to improve student motivation and attention during lectures and provide immediate feedback to the instructor concerning student understanding of lecture content in a Physiological Chemistry/Molecular Biology course.
Design
Students used ARS devices to respond to strategically placed questions throughout physiological chemistry/molecular biology lectures. The instructor inserted 6 to 7 questions that promoted student/class interactivity into each of several 50-minute lectures to focus students' attention and provide feedback on students' comprehension of material.
Assessment
Ninety-eight percent of first-year pharmacy (P1) students (n = 109) reported that strategically placed ARS questions throughout lectures helped them maintain attention. Reports from an independent focus group indicated that students favored this strategy. Furthermore, ARS feedback helped the instructor gauge student comprehension and adjust lectures accordingly.
Conclusions
Focused, strategically placed ARS questions throughout lectures may help students maintain attention and stay motivated to learn. Feedback from these questions also allows instructors to adapt lectures to address areas of deficiency.
PMCID: PMC2690899  PMID: 19513159
audience response system; physiological chemistry course; technology; active learning
17.  A Primer on Audience Response Systems: Current Applications and Future Considerations 
Audience response systems (ARSs) are an increasingly popular tool in higher education for promoting interactivity, gathering feedback, preassessing knowledge, and assessing students' understanding of lecture concepts. Instructors in numerous disciplines are realizing the pedagogical value of these systems. Actual research on ARS usage within pharmacy education is sparse. In this paper, the health professions literature on uses of ARSs is reviewed and a primer on the issues, benefits, and potential uses within pharmacy education is presented. Future areas of educational research on ARS instructional strategies are also suggested.
PMCID: PMC2576416  PMID: 19002277
audience response system; technology; technology-enhanced learning
18.  Mobile Computing Initiatives Within Pharmacy Education 
Objectives
To identify mobile computing initiatives within pharmacy education, including how devices are obtained, supported, and utilized within the curriculum.
Methods
An 18-item questionnaire was developed and delivered to academic affairs deans (or closest equivalent) of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Results
Fifty-four colleges and schools completed the questionnaire for a 55% completion rate. Thirteen of those schools have implemented mobile computing requirements for students. Twenty schools reported they were likely to formally consider implementing a mobile computing initiative within 5 years.
Conclusions
Numerous models of mobile computing initiatives exist in terms of device obtainment, technical support, infrastructure, and utilization within the curriculum. Responders identified flexibility in teaching and learning as the most positive aspect of the initiatives and computer-aided distraction as the most negative, Numerous factors should be taken into consideration when deciding if and how a mobile computing requirement should be implemented.
PMCID: PMC2576415  PMID: 19002276
mobile computing; technology; laptop computers
19.  Online Social Networking Issues Within Academia and Pharmacy Education 
Online social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular as indicated by the numbers of members and visits to the sites. They allow students to connect with users with similar interests, build and maintain relationships with friends, and feel more connected with their campus. The foremost criticisms of online social networking are that students may open themselves to public scrutiny of their online personas and risk physical safety by revealing excessive personal information. This review outlines issues of online social networking in higher education by drawing upon articles in both the lay press and academic publications. New points for pharmacy educators to consider include the possible emergence of an “e-professionalism” concept; legal and ethical implications of using online postings in admission, discipline, and student safety decisions; how online personas may blend into professional life; and the responsibility for educating students about the risks of online social networking.
PMCID: PMC2254235  PMID: 18322572
online social networking; e-professionalism; Facebook; MySpace; technology
20.  Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Academic and/or Professional Success 
The concept of “emotional intelligence” has been extensively popularized in the lay press and corporate world as individuals purport the potential ability of emotional intelligence to predict various markers of success. Emotional intelligence (EI) most commonly incorporates concepts of emotional expression and regulation, self-awareness, and empathy. The concept has been criticized by some for its loose definition and parallels to personality traits. Additionally, several limitations to the instruments used to measure emotional intelligence have been identified. This review examines the foundations of the definitions of emotional intelligence as well as existing educational research involving emotional intelligence, both within the health professions and externally. Recommendations for future research and research potential are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1636947  PMID: 17136189
emotional intelligence; general intelligence; academic success; performance

Results 1-20 (20)