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1.  Platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase induces MMP9 expression and cellular invasion via activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB 
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of death in males in the United States. Using human prostate cancer specimens, the authors have previously shown that elevated expression levels of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) occurred more frequently in advanced stage, high-grade prostate cancer, suggesting that 12-LOX expression is associated with carcinoma progression and invasion. Previous reports from their group and others have shown that 12-LOX is a positive modulator of invasion and metastasis; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this work, a new link between 12-LOX and the matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in prostate cancer angiogenesis is reported. This study demonstrated that overexpression of 12-LOX in prostate cancer PC-3 cells resulted in elevated expression of MMP9 mRNA, protein and secretion. Exogenous addition of 12(S)-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid, the sole and stable end product of arachidonic acid metabolism by 12-LOX, is able to increase MMP9 expression in wild-type PC-3 cells. Furthermore, using pharmacological and genetic inhibition approaches, it was found that 12-LOX activates phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, which results in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-driven MMP9 expression, ensuing in enhanced chemoattraction of endothelial cells. Specific inhibitors of 12-LOX, PI3K or NF-κB inhibited MMP9 expression in 12-LOX-expressing PC-3 cells and resulted in the blockade of the migratory ability of endothelial cells. In summary, the authors have identified a new pathway by which overexpression of 12-LOX in prostate cancer cells leads to augmented production of MMP9 via activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling. The role of 12-LOX-mediated MMP9 secretion in endothelial cell migration may account for the proangiogenic function of 12-LOX in prostate cancer.
doi:10.1002/ijc.28165
PMCID: PMC4269488  PMID: 23526143
12-lipoxygenase; matrix metalloproteinase; MMP9; NF-κB; prostate cancer; angiogenesis
2.  12-LIPOXYGENASE AND THE REGULATION OF HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR IN PROSTATE CANCER CELLS 
Experimental cell research  2010;316(10):1706-1715.
12-lipoxygenase, an arachidonic acid metabolizing enzyme of the lipoxygenase pathway, has been implicated as a major factor in promoting prostate cancer progression and metastasis. The ability of 12-LOX to aggravate the disease was linked to its proangiogenic role. Recent studies clearly demonstrated that 12-LOX enhances the expression and secretion of the angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) thus providing a direct link between this enzyme and its angiogenic properties. In the present study we have investigated the relationship between 12-LOX and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of VEGF expression under hypoxic conditions in solid tumors. Our findings have revealed that HIF-1 is one of the target transcription factors regulated by 12-LOX and 12(S)-HETE, in hypoxic tumor cells of the prostate. Regulation of HIF-1α by 12-LOX adds to the complexity of pathways mediated by this enzyme in promoting prostate cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. We have evidence that 12-LOX increases the protein level, mRNA, and functional activity of HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions, one of the mechanisms by which it upregulates VEGF secretion and activity.
doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2010.03.005
PMCID: PMC3420817  PMID: 20303950
12-Lipoxygenase; Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α); angiogenesis; prostate cancer; hypoxia

Results 1-2 (2)