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1.  Solifenacin significantly improves all symptoms of overactive bladder syndrome 
Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a chronic condition characterised by urgency, with or without associated urge incontinence. Solifenacin succinate is a once daily, bladder selective antimuscarinic available in two doses (5 and 10 mg). The recommended dose is 5 mg once daily and can be increased to 10 mg once daily if 5 mg is well tolerated. This article presents pooled efficacy and safety data from four large, placebo-controlled, multinational phase III trials of solifenacin succinate with a total enrolment of over 2800 patients. Data from these trials show that solifenacin 5 and 10 mg once daily is significantly more effective than placebo at reducing urgency, incontinence, micturition frequency and nocturia and at increasing volume voided per micturition. Adverse events were mainly mild-to-moderate in all treatment groups. The results of these phase III trials support the use of solifenacin in the treatment of OAB.
PMCID: PMC1619936  PMID: 16893438
Solifenacin; overactive bladder; antimuscarinic
2.  Gastric adenocarcinoma associated with adenomyoma of the stomach. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1988;64(756):801-803.
We report a case of gastric adenomyoma contiguous with adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Although a similar association is well recognized in the duodenum, we believe this to be the first documented case in the stomach. We review the literature on adenomyomata and discuss the implications of this finding. It would appear that glandular and cystic intramural lesions of the stomach are a heterogeneous group, and while there is a well established association between gastric carcinoma and gastritis cystica profunda, the same does not apply to gastric adenomyoma.
PMCID: PMC2429027  PMID: 3255924
3.  Intraluminal mucus cast complicating carcinoma of the colon. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1986;62(733):1061-1062.
A previously unreported complication of a stenosing carcinoma of the colon is described. This was first noticed as a rather unusual X-ray appearance, the significance of which only became clear following surgery.
PMCID: PMC2418985  PMID: 3628155
4.  Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper renal tract in rubber workers. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1985;61(719):837-838.
We report two patients where transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract developed after occupational exposure to known carcinogens, in the rubber industry. Although carcinoma of the bladder is well recognized in this context, to our knowledge, this association has not been reported previously.
PMCID: PMC2418385  PMID: 4059149
6.  Inguinal bladder hernia associated with vesico-ureteric reflux. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1992;68(798):299-300.
The urinary bladder is frequently found as a component of inguinal herniae. This report describes a case of 'bladder hernia' associated with vesico-ureteric reflux. The current methods of investigation and subsequent treatment for this condition are reviewed along with the possible underlying cause of vesico-ureteric reflux in this case.
PMCID: PMC2399281  PMID: 1409201
11.  Haemodynamic evidence for cardiac stress during transurethral prostatectomy. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1992;304(6828):666-671.
OBJECTIVE--To compare haemodynamic performance during transurethral prostatectomy and non-endoscopic control procedures similar in duration and surgical trauma. DESIGN--Controlled comparative study. SETTING--London teaching hospital. PATIENTS--33 men aged 50-85 years in American Society of Anesthesiologists risk groups I and II undergoing transurethral prostatectomy (20), herniorrhaphy (eight), or testicular exploration (five). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Percentage change from baseline in mean arterial pressure, heart rate, Doppler indices of stroke volume and cardiac output, and index of systemic vascular resistance, and change from baseline in core temperature. RESULTS--In the control group mean arterial pressure fell to 11% (95% confidence interval -17% to -5%) below baseline at two minutes into surgery and remained below baseline; there were no other overall changes in haemodynamic variables and the core temperature was stable. During transurethral prostatectomy mean arterial pressure increased by 16% (5% to 27%) at the two minute recording and remained raised throughout. Bradycardia reached -7% (-14% to 1%) by the end of the procedure. Doppler indices of stroke volume fell progressively to 15% (-24% to -6%) below baseline at the end of the procedure, and the index of cardiac output fell to 21% (-32% to -10%) below baseline by the end of the procedure. The index of systemic vascular resistance was increased by 28% (17% to 38%) at two minutes, and by 46.8% (28% to 66%) at the end of the procedure. Core temperature fell by a mean of 0.8 (-1.0 to -0.6) degrees C. Significant differences existed between the two groups in summary measures of mean arterial pressure (p less than 0.05), Doppler indices of stroke volume (p less than 0.005) and cardiac output (p less than 0.005), index of systemic vascular resistance (p less than 0.0005), and core temperature (p less than 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS--Important haemodynamic disturbances were identified during routine apparently uneventful transurethral prostatectomy but not during control procedures. These responses may be related to the rapid central cooling observed during transurethral prostatectomy and require further study.
PMCID: PMC1881532  PMID: 1571637
12.  Abnormal electromyographic activity of the urethral sphincter, voiding dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries: a new syndrome? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1988;297(6661):1436-1438.
A potential association between abnormal electromyographic activity--that is, decelerating bursts and complex repetitive discharges--of the urethral sphincter and difficulty in voiding was examined in 57 women with urinary retention. Abnormal electromyographic activity was found in 33. Ultrasonography of the ovaries in 22 of the 33 women showed that 14 had polycystic ovaries. Of the other eight women, two had had oophorectomies, one had shrunken ovaries and ovarian failure, and one had previously undergone oophorectomy and the other ovary could not be seen; in one neither ovary could be seen, and three had ovaries of normal appearance, although two of these women were taking the contraceptive pill. Thirteen of the group had endocrine symptoms and signs characteristic of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Videocystometrography in 17 of the women who were examined by ultrasonography showed low flow rates and high residual volumes of urine after micturition in 12 women who could void, the other five having chronic urinary retention. A speculative hypothesis for the observed association of impaired voiding, abnormal electromyographic activity of the urinary sphincter, and polycystic ovaries is advanced, based on the relative progesterone deficiency that characterises the polycystic ovary syndrome. Progesterone stabilises membranes, and its depletion might permit ephaptic transmission of impulses between muscle fibres in the muscle of the urethral sphincter, giving rise to the abnormal electromyographic activity. This may impair relaxation of the sphincter, resulting in low flow rates of urine, incomplete emptying of the bladder, and, finally, urinary retention.
PMCID: PMC1835186  PMID: 3147005

Results 1-12 (12)