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1.  Anti-diuresis in the management of daytime urinary incontinence 
Urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract dysfunction, whilst not life threatening conditions, remain an important cause of morbidity in women and are responsible for significant impairment of quality of life. Drug therapy is often used to treat women who complain of urgency and urge incontinence and has an emerging role in the management of stress urinary incontinence. However, bothersome side effects are known to affect compliance and therefore compromise efficacy, making longterm drug therapy unpopular.
The principle aim of this thesis is to assess the role of antidiuresis in women complaining of daytime urinary incontinence and also to examine its role as a ‘designer therapy’ which women can choose to use as, or when, required. In addition both the patients’ and clinicians’ attitudes towards treatment have been studied to clarify the meaning of ‘cure’, and to determine treatment acceptability, overall outcome and patient satisfaction.
In the first study the patients’ concept of cure is explored as well as their expectations regarding treatment and outcome. The second study examines cure from the clinician’s perspective in addition to reviewing outcome measures in the clinical and research settings. Finally in the third study the use of desmopressin in women complaining of daytime urinary incontinence is reported.
PMCID: PMC4251281  PMID: 25478070
2.  Solifenacin significantly improves all symptoms of overactive bladder syndrome 
Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a chronic condition characterised by urgency, with or without associated urge incontinence. Solifenacin succinate is a once daily, bladder selective antimuscarinic available in two doses (5 and 10 mg). The recommended dose is 5 mg once daily and can be increased to 10 mg once daily if 5 mg is well tolerated. This article presents pooled efficacy and safety data from four large, placebo-controlled, multinational phase III trials of solifenacin succinate with a total enrolment of over 2800 patients. Data from these trials show that solifenacin 5 and 10 mg once daily is significantly more effective than placebo at reducing urgency, incontinence, micturition frequency and nocturia and at increasing volume voided per micturition. Adverse events were mainly mild-to-moderate in all treatment groups. The results of these phase III trials support the use of solifenacin in the treatment of OAB.
PMCID: PMC1619936  PMID: 16893438
Solifenacin; overactive bladder; antimuscarinic
3.  Urinary incontinence in middle aged women: childhood enuresis and other lifetime risk factors in a British prospective cohort 
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and lifetime risk factors for urinary incontinence in middle aged women. DESIGN: Nationally representative birth cohort study with prospective data on childhood enuresis, measured adult height and weight, childbearing histories and measures of socioeconomic status updated at regular contacts, and measures of menopausal status, symptomatology and health care in midlife. SETTING: England, Scotland and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: General population sample of 1333 women aged 48 years. MAIN RESULTS: Fifty per cent reported symptoms of stress incontinence and 22% reported symptoms of urge incontinence in the previous year. Eight per cent had severe symptoms. Women who at age 6 years had wet in the day or several nights a week were more likely to suffer severe incontinence and report urge symptoms but occasional bedwetting was not associated with an increased risk in adult life. Those who were older at the birth of their children and who had vaginal deliveries had an excess risk of stress symptoms. Heavier adult body weight was also a risk factor for these symptoms and for severe incontinence. Postmenopausal women were less likely to report stress symptoms. These risk factors remained significant after taking account of the increased reporting of incontinence among women with high levels of general symptomatology and general practitioner visits, and of stress symptoms among better educated women. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary incontinence is a common problem among middle aged women. This is the first prospective study of a general population sample to support the postulated link between childhood enuresis and adult incontinence. Child-bearing has long term adverse effects, particularly for older mothers. Overweight is a common risk factor.
PMCID: PMC1756946  PMID: 10562862
5.  Postmenopausal cystitis. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1996;313(7050):129.
PMCID: PMC2351582  PMID: 8688769
7.  Is routine induction of labour at term ever justified? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1993;306(6881):840-841.
Balancing the risks of prolonged gestation against those of induced labour is difficult. Risks to the fetus increase slightly after 42 weeks' gestation but women having labour induced are more likely to have instrumental deliveries or babies with low Apgar scores. Since many women are now expressing a preference for minimal interference in childbirth the most acceptable management of post-term pregnancy seems to be increased fetal surveillance. Each case needs to be considered individually and it is important that the woman is involved in the decision to induce.
PMCID: PMC1677295  PMID: 8490378
8.  Outcome of breech delivery at term. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1992;305(6861):1090-1092.
PMCID: PMC1883609  PMID: 1467696
9.  Teaching vaginal examination. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1992;305(6845):113.
PMCID: PMC1882618  PMID: 1638227
10.  Urinary incontinence. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1992;304(6819):119-120.
PMCID: PMC1880964  PMID: 1737123
11.  Urinary incontinence in women: have we anything new to offer? 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;303(6815):1453-1457.
PMCID: PMC1671649  PMID: 1773155
13.  Urinary frequency and urgency. 
PMCID: PMC1342183  PMID: 3099896
14.  Prolonged pregnancy: the management debate. 
A prospective trial was conducted to compare the effects of conservative management of prolonged pregnancy (conservative group) with routine induction of labour at 42 weeks' gestation (active group) in otherwise uncomplicated pregnancies. Of the 402 pregnancies studied, 207 (51%) were allocated to conservative management and 195 (49%) were allocated to have labour induced. The groups were well matched for age, parity, and smoking habits. One hundred and sixty six (80%) of the patients in the conservative group went into spontaneous labour. Of the remainder, two underwent elective caesarean section, 19 had labour induced because of clinical concern, and the remaining 20 had labour induced at the patient's own request. One hundred and twenty five (64%) of the patients in the planned active group underwent induction of labour. Of the remaining 70, 49 went into spontaneous labour and 21 (11%) asked that they should not have labour induced. Comparison of the two groups showed no difference in the length of the first stage of labour but a trend towards an increased need for intervention for fetal distress (p less than 0.06) in the active group. There were no differences in the length of the second stage, the need for intervention, or the mode of delivery. In terms of Apgar scores the neonatal outcome was not significantly different between the two groups, but a greater proportion of the babies (15% v 8%) in the active group required intubation. Umbilical cord venous pH estimated in the last 183 consecutive deliveries in the study showed a significantly lower mean value in the active group (p less than 0.05). There was no difference in birth weight between the two groups. Two deaths occurred in the study. There was a stillbirth in the conservative group at 292 days after massive abruption, and one neonatal death in the active group owing to multiple congenital abnormalities. The outcome for mother and baby in patients from both groups who went into spontaneous labour was generally good. The outcome for patients for whom conservative management was planned but induction became necessary was no different from that of patients who underwent planned induction at term. Thus from our results we can find no evidence to support the view that women with normal prolonged pregnancy should undergo routine induction of labour at 42 weeks' gestation.
PMCID: PMC1341914  PMID: 3094775
15.  Sacral anterior root stimulators for bladder control in paraplegia: the first 50 cases. 
The first 50 patients who have received sacral anterior root stimulator implants are presented, with follow-up of from 1 to 9 years. Forty-nine are alive and 43 are regularly using their implants for micturition. Of the 49 living, 39 are "very pleased, without significant reservations", six are pleased on balance but have reservations, and four are dissatisfied. Residual urine volumes are substantially reduced in all patients who are using their implants. Ten of the 12 female patients and the majority of male patients have become continent. The voiding pressure in implant-driven micturition can be regulated by adjusting the stimulus parameters, and is always kept below 90 cm H2O. Of seven patients with ureteric reflux before operation, four have ceased to reflux and the other three are unchanged. Changes in the radiographic appearances of the bladder have been favourable or zero, but there have been two cases of deterioration in the upper urinary tracts. Significant harmful effects have been CSF leaks, urinary infections following post-operative urodynamic study, and accidental damage to roots. Anterior roots nearly always recover from accidental damage, and posterior roots do not.
PMCID: PMC1029041  PMID: 3491180
16.  Internal urinary sphincter in maintenance of female continence. 
The integrity of the bladder neck was assessed in 98 continent women. Radiological and physiological evidence showed that half of these women had an incompetent bladder neck, but they were still continent. These data devalue the urodynamic finding of an incompetent bladder neck as an indication for surgery for incontinence and question the physiological importance of the internal sphincter.
PMCID: PMC1339037  PMID: 3080117
17.  Should we abandon Kielland's forceps? 
To assess the risks associated with the use of Kielland's forceps 2708 consecutive deliveries were studied prospectively and the neonatal outcome related to the mode of delivery. Of the 1191 primigravidas, 279 (23.4%) underwent instrumental delivery, of whom 65 (5.5%) were delivered with Kielland's forceps. There was no difference in early neonatal outcome (as judged by Apgar scores, intubations, and admission to the special care baby unit) between these babies and those delivered normally or by non-rotational forceps, but a higher proportion of the 127 (10.7%) delivered by emergency caesarean section were compromised. Of the 1517 multigravid patients, only 57 (3.8%) underwent instrumental delivery, 15 (1.0%) by Kielland's forceps. Among these babies, also, the outcome was no worse than for those delivered normally, but the babies delivered by caesarean section showed a greatly increased incidence of low Apgar scores, intubations, and admission to the special care baby unit. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths among babies delivered by Kielland's forceps, nor were there any cases of severe birth trauma or of obvious neonatal morbidity.
PMCID: PMC1548574  PMID: 6409289
18.  Evaluation of flurbiprofen in detrusor instability. 
British Medical Journal  1980;280(6210):281-282.
Thirty women with detrusor instability (27 cases idiopathic, and three secondary to multiple sclerosis) completed a double-blind, cross-over trial of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor flurbiprofen and a placebo, results being evaluated by questionnaire and cystometry. Frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence were all significantly reduced with flurbiprofen (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.025, and P less than 0.025 respectively), as was the detrusor-pressure rise during bladder filling (P less than 0.01). Side effects, however, occurred in 13 patients while taking flurbiprofen compared with five while taking placebo (P less than 0.025). After the trial 19 patients wished to continue with flurbiprofen. Flurbiprofen is a useful treatment for idiopathic detrusor instability and is well tolerated by most patients.
PMCID: PMC1600108  PMID: 6986948
19.  Efficacy and safety of fesoterodine 8 mg in subjects with overactive bladder after a suboptimal response to tolterodine ER 
To assess fesoterodine 8 mg efficacy over time and vs. placebo in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who responded suboptimally to tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg.
In a 12-week, double-blind trial, subjects with self-reported OAB symptoms for ≥ 6 months, mean of ≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 2 to < 15 urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes/24 h, and suboptimal response to tolterodine ER 4 mg (defined as ≤ 50% reduction in UUI episodes during 2-week run-in) were randomised to fesoterodine (4 mg for 1 week, 8 mg for 11 weeks) or placebo once daily. Change from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes (primary end-point) was analysed in step-wise fashion: first, baseline vs. week 12 for fesoterodine; if significant, then change from baseline to week 12 for fesoterodine vs. placebo.
By week 12, subjects receiving fesoterodine 8 mg had significantly greater improvement from baseline vs. placebo in UUI episodes, urgency episodes and scores on the Patient Perception of Bladder Control, Urgency Perception Scale and OAB Questionnaire Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life scales and domains (all p < 0.05). 50% and 70% UUI responder rates were also significantly higher with fesoterodine 8 mg vs. placebo at week 12 (p < 0.05). Dry mouth (placebo, 4%, 12/301; fesoterodine, 16.6%, 51/308) and constipation (placebo, 1.3%, 4/301; fesoterodine, 3.9%, 12/308) were the most frequent adverse events.
Subjects who responded suboptimally to tolterodine ER 4 mg showed significant improvements in UUI and other OAB symptoms and patient-reported outcomes, with good tolerability, during treatment with fesoterodine 8 mg vs. placebo.
PMCID: PMC4265241  PMID: 24898471

Results 1-19 (19)