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1.  Evaluation of an Experimentally Designed Stereotactic Guidance System for Determining Needle Entry Point during Uniplanar Fluoroscopy-guided Intervention 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2012;25(2):81-88.
In discography performed during percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) via the posterolateral approach, it is difficult to create a fluoroscopic tunnel view because a long needle is required for discography and the guide-wire used for consecutive PELD interrupts rotation of fluoroscope. A stereotactic system was designed to facilitate the determination of the needle entry point, and the feasibility of this system was evaluated during interventional spine procedures.
A newly designed stereotactic guidance system underwent a field test application for PELD. Sixty patients who underwent single-level PELD at L4-L5 were randomly divided into conventional or stereotactic groups. PELD was performed via the posterolateral approach using the entry point on the skin determined by premeasured distance from the midline and angles according to preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Needle entry accuracy provided by the two groups was determined by comparing the distance and angle measured by postoperative computed tomography with those measured by preoperative MRI. The duration and radiation exposure for determining the entry point were measured in the groups.
The new stereotactic guidance system and the conventional method provided similarly accurate entry points for discography and consecutive PELD. However, the new stereotactic guidance system lowered the duration and radiation exposure for determining the entry point.
The new stereotactic guidance system under fluoroscopy provided a reliable needle entry point for discography and consecutive PELD. Furthermore, it reduced the duration and radiation exposure associated with determining needle entry.
PMCID: PMC3324745  PMID: 22514774
equipment design; fluoroscopy; needle; percutaneous discectomy; stereotactic technique
2.  Spinal Cord Stimulation in the Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Case Series and Review of the Literature 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2011;24(3):154-157.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is usually managed pharmacologically. It is not uncommon for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to suffer from PHN. It is difficult to prescribe a sufficient dose of anticonvulsants for intractable pain because of the decreased glomerular filtration rate. If the neural blockade and pulsed radiofrequency ablation provide only short-term amelioration of pain, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) with a low level of evidence may be used only as a last resort. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of PHN in patients with CKD.
PHN patients with CKD who needed hemo-dialysis who received insufficient relief of pain over a VAS of 8 regardless of the neuropathic medications were eligible for SCS trial. The follow-up period was at least 2 years after permanent implantation.
Eleven patients received percutaneous SCS test trial from Jan 2003 to Dec 2007. Four patients had successfully received a permanent SCS implant with their pain being tolerable at a VAS score of less than 3 along with small doses of neuropathic medications.
SCS was helpful in managing tolerable pain levels in some PHN patients with CKD along with tolerable neuropathic medications for over 2 years.
PMCID: PMC3172329  PMID: 21935494
anticonvulsants; kidney disease; postherpetic neuralgia; spinal cord; therapeutic electric stimulation

Results 1-2 (2)