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1.  Conjugation of Y. pestis F1-antigen to gold nanoparticles improves immunogenicity 
Vaccine  2012;30(48):6777-6782.
The efficacy of 15 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP) coated with Yersinia pestis F1-antigen, as an immunogen in mice, has been assessed. The nanoparticles were decorated with F1-antigen using N-hydroxysuccinimide and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Mice given AuNP-F1 in alhydrogel generated the greatest IgG antibody response to F1-antigen when compared with mice given AuNP-F1 in PBS or given unconjugated F1-antigen in PBS or alhydrogel. Compared with unconjugated F1-antigen, the IgG2a response was enhanced in mice dosed with AuNP-F1 in PBS (p < 0.05) but not in mice immunised with AuNP-F1 in alhydogel. All treatment groups developed a memory response to F1-antigen, the polarity of which was inflenced by formulation in alhydrogel. The sera raised against F1-antigen coupled to AuNPs was able to competitively bind to rF1-antigen, displacing protective macaque sera.
PMCID: PMC3488157  PMID: 23000121
Plague; Y. pestis; gold nanoparticle; vaccine; carbodiimide
2.  Pseudoaneurysm of the internal iliac artery resulting in massive per-rectal bleeding 
Journal of Surgical Case Reports  2013;2013(10):rjt069.
Rectal bleeding is a common reason for presentation to hospital, with large bleeds most commonly caused by diverticular disease and angiodysplasia. Here we present an unusual aetiology of massive per-rectal bleeding attributable to pseudoaneurysm of the internal iliac artery leading to an arterial fistula to the distal large bowel. It is hoped the case will serve as a reminder that rectal bleeding can have a less common aetiology.
PMCID: PMC3855167  PMID: 24964318
3.  The experience and training of British general surgeons in trauma surgery for the abdomen, thorax and major vessels. 
BACKGROUND: The report Better Carefor the Severely Injured [London: The Royal College of Surgeons of England and the British Orthopaedic Association; 2000] states that an experienced general surgeon trained in the techniques required to perform life-saving emergency surgery is vital in the management of major trauma. The experience and training of general surgeons in the UK in the management of trauma to the abdomen, thorax and major vessels has never been assessed. METHOD: Postal questionnaire sent to UK general surgical consultants and Higher Surgical Trainees (HSTs). RESULTS: A total of 854 (48%) questionnaires were completed. Of respondents, 85% believe that major trauma should be directed to hospitals that provide a dedicated trauma service. Of non-vascular specialists, 43% felt their training was adequate to manage vascular trauma and only one-third of general surgical consultants felt adequately prepared to manage acute cardiothoracic injuries. The median number of trauma laparotomies undertaken annually was 2 for blunt injury and 1 for penetrating injury. Of HSTs, 21% had not performed a splenectomy for trauma and 44% had no experience of packing for liver injuries. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited experience and training in the surgical management of torso trauma in the UK. Implementation of the recommendations from Better Care for the Severely Injured will be hampered unless steps are taken to maximise experience and improve training.
PMCID: PMC2504212  PMID: 12484581
4.  Collagen mediates adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to human dentin. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(10):4119-4125.
Some strains of Streptococcus mutans were found to recognize and bind collagen type I. Binding of 125I-labeled collagen type I was specific in that collagen types I and II, but not unrelated proteins, were able to inhibit binding of the labeled ligand to bacteria. Collagen binding to S. mutans was partially reversible and involved a limited number of bacterial binding sites per cell. S. mutans UA 140 cells bound collagen type I with high affinity (Kd = 8 x 10(-8) M). The number of binding sites per cell was 4 x 10(4). Collagen-binding strains of S. mutans were found to adhere to collagen-coated surfaces as well as to pulverized root tissue. S. mutans strains that did not bind the soluble ligand were unable to adhere to these substrata. Adherence to collagen-coated surfaces could be inhibited with collagen or clostridial collagenase-derived collagen peptides. Adherence of S. mutans to dentin was enhanced by collagen types I and II but inhibited by collagen peptides. S. mutans UA 140 bound significantly less 125I-collagen type I following treatment with peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes. These enzymes released a collagen-binding protein (collagen receptor) with a relative molecular size of 16 kDa. The results of this study suggest that collagen mediates adhesion of S. mutans to dentin. This interaction may target collagen-binding strains of S. mutans to dentin in the oral cavity and may play a role in the pathogenesis of root surface caries.
PMCID: PMC281133  PMID: 8406800
12.  Osmotic Growths 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine  1911;4(Electro Ther Sect):93-96.
PMCID: PMC2004310  PMID: 19975073

Results 1-15 (15)