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1.  Long-term Stability of Early Implant Placement with Contour Augmentation 
Journal of Dental Research  2013;92(12 Suppl):176S-182S.
In this prospective case series study, 20 patients with an implant-borne single crown following early implant placement with simultaneous contour augmentation were followed for 6 years. Clinical, radiologic, and esthetic parameters were assessed. In addition, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used at 6 years to examine the facial bone wall. During the study period, all 20 implants were successfully integrated, and the clinical parameters remained stable over time. Pleasing esthetic outcomes were noted, as assessed by the pink esthetic scores. None of the implants developed mucosal recession of 1 mm or more. The periapical radiographs yielded stable peri-implant bone levels, with a mean DIB of 0.44 mm at 6 years. The CBCT scans showed that all 20 implants had a detectable facial bone wall at 6 years, with a mean thickness of around 1.9 mm. In summary, this prospective case series study demonstrated stable peri-implant hard and soft tissues for all 20 implants, and pleasing esthetic outcomes overall. The follow-up of 6 years confirmed that the risk for mucosal recession is low with early implant placement. In addition, contour augmentation with guided bone regeneration (GBR) was able to establish and maintain a facial bone wall in all 20 patients.
PMCID: PMC3860062  PMID: 24158332
post-extraction implant placement; guided bone regeneration; single-tooth replacement; esthetic outcome; esthetic complication; dental implant
2.  Ridge Alterations Post-extraction in the Esthetic Zone 
Journal of Dental Research  2013;92(12 Suppl):195S-201S.
Dimensional alterations of the facial bone wall following tooth extractions in the esthetic zone have a profound effect on treatment outcomes. This prospective study in 39 patients is the first to investigate three-dimensional (3D) alterations of facial bone in the esthetic zone during the initial 8 wks following flapless tooth extraction. A novel 3D analysis was carried out, based on 2 consecutive cone beam computed tomographies (CBCTs). A risk zone for significant bone resorption was identified in central areas, whereas proximal areas yielded only minor changes. Correlation analysis identified a facial bone wall thickness of ≤ 1 mm as a critical factor associated with the extent of bone resorption. Thin-wall phenotypes displayed pronounced vertical bone resorption, with a median bone loss of 7.5 mm, as compared with thick-wall phenotypes, which decreased by only 1.1 mm. For the first time, 3D analysis has allowed for documentation of dimensional alterations of the facial bone wall in the esthetic zone of humans following extraction. It also characterized a risk zone prone to pronounced bone resorption in thin-wall phenotypes. Vertical bone loss was 3.5 times more severe than findings reported in the existing literature.
PMCID: PMC3860068  PMID: 24158340
bone remodeling; bone resorption; three-dimensional imaging; clinical trial; dental implants; maxilla
3.  Bioengineered Periodontal Tissue Formed on Titanium Dental Implants 
Journal of Dental Research  2011;90(2):251-256.
The ability to use autologous dental progenitor cells (DPCs) to form organized periodontal tissues on titanium implants would be a significant improvement over current implant therapies. Based on prior experimental results, we hypothesized that rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived DPCs can be used to bioengineer PDL tissues on titanium implants in a novel, in vivo rat maxillary molar implant model. Analyses of recovered implants revealed organized PDL tissues surrounding titanium implant surfaces in PDL-cell-seeded, and not in unseeded control, implants. Rat PDL DPCs also exhibited differentiative potential characteristic of stem cells. These proof-of-principle findings suggest that PDL DPCs can organize periodontal tissues in the jaw, at the site of previously lost teeth, indicating that this method holds potential as an alternative approach to osseointegrated dental implants. Further refinement of this approach will facilitate the development of clinically relevant methods for autologous PDL regeneration on titanium implants in humans.
PMCID: PMC3144101  PMID: 21149858
periodontal ligament; bioengineered tissues; titanium; dental implants
4.  Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S induces proliferation of human T lymphocytes. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(5):1800-1805.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for devastating acute and chronic infections, which include bronchiectasis in cystic fibrosis, nosocomial pneumonia, and infection of burn wounds. Previous studies have demonstrated that these patients have impaired host responses, including cell-mediated immune responses, which are important in anti-Pseudomonas host defense. The P. aeruginosa exoproduct, exoenzyme S, has a number of characteristics which suggest that it might be important in cell-mediated immunity. To determine whether exoenzyme S activates lymphocytes to proliferate, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal volunteers were stimulated with purified exoenzyme S, and the lymphocyte response was assessed by measuring [3H]thymidine uptake and by counting the number of cells after various times in culture. Ninety-five percent of healthy adult donors had a lymphocyte response to exoenzyme S. The optimal lymphocyte response occurred on day 7, with 4 x 10(5) PBMC per microtiter well when cells were stimulated with 10 micrograms exoenzyme S per ml. [3H]thymidine uptake correlated with an increase in the number of mononuclear cells, indicating that proliferation occurred. In unseparated PBMC, T cells, and to a lesser extent B cells, proliferated. Purified T cells proliferated, while purified B cells proliferated only after the addition of irradiated T cells. Thus, T lymphocytes are necessary and sufficient for the proliferative response to exoenzyme S. We speculate that exoenzyme S from P. aeruginosa is important in T-lymphocyte-mediated host defense to P. aeruginosa. In strategies to enhance impaired cell-mediated immunity, exoenzyme S should be considered as a potential stimulant.
PMCID: PMC173227  PMID: 7537248

Results 1-4 (4)