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1.  Differential activation of immune factors in neurons and glia contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption 
Individuals frequently find themselves confronted with a variety of challenges that threaten their wellbeing. While some individuals face these challenges efficiently and thrive (resilient) others are unable to cope and may suffer persistent consequences (vulnerable). Resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption may contribute to the vulnerability to individuals exposed to challenging conditions. With that in mind we exploited individual differences in a fly’s ability to form short-term memory (STM) following 3 different types of sleep disruption to identify the underlying genes. Our analysis showed that in each category of flies examined, there are individuals that form STM in the face of sleep loss (resilient) while other individuals show dramatic declines in cognitive behavior (vulnerable). Molecular genetic studies revealed that Antimicrobial Peptides, factors important for innate immunity, were candidates for conferring resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Specifically, Metchnikowin (Mtk), drosocin (dro) and Attacin (Att) transcript levels seemed to be differentially increased by sleep deprivation in glia (Mtk), neurons (dro) or primarily in the head fat body (Att). Follow-up genetic studies confirmed that expressing Mtk in glia but not neurons, and expressing dro in neurons but not glia, disrupted memory while modulating sleep in opposite directions. These data indicate that various factors within glia or neurons can contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation.
PMCID: PMC4416079  PMID: 25451614
Resilience/vulnerability; Individual differences; Sleep disruption; Short term memory; Immunity; Glia
2.  Use of Sleep Aids During the First Year of Life 
Pediatrics  2002;109(4):594-601.
In an attempt to foster self-soothing during the night, a novel sleep aid infused with maternal odor was introduced to 4 groups of infants ranging in age from 3 to 12 months. Infants’ use of parent-provided sleep aids also was examined.
Nighttime sleep and waking behaviors were videotaped for 2 consecutive nights on 3 occasions over a 3-month interval. Using all-night video recording, the study examined the infant’s use of a novel sleep aid and parent-provided sleep aids during sleep onset and after nighttime awakenings.
Results indicated that infants of different ages differed in the types of sleep aids used when falling asleep either at the beginning of the night or after awakenings in the middle of the night. More 3-month-olds used their thumbs/fingers/hands, whereas more 6-month-olds used soft objects. The 6-month-olds were most likely to use the novel sleep aid. Almost all of the infants at all 4 ages used some type of object during the night. Intra-individual analyses showed that infants tended to change their pattern of sleep aid use over the 3-month study period.
The data provide evidence that infants during the first year of life use sleep aids frequently and interchangeably rather than a specific favorite object.
PMCID: PMC1351014  PMID: 11927702
3.  Nighttime sleep-wake patterns and self-soothing from birth to one year of age: a longitudinal intervention study 
The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the longitudinal development of sleep-wake patterns of solitary-sleeping infants from 1 to 12 months of age, (2) identify effects on sleep patterns and on self-soothing behaviors of introducing a novel sleep aid, and (3) identify predictive factors of self-soothing at 12 months using a transactional model as a guide.
Eighty infants’ nighttime sleep-wake patterns and associated variables were studied at 5 times across the first year of life using videosomnography and questionnaires.
Sleep-wake state developmental changes, as reported in investigations of infant sleep, were replicated, although a great deal of individual variability in the development of all sleep-related variables was noted. No major effects on sleep or on self-soothing behavior were evident from the introduction of the novel sleep aid. Three variables were identified as significant predictors of self-soothing at 12 months: decreasing amounts of time spent out of crib across the first year, high levels of quiet sleep at birth, and longer parental response times to infant awakenings at 3 months.
These data lend preliminary support for the transactional model and suggest that infant and parental factors interact to influence the development of self-soothing.
PMCID: PMC1201415  PMID: 12236607
Infancy; normal development; parent-child interaction; paediatrics; sleep; temperament; AS: active sleep; AW: wakefulness; BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; GLM: general linear modeling; LSP: longest sleep period; OOC: out of crib; PSOCS: Parenting Sense of Competence Scale; QS: quiet sleep; RSA: representational sleep aid; SC: sham control; SS: self-soothed; TST: total sleep time
4.  Secretin and Sleep in Children with Autism 
The objectives of this pilot study were 1) to examine possible effects of secretin infusions on sleep-wake state organization in children with autism, and 2) to assess the feasibility of home recordings using time-lapse videosomnography in children with autism. Participants were a subset of subjects from two double blind, placebo-control, multi-center clinical trials. One trial, the UC Irvine study, assessed the effects of porcine secretin vs. saline infusions on children’s behavior, language and IQ. The UC Davis trial assessed the effects of synthetic human secretin vs. saline infusions on behavior, language and gastrointestinal function. The sleep study enrolled some of the children from each of the two trials to observe possible secretin effects on sleep. To examine sleep, the UC Irvine trial used the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire and daily sleep diaries, whereas the UC Davis study used home-recorded time-lapse videosomnography. Because of the small sample size, the results from both trials are preliminary. They suggest that secretin, porcine or synthetic, does not improve sleep-wake state organization dramatically.
PMCID: PMC1201388  PMID: 12462350
autism; sleep; secretin
5.  A Comparison of the Sleep–Wake Patterns of Cosleeping and Solitary-Sleeping Infants 
This study examined whether 3–15 month-old cosleeping infants displayed differences in time spent in active versus quiet sleep, and in the number/duration of nighttime awakenings when compared with solitary-sleeping infants; and also whether they spent the majority of the night sleeping face-to-face, as previously reported. Nine cosleeping and nine solitary-sleeping infants were matched on age, gender, ethnicity, maternal age, and family SES. Video recordings of nighttime sleep yielded percentage of time in active sleep, quiet sleep, and awake, number of awakenings, and the percentage of time cosleeping infants and mothers spent face-to-face. Across age, cosleeping infants had more awakenings per night (mean 5.8(1.50) versus 3.2(1.95); t = 3.16, p = .006). The percent of the nighttime spent awake did not differ between groups, suggesting that cosleeping infants had shorter awakenings. Cosleeping infants spent 40% of the night face-to-face with their mothers.
PMCID: PMC1201416  PMID: 15577276
cosleeping; infants; sleep
6.  Night Waking, Sleep-Wake Organization, and Self-Soothing in the First Year of Life 
Few objective data are available regarding infants’ night waking behaviors and the development of self-soothing during the first year of life. This cross-sectional study examined 80 infants in one of four age groups (3, 6, 9, or 12 mo) for four nights by using videosomnography to code nighttime awakenings and parent-child interactions. A large degree of variability was observed in parents’ putting the infant to bed awake or asleep and in responding to vocalizations after nighttime awakenings. Most infants woke during the night at all ages observed. Younger infants tended to require parental intervention at night to return to sleep, whereas older infants exhibited a greater proportion of self-soothing after nighttime awakenings. However, even in the 12-month-old group, 50% of infants typically required parental intervention to get back to sleep after waking. Results emphasize the individual and contextual factors that effect the development of self-soothing behavior during the first year of life.
PMCID: PMC1201414  PMID: 11530895
7.  A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Young Children’s Sleep Patterns Using a Developmental Classification System 
Behavioral sleep medicine  2005;3(1):44-61.
Sixty-eight families participated in a longitudinal study that included video observations of sleep during the 1st year of life and annual follow-up phone interviews until the children were 4 years of age. Results revealed that approximately 19% of children have a sleep problem at 2 years of age, defined either by research criteria or parental report, and that sleep problems diminished over time. Approximately 25% of children were reported to be cosleeping at each follow-up interview, but only a third of the parents reported this behavior to be problematic. A subgroup of infants (33%), who were considered stable, non-self-soothers in the 1st year, were more likely to have a sleep onset problem and be cosleeping at the 2-year follow-up assessment.
PMCID: PMC1201412  PMID: 15639757

Results 1-7 (7)