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1.  Dissecting the Transcriptional Response to Elicitors in Vitis vinifera Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109777.
The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production.
PMCID: PMC4196943  PMID: 25314001
2.  Synergistic effect of methyljasmonate and cyclodextrin on stilbene biosynthesis pathway gene expression and resveratrol production in Monastrell grapevine cell cultures 
BMC Research Notes  2008;1:132.
Plant cell cultures have been shown as feasible systems for the production of secondary metabolites, being the elicitation with biotic or abiotic stimuli the most efficient strategy to increase the production of those metabolites. Vitaceae phytoalexins constitute a group of molecules belonging to the stilbene family which are derivatives of the trans-resveratrol structure and are produced by plants and cell cultures as a response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The potential benefits of resveratrol on human health have made it one of the most thoroughly studied phytochemical molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the elicitor effect of both cyclodextrin (CD) and methyljasmonate (MeJA) on grapevine cell cultures by carrying out a quantitative analysis of their role on resveratrol production and on the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes in Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell albino cell suspension cultures.
MeJA and CD significantly but transiently induced the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes when independently used to treat grapevine cells. This expression correlated with resveratrol production in CD-treated cells but not in MeJA-treated cells, which growth was drastically affected. In the combined treatment of CD and MeJA cell growth was similarly affected, however resveratrol production was almost one order of magnitude higher, in correlation with maximum expression values for stilbene biosynthetic genes.
The effect of MeJA on cell division combined with a true and strong elicitor like CD could be responsible for the observed synergistic effect of both compounds on resveratrol production and on the expression of genes in the stilbene pathway.
PMCID: PMC2628674  PMID: 19102745
3.  Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 25544 as a suitable source of cholesterol oxidase: cell-linked and extracellular enzyme synthesis, purification and concentration 
BMC Biotechnology  2002;2:3.
The suitability of the strain Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 25544 grown in a two-liter fermentor as a source of cholesterol oxidase has been investigated. The strain produces both cell-linked and extracellular cholesterol oxidase in a high amount, that can be extracted, purified and concentrated by using the detergent Triton X-114.
A spray-dry method of preparation of the enzyme inducer cholesterol in Tween 20 was found to be superior in both convenience and enzyme synthesis yield to one of heat-mixing. Both were similar as far as biomass yield is concerned. Cell-linked cholesterol oxidase was extracted with Triton X-114, and this detergent was also used for purification and concentration, following temperature-induced detergent phase separation. Triton X-114 was utilized to purify and to concentrate the cell-linked and the extracellular enzyme. Cholesterol oxidase was found mainly in the resulting detergent-rich phase. When Triton X-114 concentration was set to 6% w/v the extracellular, but not the cell-extracted enzyme, underwent a 3.4-fold activation after the phase separation process. This result is interpreted in the light of interconvertible forms of the enzyme that do not seem to be in equilibrium. Fermentation yielded 360 U/ml (672 U/ml after activation), 36% of which was extracellular (65% after activation). The Triton X-114 phase separation step yielded 11.6-fold purification and 20.3-fold concentration.
The results of this work may make attractive and cost-effective the implementation of this bacterial strain and this detergent in a purification-based industrial production scheme of commercial cholesterol oxidase.
PMCID: PMC101390  PMID: 11914155
Cholesterol oxidase; Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 25544; enzyme purification; Triton X-114; phase separation

Results 1-3 (3)