A study of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. found that 13% had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later.
To better understand the factors associated with HIV and STD transmitting behavior among HIV-infected persons, we estimated STD prevalence and incidence and associated risk factors among a diverse sample of HIV-infected patients in primary care.
We analyzed data from 557 participants in the SUN study, a prospective observational cohort of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. cities. At enrollment and six months thereafter, participants completed an audio computer-assisted self interview about their sexual behavior, and were screened for genitourinary, rectal and pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis infections by nucleic acid amplification testing, and for serologic evidence of syphilis. Women provided cervicovaginal samples and men provided urine to screen for T. vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction.
Thirteen percent of participants had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later. The most commonly diagnosed infections were rectal chlamydia, oropharyngeal gonorrhea, and chlamydial urethritis among the men, and trichomoniasis among the women. Other than trichomoniasis, 94% of incident STDs were identified in MSM. Polysubstance abuse other than marijuana, and having ≥ 4 sex partners in the six months prior to testing were associated with diagnosis of an incident STD.
STDs were commonly diagnosed among contemporary HIV-infected patients receiving routine outpatient care, particularly among sexually active MSM who used recreational drugs. These findings underscore the need for frequent STD screening, prevention counseling, and substance abuse treatment for HIV-infected persons in care.
HIV infection; sexual risk; sexually transmitted infections
Prior structural neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in patients with bipolar disorder have reported higher or lower volumes, or no difference relative to healthy controls. These inconsistent findings may have resulted from combining subjects in different mood states. The prefrontal cortex has recently been reported to have a lower volume in depressed versus euthymic bipolar patients. Here we examined whether similar mood state-dependent volumetric differences are detectable in the amygdala.
Forty subjects, including 28 with bipolar disorder type I (12 depressed and 16 euthymic), and 12 healthy comparison subjects were scanned on a 3T magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanner. Amygdala volumes were manually traced and compared across subject groups, adjusting for sex and total brain volume.
Statistical analyses found a significant effect of mood state and hemisphere on amygdala volume. Subsequent comparisons revealed that amygdala volumes were significantly lower in the depressed bipolar group compared to both the euthymic bipolar (p=0.005) and healthy control (p=0.043) groups.
Our study was cross-sectional and some patients were medicated.
Our results suggest that mood state influences amygdala volume in subjects with bipolar disorder. Future studies that replicate these findings in unmedicated patient samples scanned longitudinally are needed.
Bipolar Disorder; Depression; Magnetic resonance imaging; MRI; Amygdala
To compare costs associated with a physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention with costs for usual care.
Cost calculation using healthcare utilization and outcomes from prospective, cluster randomized controlled clinical trials.
Eleven community-based medical offices in the Midwest.
496 patients with high blood pressure.
A physician-pharmacist collaborative care program to manage hypertension.
Measurements and Main Results
Total costs included provider time, laboratory tests, and antihypertensive medications. Provider time was calculated based on 1) an online survey of intervention pharmacists and 2) National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Cost parameters were taken from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Medicare laboratory fee schedule, and a publicly available drug price website. The total costs were adjusted for patient characteristics. Adjusted total costs were $774.90 in the intervention group and $445.75 in the control group (difference = $329.16; p< 0.001). In a sensitivity analysis, the difference in adjusted total costs between the two groups ranged from $224.27 to $515.56. The intervention cost was $1,338.05 ($329.16/24.6% blood pressure control rate) for each additional patient who attained blood pressure control within six months. The cost over 6 months to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure 1 mm Hg was $36.25 and $94.32, respectively.
The physician-pharmacist collaborative intervention increased blood pressure control but also increased the cost of care. Additional research, such as a cost-benefit or a cost-minimization analysis, is needed to assess if financial savings related to reduced morbidity and mortality achieved from better blood pressure control outweighs the cost.
Hypertension; physician-pharmacist collaboration; costs
In a large North American cohort study, anal cancer incidence rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected men who have sex with men, other men, and women compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. Rates increased from 1996–1999 to 2000–2003 but plateaued by 2004–2007.
Background. Anal cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), although few have evaluated rates separately for men who have sex with men (MSM), other men, and women. There are also conflicting data regarding calendar trends.
Methods. In a study involving 13 cohorts from North America with follow-up between 1996 and 2007, we compared anal cancer incidence rates among 34 189 HIV-infected (55% MSM, 19% other men, 26% women) and 114 260 HIV-uninfected individuals (90% men).
Results. Among men, the unadjusted anal cancer incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 131 for HIV-infected MSM, 46 for other HIV-infected men, and 2 for HIV-uninfected men, corresponding to demographically adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of 80.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.7–151.1) for HIV-infected MSM and 26.7 (95% CI, 11.5–61.7) for other HIV-infected men compared with HIV-uninfected men. HIV-infected women had an anal cancer rate of 30/100 000 person-years, and no cases were observed for HIV-uninfected women. In a multivariable Poisson regression model, among HIV-infected individuals, the risk was higher for MSM compared with other men (RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8–6.0), but no difference was observed comparing women with other men (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5–2.2). In comparison with the period 2000–2003, HIV-infected individuals had an adjusted RR of 0.5 (95% CI, .3–.9) in 1996–1999 and 0.9 (95% CI, .6–1.2) in 2004–2007.
Conclusions. Anal cancer rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected MSM, other men, and women compared with HIV-uninfected individuals, suggesting a need for universal prevention efforts. Rates increased after the early antiretroviral therapy era and then plateaued.
Data on the interaction between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and clinical infection are limited. During 2007–2008, we enrolled HIV-infected adults in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, in a prospective cohort study. Nares and groin swab specimens were cultured for S. aureus at enrollment and after 6 and 12 months. MRSA colonization was detected in 13%–15% of HIV-infected participants (n = 600, 98% male) at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. MRSA colonization was detected in the nares only (41%), groin only (21%), and at both sites (38%). Over a median of 2.1 years of follow-up, 29 MRSA clinical infections occurred in 25 participants. In multivariate analysis, MRSA clinical infection was significantly associated with MRSA colonization of the groin (adjusted risk ratio 4.8) and a history of MRSA infection (adjusted risk ratio 3.1). MRSA prevention strategies that can effectively prevent or eliminate groin colonization are likely necessary to reduce clinical infections in this population.
HIV; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; colonization; viruses; bacteria; Georgia; MRSA; staphylococci
Anthracycline-based chemotherapy (ABC) is the most effective therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The addition of rituximab to ABC in controlled trials has demonstrated superior survival, yet ABC is inconsistently utilized in elderly patients, and little is known about the penetrance or impact of rituximab with other treatments. We analyzed the treatment and survival patterns of 7559 patients with DLBCL over age 66 diagnosed from 1992 to 2002 using a linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)–Medicare database. Rituximab use was first detected in 1999 and by 2002 was incorporated in 79% of ABC-treated patients and 71% of patients treated with non-anthracycline chemotherapy, but only 12% of patients not receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. ABC rates remained constant across time as did rates of no therapy, which were highest among the very old. Rituximab-associated survival improvements were seen among elderly treated with or without anthracyclines. Patients treated with rituximab but not anthracyclines had comparable survival to those treated with anthracycline but not rituximab.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; immunotherapy; survival; elderly
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent but challenging to diagnose particularly among non-demented individuals. To determine whether a brief computerized battery correlates with formal neurocognitive testing, we identified 46 HIV-infected persons who had undergone both formal neurocognitive testing and a brief computerized battery. Simple detection tests correlated best with formal neuropsychological testing. By multivariable regression model, 53% of the variance in the composite Global Deficit Score was accounted for by elements from the brief computerized tool (p<0.01). These data confirm previous correlation data with the computerized battery, yet illustrate remaining challenges for neurocognitive screening.
The U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy targets for 2015 include increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for persons living with HIV in the United States (PLWH-US).
To demonstrate the utility of the NA-ACCORD (North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design) for monitoring trends in the HIV epidemic in the United States and to present trends in HIV treatment and related health outcomes.
Trends from annual cross-sectional analyses comparing patients from pooled, multicenter, prospective, clinical HIV cohort studies with PLWH-US, as reported to national surveillance systems in 40 states.
U.S. HIV outpatient clinics.
HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any calendar year from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2008.
Annual rates of antiretroviral therapy use, HIV VL, and CD4 cell count at death.
45 529 HIV-infected persons received care in an NA-ACCORD–participating U.S. clinical cohort from 2000 to 2008. In 2008, the 26 030 NA-ACCORD participants in care and the 655 966 PLWH-US had qualitatively similar demographic characteristics. From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of participants prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy increased by 9 percentage points to 83% (P < 0.001), whereas the proportion with suppressed HIV VL (≤2.7 log10 copies/mL) increased by 26 percentage points to 72% (P < 0.001). Median CD4 cell count at death more than tripled to 0.209 × 109 cells/L (P < 0.001).
The usual limitations of observational data apply.
The NA-ACCORD is the largest cohort of HIV-infected adults in clinical care in the United States that is demographically similar to PLWH-US in 2008. From 2000 to 2008, increases were observed in the percentage of prescribed HAART, the percentage who achieved a suppressed HIV VL, and the median CD4 cell count at death.
Primary Funding Source
National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian HIV Trials Network, and the government of British Columbia, Canada.
Compliance with National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP) guidelines has been shown to significantly reduce incident cardiovascular events. We investigated physicians’ compliance with NCEP guidelines to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a population infected with HIV.
We analyzed HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) data, following eligible patients from January 1, 2002, or first HOPS visit thereafter to calculate 10-year cardiovascular risk (10yCVR), until September 30, 2009, death, or last office visit. We categorized participants into four 10yCVR strata, according to guidelines determined by NCEP, the Infectious Disease Society of America, and the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group. We calculated percentages of patients treated for dyslipidemia and hypertension, calculated percentages of patients who achieved recommended goals, and categorized them by 10yCVR stratum.
Of 2,005 patients analyzed, 33.7% had fewer than 2 CVD risk factors. For patients who had 2 or more risk factors, 10yCVR was less than 10% for 28.2%, 10% to 20% for 18.2%, and higher than 20% for 20.0% of patients. Of patients eligible for treatment, 81% to 87% were treated for elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/non–HDL-C), 2% to 11% were treated for low HDL-C, 56% to 91% were treated for high triglycerides, and 46% to 69% were treated for hypertension. Patients in higher 10yCVR categories were less likely to meet treatment goals than patients in lower 10yCVR categories.
At least one-fifth of contemporary HOPS patients have a 10yCVR higher than 20%, yet a large percentage of at-risk patients who were eligible for pharmacologic treatment did not receive recommended interventions and did not reach recommended treatment goals. Opportunities exist for CVD prevention in the HIV-infected population.
Insulin resistance (IR) is the main pathological condition underlying vascular disorders, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which are well established risk factors for cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD). Hippocampal atrophy has been associated with cognitive decline, but little is known about the influence of IR on hippocampus integrity in non-diabetic, cognitively-intact individuals. Herein, 50 women ages 50–65, current users of hormone therapy, underwent magnetic resonance imaging, cognitive testing, and homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), as part of a longitudinal study examining brain structure and function in postmenopausal women at risk for AD. Results demonstrated a significant negative relationship between HOMA-IR and right and total hippocampal volume, overall cognitive performance, and selective tests of verbal and non-verbal memory. The main effect of HOMA-IR on brain structure and cognition was not altered by the presence of APOE-ε4 allele or by reproductive history, such as duration of endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure. These results suggest that IR in middle-aged individuals at risk for AD may be biomarker for dementia risk.
insulin resistance; postmenopausal women; Alzheimer’s disease; hippocampal volume; APOE-ε4; dementia risk
Carotid artery intima-media thickness progression is associated with human immunodeficiency virus replication as well as with exposure to certain antiretroviral therapy regimens.
Background. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at risk for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Predictors of atherosclerotic disease progression in contemporary patients have not been well described.
Methods. Using data from a prospective observational cohort of adults infected with HIV (Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy), we assessed common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) at baseline and year 2 by ultrasound. We examined HIV-associated predictors of CIMT progression after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and baseline CIMT using linear regression.
Results. Among 389 participants (median age at baseline, 42 years; male sex, 77%; median CD4+ cell count at baseline, 485 cells/mm3; 78% receiving antiretroviral therapy), the median 2-year CIMT change was 0.016 mm (interquartile range, −0.003 to 0.033 mm; P < .001). Lesser CIMT progression was associated with a suppressed viral load at baseline (−0.009 mm change; P = .015) and remaining virologically suppressed throughout follow-up (−0.011 mm change; P < .001). After adjusting for additional risk factors and a suppressed viral load during follow-up, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor versus protease inhibitor exposure was associated with lesser CIMT progression (−0.011 mm change; P = .02).
Conclusions. Suppressing HIV replication below clinical thresholds was associated with less progression of atherosclerosis. The proatherogenic mechanisms of HIV replication and the net CVD benefit of different antiretroviral drugs should be a focus of future research.
Free ions of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ influenced the optical density of planktonic cultures of thermophilic bacilli. Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 (milk powder manufacturing plant isolates) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641 and G. thermoleovorans DSM 5366 were studied. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were associated with increases in optical density more so than Na+ and K+. Overall, it appeared that Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ was required for the production of protein in thermophilic bacilli, as shown by results obtained with A. flavithermus E16, which was selected for further study.
Background. Screening for tuberculosis prior to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation is not routinely performed in low-incidence settings. Identifying factors associated with developing tuberculosis after HAART initiation could focus screening efforts.
Methods. Sixteen cohorts in the United States and Canada contributed data on persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who initiated HAART December 1995–August 2009. Parametric survival models identified factors associated with tuberculosis occurrence.
Results. Of 37845 persons in the study, 145 were diagnosed with tuberculosis after HAART initiation. Tuberculosis risk was highest in the first 3 months of HAART (20 cases; 215 cases per 100000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 131–333 per 100000 person-years). In a multivariate Weibull proportional hazards model, baseline CD4+ lymphocyte count <200, black race, other nonwhite race, Hispanic ethnicity, and history of injection drug use were independently associated with tuberculosis risk. In addition, in a piece-wise Weibull model, increased baseline HIV-1 RNA was associated with increased tuberculosis risk in the first 3 months; male sex tended to be associated with increased risk.
Conclusions. Screening for active tuberculosis prior to HAART initiation should be targeted to persons with baseline CD4 <200 lymphocytes/mm3 or increased HIV-1 RNA, persons of nonwhite race or Hispanic ethnicity, history of injection drug use, and possibly male sex.
Background. Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the impact of rectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on rectal HIV-1 shedding is unknown.
Methods. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA was quantified from rectal swabs collected for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening of HIV-1-infected MSM. Correlations of STIs with rectal viral load were explored using multinomial regression modeling. HIV-1 coreceptor tropism was predicted from sequencing in a subset of men.
Results. Thirty-one (39%) of 80 men (59 prescribed combination antiretroviral therapy [cART]) had HIV detected in 38 (42%) of 91 rectal swabs. Rectal HIV detection was associated with plasma virus loads above 3.15 log10 copies/mL (95% confidence limit [CL] 2.73, 3.55) and paired rectal viral loads and plasma viral loads were correlated (Kendall’s tau [τ] 0.68, Spearman rho [P] = .77). Rectal STIs and abnormal anal cytology were not associated with rectal viral load. HIV coreceptor distribution was very similar between the plasma and rectum in 3 of 4 men.
Conclusions. Plasma and rectal viral load were correlated, and rectal STIs did not increase the likelihood of detecting HIV in the rectal secretions in MSM, including those with low or undetectable plasma viral load. Suppressing plasma viral load is likely to reduce risk of HIV transmission to insertive partners.
Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR) over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.
Differential cerebral metabolic effects of various hormone therapy formulations, and their associations with cognitive status, remain to be established. The principal aim of the current study wasto assess relationships between regional cerebral metabolism and estrogen-based hormone therapies. Postmenopausal women (n=53) at elevated risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were on estrogen-containing hormone therapy for at least one year prior to enrollment in a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Subjects underwent an FDG-PET scan, along with neuropsychological, medical, and demographic assessments at time of enrollment, to be repeated one year following randomization to hormone therapy continuation versus discontinuation, and results from analyses of the baseline assessments are reported here. Across all subjects, years of endogenous estrogen exposure correlated most closely with metabolism in right superior frontal gyrus (p<0.0005). Women taking 17β-estradiol (E) performed 3 standard deviations higher in verbal memory than women taking conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), and their verbal memory performance positively correlated with metabolism in Wernicke’s (p=0.003) and auditory association (p=0.002) areas. Women taking progesterone-plus-estrogen had lower metabolism than women taking unopposed estrogen within the mesial and inferior lateral temporal regions (p<0.0005) and the inferior frontal cortex, contralateral to Broca’s area (p<0.0005). In conclusion, particular areas of relatively preserved metabolism were seen in women with more years of endogenous estrogen exposure, as well as in women taking estradiol-based formulations or estrogen therapies unopposed by progesterone, together suggesting regionally specific neuroprotective estrogenic effects.
PET; estrogen formulations; postmenopausal; hormone therapy; AD; verbal memory
Background. Little is known about temporal trends in frequencies of clinically relevant ARV resistance mutations in HIV strains from U.S. patients undergoing genotypic testing (GT) in routine HIV care. Methods. We analyzed cumulative frequency of HIV resistance among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) who, during 1999–2008 and while prescribed antiretrovirals, underwent GT with plasma HIV RNA >1,000 copies/mL. Exposure ≥4 months to each of three major antiretroviral classes (NRTI, NNRTI and PI) was defined as triple-class exposure (TCE). Results. 906 patients contributed 1,570 GT results. The annual frequency of any major resistance mutations decreased during 1999–2008 (88% to 79%, P = 0.05). Resistance to PIs decreased among PI-exposed patients (71% to 46%, P = 0.010) as exposure to ritonavir-boosted PIs increased (6% to 81%, P < 0.001). Non-significant declines were observed in resistance to NRTIs among NRTI-exposed (82% to 67%), and triple-class-resistance among TCE patients (66% to 41%), but not to NNRTIs among NNRTI-exposed. Conclusions. HIV resistance was common but declined in HIV isolates from subgroups of ARV-experienced HOPS patients during 1999–2008. Resistance to PIs among PI-exposed patients decreased, possibly due to increased representation of patients whose only PI exposures were to boosted PIs.
Early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection and suppression of viral load are potentially powerful interventions for reducing HIV incidence. A test-and-treat strategy may have long-term effects on the epidemic among urban men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States and may achieve the 5-year goals of the 2010 National AIDS Strategy that include: 1) lowering to 25% the annual number of new infections, 2) reducing by 30% the HIV transmission rate, 3) increasing to 90% the proportion of persons living with HIV infection who know their HIV status, 4) increasing to 85% the proportion of newly diagnosed patients linked to clinical care, and 5) increasing by 20% the proportion of HIV-infected MSM with an undetectable HIV RNA viral load.
Methods and Findings
We constructed a dynamic compartmental model among MSM in an urban population (based on New York City) that projects new HIV infections over time. We compared the cumulative number of HIV infections in 20 years, assuming current annual testing rate and treatment practices, with new infections after improvements in the annual HIV testing rate, notification of test results, linkage to care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and viral load suppression. We also assessed whether five of the national HIV prevention goals could be met by the year 2015. Over a 20-year period, improvements in test-and-treat practice decreased the cumulative number of new infections by a predicted 39.3% to 69.1% in the urban population based on New York City. Institution of intermediate improvements in services would be predicted to meet at least four of the five goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy by the 2015 target.
Improving the five components of a test-and-treat strategy could substantially reduce HIV incidence among urban MSM, and meet most of the five goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.
Recent studies suggest trends toward more mastectomies for primary breast cancer treatment. We assessed survival after mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation for early-stage breast cancer among non-selected populations of women and among women similar to those in clinical trials. Using population-based data from Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries linked with Medicare administrative data from 1992 to 2005, we conducted propensity score analysis of survival following primary therapy for early-stage breast cancer, including BCS with radiation, BCS without radiation, mastectomy with radiation, and mastectomy without radiation. Adjusted survival was greatest among women who had BCS with radiation (median survival = 10.98 years). Compared with this group, mortality was higher among women who had mastectomy without radiation (median survival 10.04 years, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.23), mastectomy with radiation (median survival 10.02 years, HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.14–1.27), and BCS without radiation (median survival 7.63 years, HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.70–1.92). Among women representative of those eligible for clinical trials (age ≤70 years, Charlson comorbidity score = 0/1, and stage 1 tumors), there were no differences in survival for women who underwent BCS with radiation or mastectomy. In conclusion, after careful adjustment for differences in patient, physician, and hospital characteristics, we found better survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among older early-stage breast cancer patients, with no difference in survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among women representative of those in clinical trials. These findings are reassuring in light of recent trends towards more aggressive primary breast cancer therapy.
Breast cancer; Surgery; Outcomes; Mastectomy; Breast conservation
This study explored whether cerebral metabolic changes seen in treatment resistant and rapid cycling bipolar depression inpatients are also found in an outpatient sample not specifically selected for treatment resistance or rapid cycling. We assessed 15 depressed outpatients with bipolar disorder (six type I and nine type II) who were medication-free for at least 2 weeks and were not predominantly rapid cycling. The average 28-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) total score was 33.9. The healthy control group comprised 19 agematched subjects. All participants received a resting quantitative 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan. Data analyses were performed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5). Analyses revealed that depressed patients exhibited similar global metabolism, but decreased absolute regional metabolism in the left much more than right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral (left greater than right) insula, bilateral subgenual prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, and right precuneus. No region exhibited absolute hypermetabolism. Moreover, HAM-D scores inversely correlated with absolute global metabolism and regional metabolism in the bilateral medial prefrontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus. Analysis of relative cerebral metabolism yielded a similar, but less robust pattern of findings. Our findings confirm prefrontal and anterior paralimbic metabolic decreases in cerebral metabolism outside of inpatients specifically selected for treatment resistant and rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Prefrontal metabolic rates were inversely related to severity of depression. There was no evidence of regional hypermetabolism, perhaps because this phenomenon is less robust or more variable than prefrontal hypometabolism.
Bipolar disorder; Bipolar depression; Tomography; Emission-computed depression; Cortex; Prefrontal; Frontal lobes
Mood states are associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow and metabolism, yet changes in cerebral structure are typically viewed in the context of enduring traits, genetic predispositions, or the outcome of chronic psychiatric illness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from two groups of patients with bipolar disorder. In one group, patients met criteria for a current major depressive episode whereas in the other no patient did. No patient in either group met criteria for a current manic, hypomanic, or mixed episode. Groups were matched with respect to age and illness severity. Analyses of gray matter density were performed with Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM5). Compared with non-depressed bipolar subjects, depressed bipolar subjects exhibited lower gray matter density in the right dorsolateral and bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and portions of the left parietal lobe. In addition, gray matter density was greater in the left temporal lobe and right posterior cingulate cortex/parahippocampal gyrus in depressed than in non-depressed subjects. Our findings highlight the importance of mood state in structural studies of the brain—an issue that has received insufficient attention to date. Moreover, our observed differences in gray matter density overlap metabolic areas of change and thus have implications for the conceptualization and treatment of affective disorders.
Bipolar disorder; Magnetic resonance imaging; Prefrontal cortex
Transfusion patterns are not well characterized in non-dialysis (ND) chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study describes the proportion of patients transfused, units of blood transfused and trigger-hemoglobin (Hb) levels for transfusions in severe anemic, ND-CKD patients in routine practice.
A retrospective cohort study of electronic medical record data from the Henry Ford Health System identified 374 adult, ND-CKD patients with severe anemia (Hb < 10 g/dL and subsequent use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents [ESA] therapy, blood transfusions, or a second Hb < 10 g/dL) between January 2004 and June 2008. Exclusions included those with prior diagnoses of cancer, renal or liver transplant, end-stage renal disease, acute bleeding, trauma, sickle cell disease, or aplastic anemia. A gap of ≥ 1 days between units of blood transfused was counted as a separate transfusion.
At least 1 transfusion (mean of 2 units; range, 1-4) was administered to 20% (75/374) of ND-CKD patients with mean (± SD) follow-up of 459 (± 427) days. The mean (± SD) Hb level closest and prior to a transfusion was 8.8 (± 1.5) g/dL. Patients who were hospitalized in the 6 months prior to their first anemia diagnosis were 6.3 times more likely to receive a blood transfusion than patients who were not hospitalized (p < 0.0001). Patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were twice as likely to have a transfusion as patients without PVD (p = 0.04).
Transfusions were prevalent and the trigger hemoglobin concentration was approximately 9 g/dL among ND-CKD patients with anemia. To reduce the transfusion burden, clinicians should consider other anemia treatments including ESA therapy.
A hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion, also called hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor, is a rare and recently described fibrolipomatous entity. Initially considered the result of a reactive inflammatory process from trauma or vascular disease, newer evidence suggests it may be neoplastic in origin.
We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with a painful mass in the dorsal aspect of the foot diagnosed as a hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion.
We reviewed all 31 published cases of hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesions looking for common clinical, imaging, and histologic patterns. Hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesions occur predominantly in the fifth and sixth decades of life (average age, 49.5 years; range, 0.67–74 years). Females predominate 22 to 9. Thirteen of 28 patients had histories of trauma or vasculopathy. Twenty-six of 31 lesions were in the foot. The MRI signal of a hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion follows fat in all sequences. Stranding or septations also frequently are seen. Histologically, the lesions are composed of three main elements in varying proportions: mature adipocytes, spindle cells, and hemosiderin pigment. Ten of 27 resected lesions recurred. Resection types are not reported in many cases. Four of 15 lesions recurred after marginal/intralesional excision, whereas none of three lesions treated by wide excision recurred.
Purpose and clinical relevance
The high recurrence rate may be related to the difficulty in determining intraoperatively that a resection is complete, secondary to the lack of anatomic boundaries such as a pseudocapsule. Any attempt at wide resection must weigh the morbidity of this surgery against that of a recurrence after a resection which seemed complete intraoperatively. There have been no reports of metastasis.
Background. It is unclear if CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis have improved over a 10-year period of expanded HIV testing in the USA. Methods. We studied HOPS participants diagnosed with HIV infection ≤6 months prior to entry into care during 2000–2009. We assessed the correlates of CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at HIV diagnosis (late HIV diagnosis) by logistic regression. Results. Of 1,203 eligible patients, 936 (78%) had a CD4 count within 3 months after HIV diagnosis. Median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis was 299 cells/mm3 and did not significantly improve over time (P = 0.13). Comparing periods 2000-2001 versus 2008-2009, respectively, 39% and 35% of patients had a late HIV diagnosis (P = 0.34). Independent correlates of late HIV diagnosis were having an HIV risk other than being MSM, age ≥35 years at diagnosis, and being of nonwhite race/ethnicity. Conclusions. There is need for routine universal HIV testing to reduce the frequency of late HIV diagnosis and increase opportunity for patient- and potentially population-level benefits associated with early antiretroviral treatment.