Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is required for initiation and maintenance of polarized cell growth in budding yeast. Cdk1 activates Rho-family GTPases, which trigger polarization of the actin cytoskeleton for delivery of membrane to growth sites. It is found that Cdk1's function in polarized growth extends beyond that of actin organization.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is required for initiation and maintenance of polarized cell growth in budding yeast. Cdk1 activates Rho-family GTPases, which polarize the actin cytoskeleton for delivery of membrane to growth sites via the secretory pathway. Here we investigate whether Cdk1 plays additional roles in the initiation and maintenance of polarized cell growth. We find that inhibition of Cdk1 causes a cell surface growth defect that is as severe as that caused by actin depolymerization. However, unlike actin depolymerization, Cdk1 inhibition does not result in a massive accumulation of intracellular secretory vesicles or their cargoes. Analysis of post-Golgi vesicle dynamics after Cdk1 inhibition demonstrates that exocytic vesicles are rapidly mistargeted away from the growing bud, possibly to the endomembrane/vacuolar system. Inhibition of Cdk1 also causes defects in the organization of endocytic and exocytic zones at the site of growth. Cdk1 thus modulates membrane-trafficking dynamics, which is likely to play an important role in coordinating cell surface growth with cell cycle progression.
Ser-227 phosphorylation of Rab11-FIP2 by Par1b/MARK2 regulates the establishment of polarized epithelial monolayers in three-dimensional MDCK cell cultures and has an ongoing influence on the composition of both adherens and tight junctions in polarized epithelial cells.
The Rab11 effector Rab11-family interacting protein 2 (Rab11-FIP2) regulates transcytosis through its interactions with Rab11a and myosin Vb. Previous studies implicated Rab11-FIP2 in the establishment of polarity in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells through phosphorylation of Ser-227 by MARK2. Here we examine the dynamic role of Rab11-FIP2 phosphorylation on MDCK cell polarity. Endogenous Rab11-FIP2 phosphorylated on Ser-227 coalesces on vesicular plaques during the reestablishment of polarity after either monolayer wounding or calcium switch. Whereas expression of the nonphosphorylatable Rab11-FIP2(S227A) elicits a loss in lumen formation in MDCK cell cysts grown in Matrigel, the putative pseudophosphorylated Rab11-FIP2(S227E) mutant induces the formation of cysts with multiple lumens. On permeable filters, Rab11-FIP2(S227E)–expressing cells exhibit alterations in the composition of both the adherens and tight junctions. At the adherens junction, p120 catenin and K-cadherin are retained, whereas the majority of the E-cadherin is lost. Although ZO-1 is retained at the tight junction, occludin is lost and the claudin composition is altered. Of interest, the effects of Rab11-FIP2 on cellular polarity did not involve myosin Vb or Rab11a. These results indicate that Ser-227 phosphorylation of Rab11-FIP2 regulates the composition of both adherens and tight junctions and is intimately involved in the regulation of polarity in epithelial cells.
Highly motile fungal early endosomes can be easily distinguished from more static late endosomes and vacuoles, a feature that is exploited to study endosomal maturation. RabA/RabB early endosomes mature into RabSRab7 late endosomes as they move away from the tip where endocytosis predominates, augmenting their size, with concomitant loss of motility.
We exploit the ease with which highly motile early endosomes are distinguished from static late endosomes in order to study Aspergillus nidulans endosomal traffic. RabSRab7 mediates homotypic fusion of late endosomes/vacuoles in a homotypic fusion- and vacuole protein sorting/Vps41–dependent manner. Progression across the endocytic pathway involves endosomal maturation because the end products of the pathway in the absence of RabSRab7 are minivacuoles that are competent in multivesicular body sorting and cargo degradation but retain early endosomal features, such as the ability to undergo long-distance movement and propensity to accumulate in the tip region if dynein function is impaired. Without RabSRab7, early endosomal Rab5s—RabA and RabB—reach minivacuoles, in agreement with the view that Rab7 homologues facilitate the release of Rab5 homologues from endosomes. RabSRab7 is recruited to membranes already at the stage of late endosomes still lacking vacuolar morphology, but the transition between early and late endosomes is sharp, as only in a minor proportion of examples are RabA/RabB and RabSRab7 detectable in the same—frequently the less motile—structures. This early-to-late endosome/vacuole transition is coupled to dynein-dependent movement away from the tip, resembling the periphery-to-center traffic of endosomes accompanying mammalian cell endosomal maturation. Genetic studies establish that endosomal maturation is essential, whereas homotypic vacuolar fusion is not.
Synaptotagmin-1 regulates synaptic vesicle fusion, but little is known about the remaining syt isoforms. Syt-pHluorin reporters are used to show that only two syts are on synaptic vesicles, whereas other isoforms are selectively targeted to dendrites, axons, or both axons and dendrites, where they undergo exocytosis and endocytosis with distinct kinetics.
The synaptotagmins (syts) are a family of molecules that regulate membrane fusion. There are 17 mammalian syt isoforms, most of which are expressed in the brain. However, little is known regarding the subcellular location and function of the majority of these syts in neurons, largely due to a lack of isoform-specific antibodies. Here we generated pHluorin-syt constructs harboring a luminal domain pH sensor, which reports localization, pH of organelles to which syts are targeted, and the kinetics and sites of exocytosis and endocytosis. Of interest, only syt-1 and 2 are targeted to synaptic vesicles, whereas other isoforms selectively recycle in dendrites (syt-3 and 11), axons (syt-5, 7, 10, and 17), or both axons and dendrites (syt-4, 6, 9, and 12), where they undergo exocytosis and endocytosis with distinctive kinetics. Hence most syt isoforms localize to distinct secretory organelles in both axons and dendrites and may regulate neuropeptide/neurotrophin release to modulate neuronal function.
During oogenesis in Drosophila, the phagocytic engulfment protein Ced-6 recognizes the atypical endocytic sorting signal within the vitellogenin receptor Yolkless. Because Ced-6 displays all of the features of an authentic clathrin adaptor, an unrecognized clathrin dependence for Ced-6/Gulp operation during phagocytosis is possible.
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis are both selective surface internalization processes but have little known mechanistic similarity or interdependence. Here we show that the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain protein Ced-6, a well-established phagocytosis component that operates as a transducer of so-called “eat-me” signals during engulfment of apoptotic cells and microorganisms, is expressed in the female Drosophila germline and that Ced-6 expression correlates with ovarian follicle development. Ced-6 exhibits all the known biochemical properties of a clathrin-associated sorting protein, yet ced-6–null flies are semifertile despite massive accumulation of soluble yolk precursors in the hemolymph. This is because redundant sorting signals within the cytosolic domain of the Drosophila vitellogenin receptor Yolkless, a low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily member, occur; a functional atypical dileucine signal binds to the endocytic AP-2 clathrin adaptor directly. Nonetheless, the Ced-6 PTB domain specifically recognizes the noncanonical Yolkless FXNPXA sorting sequence and in HeLa cells promotes the rapid, clathrin-dependent uptake of a Yolkless chimera lacking the distal dileucine signal. Ced-6 thus operates in vivo as a clathrin adaptor. Because the human Ced-6 orthologue GULP similarly binds to clathrin machinery, localizes to cell surface clathrin-coated structures, and is enriched in placental clathrin-coated vesicles, new possibilities for Ced-6/Gulp operation during phagocytosis must be considered.
A molecular dissection of contractile vacuole (CV) discharge shows that Rab8a is recruited to the CV a few seconds before the exocyst. Together they tether it to the plasma membrane and commit it to fusion. GTP hydrolysis is necessary for vacuole detethering, a process in which LvsA, a protein of the Chédiak–Higashi family, plays a crucial role.
Water expulsion by the contractile vacuole (CV) in Dictyostelium is carried out by a giant kiss-and-run focal exocytic event during which the two membranes are only transiently connected but do not completely merge. We present a molecular dissection of the GTPase Rab8a and the exocyst complex in tethering of the contractile vacuole to the plasma membrane, fusion, and final detachment. Right before discharge, the contractile vacuole bladder sequentially recruits Drainin, a Rab11a effector, Rab8a, the exocyst complex, and LvsA, a protein of the Chédiak–Higashi family. Rab8a recruitment precedes the nucleotide-dependent arrival of the exocyst to the bladder by a few seconds. A dominant-negative mutant of Rab8a strongly binds to the exocyst and prevents recruitment to the bladder, suggesting that a Rab8a guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity is associated with the complex. Absence of Drainin leads to overtethering and blocks fusion, whereas expression of constitutively active Rab8a allows fusion but blocks vacuole detachment from the plasma membrane, inducing complete fragmentation of tethered vacuoles. An indistinguishable phenotype is generated in cells lacking LvsA, implicating this protein in postfusion detethering. Of interest, overexpression of a constitutively active Rab8a mutant reverses the lvsA-null CV phenotype.
The Sec6 subunit of the multisubunit exocyst tethering complex interacts with the Sec1/Munc18 protein Sec1 and with the t-SNARE Sec9. Assembly of the exocyst upon vesicle arrival at sites of secretion is proposed to release Sec9 for SNARE complex assembly and to recruit Sec1 for interaction with SNARE complexes to facilitate fusion.
Trafficking of protein and lipid cargo through the secretory pathway in eukaryotic cells is mediated by membrane-bound vesicles. Secretory vesicle targeting and fusion require a conserved multisubunit protein complex termed the exocyst, which has been implicated in specific tethering of vesicles to sites of polarized exocytosis. The exocyst is directly involved in regulating soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes and membrane fusion through interactions between the Sec6 subunit and the plasma membrane SNARE protein Sec9. Here we show another facet of Sec6 function—it directly binds Sec1, another SNARE regulator, but of the Sec1/Munc18 family. The Sec6–Sec1 interaction is exclusive of Sec6–Sec9 but compatible with Sec6–exocyst assembly. In contrast, the Sec6–exocyst interaction is incompatible with Sec6–Sec9. Therefore, upon vesicle arrival, Sec6 is proposed to release Sec9 in favor of Sec6–exocyst assembly and to simultaneously recruit Sec1 to sites of secretion for coordinated SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion.
We show Arl13b is localized to the ciliary membrane and regulates tubulin modifications and ciliary length in vitro. Significantly, we found that Smoothened is enriched in Arl13b null fibroblasts, even without Sonic hedgehog stimulation, but that Glis are not similarly enriched.
Arl13b, a ciliary protein within the ADP-ribosylation factor family and Ras superfamily of GTPases, is required for ciliary structure but has poorly defined ciliary functions. In this paper, we further characterize the role of Arl13b in cilia by examining mutant cilia in vitro and determining the localization and dynamics of Arl13b within the cilium. Previously, we showed that mice lacking Arl13b have abnormal Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling; in this study, we show the dynamics of Shh signaling component localization to the cilium are disrupted in the absence of Arl13b. Significantly, we found Smoothened (Smo) is enriched in Arl13b-null cilia regardless of Shh pathway stimulation, indicating Arl13b regulates the ciliary entry of Smo. Furthermore, our analysis defines a role for Arl13b in regulating the distribution of Smo within the cilium. These results suggest that abnormal Shh signaling in Arl13b mutant embryos may result from defects in protein localization and distribution within the cilium.
Rab22 is a small GTPase that is localized on early endosomes and regulates early endosomal sorting. This study reports that Rab22 promotes NGF signaling–dependent neurite outgrowth and gene expression in PC12 cells by sorting NGF and the activated/phosphorylated receptor (pTrkA) into signaling endosomes to sustain signal transduction in the cell.
Rab22 is a small GTPase that is localized on early endosomes and regulates early endosomal sorting. This study reports that Rab22 promotes nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling-dependent neurite outgrowth and gene expression in PC12 cells by sorting NGF and the activated/phosphorylated receptor (pTrkA) into signaling endosomes to sustain signal transduction in the cell. NGF binding induces the endocytosis of pTrkA into Rab22-containing endosomes. Knockdown of Rab22 via small hairpin RNA (shRNA) blocks NGF-induced pTrkA endocytosis into the endosomes and gene expression (VGF) and neurite outgrowth. Overexpression of human Rab22 can rescue the inhibitory effects of the Rab22 shRNA, suggesting a specific Rab22 function in NGF signal transduction, rather than off-target effects. Furthermore, the Rab22 effector, Rabex-5, is necessary for NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and gene expression, as evidenced by the inhibitory effect of shRNA-mediated knockdown of Rabex-5. Disruption of the Rab22–Rabex-5 interaction via overexpression of the Rab22-binding domain of Rabex-5 in the cell also blocks NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, suggesting a critical role of Rab22–Rabex-5 interaction in the biogenesis of NGF-signaling endosomes to sustain the signal for neurite outgrowth. These data provide the first evidence for an early endosomal Rab GTPase as a positive regulator of NGF signal transduction and cell differentiation.
Assembly of the forespore membrane (FSM) initiates at the spindle pole body (SPB), and the leading edge of the FSM is a critical factor in the proper shaping of the FSM. We report a novel SPB component Spo7. Our study suggests that Spo7 coordinates formation of the leading edge and initiation of FSM assembly, thereby accomplishing accurate FSM formation.
Sporulation in fission yeast represents a unique mode of cell division in which a new cell is formed within the cytoplasm of a mother cell. This event is accompanied by formation of the forespore membrane (FSM), which becomes the plasma membrane of spores. At prophase II, the spindle pole body (SPB) forms an outer plaque, from which formation of the FSM is initiated. Several components of the SPB play an indispensable role in SPB modification, and therefore in sporulation. In this paper, we report the identification of a novel SPB component, Spo7, which has a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. We found that Spo7 was essential for initiation of FSM assembly, but not for SPB modification. Spo7 directly bound to Meu14, a component of the leading edge of the FSM, and was essential for proper localization of Meu14. The PH domain of Spo7 had affinity for phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P). spo7 mutants lacking the PH domain showed aberrant spore morphology, similar to that of meu14 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pik3) mutants. Our study suggests that Spo7 coordinates formation of the leading edge and initiation of FSM assembly, thereby accomplishing accurate formation of the FSM.
The topology of the SNARE complex is strictly restricted: of all the possible topological combinations, only one is fusogenic—the topology compatible with both the basal fusion and the SM activation. A fusogenic SNARE complex must contain a complete set of the QabcR SNARE helices.
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) form a four-helix coiled-coil bundle that juxtaposes two bilayers and drives a basal level of membrane fusion. The Sec1/Munc18 (SM) protein binds to its cognate SNARE bundle and accelerates the basal fusion reaction. The question of how the topological arrangement of the SNARE helices affects the reactivity of the fusion proteins remains unanswered. Here we address the problem for the first time in a reconstituted system containing both SNAREs and SM proteins. We find that to be fusogenic a SNARE topology must support both basal fusion and SM stimulation. Certain topological combinations of exocytic SNAREs result in basal fusion but cannot support SM stimulation, whereas other topologies support SM stimulation without inducing basal fusion. It is striking that of all the possible topological combinations of exocytic SNARE helices, only one induces efficient fusion. Our results suggest that the intracellular membrane fusion complex is designed to fuse bilayers according to one genetically programmed topology.
Different synaptotagmin isoforms (syt I, VII, and IX) sort to populations of dense-core vesicles with different sizes. These isoforms differ in their sensitivities to divalent cations and trigger different modes of exocytosis. Exocytosis triggered by these isoforms also differs in its sensitivity to inhibition by another isoform, syt IV.
Many cells release multiple substances in different proportions according to the specific character of a stimulus. PC12 cells, a model neuroendocrine cell line, express multiple isoforms of the exocytotic Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin. We show that these isoforms sort to populations of dense-core vesicles that differ in size. These synaptotagmins differ in their Ca2+ sensitivities, their preference for full fusion or kiss-and-run, and their sensitivity to inhibition by synaptotagmin IV. In PC12 cells, vesicles that harbor these different synaptotagmin isoforms can be preferentially triggered to fuse by different forms of stimulation. The mode of fusion is specified by the synaptotagmin isoform activated, and because kiss-and-run exocytosis can filter small molecules through a size-limiting fusion pore, the activation of isoforms that favor kiss-and-run will select smaller molecules over larger molecules packaged in the same vesicle. Thus synaptotagmin isoforms can provide multiple levels of control in the release of different molecules from the same cell.
Non–SCF-type F-box protein Roy1 interacts with the Rab5-like small GTPase Ypt52. Skp1 is indispensable for the interaction of Roy1 and Ypt52. Roy1 binds to GDP and the nucleotide-free form of Ypt52 and inhibits the formation of GTP-bound, active Ypt52. Roy1 negatively modulates cell viability and intracellular transport by suppressing Ypt52.
Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF)–type F-box proteins are a component of the Cullin-RING SCF ubiquitin E3 ligase, which is involved in numerous cellular processes. However, the function of non–SCF-type F-box proteins remains largely unknown. The Rab5-like small guanosine 5′-triphosphatase Vps21/Ypt51 is a key regulator of intracellular transportation; however, deletion of its isoforms, Ypt52 and Ypt53, results in only a modest inhibition of intracellular trafficking. The function of these proteins therefore remains largely elusive. Here we analyze the role of a previously uncharacterized non–SCF-type F-box protein, Roy1/Ymr258c, in cell growth and intracellular transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Roy1 binds to Ypt52 under physiological conditions, and Skp1 is indispensable for the association of Roy1 with Ypt52. The vps21Δ yeast cells exhibit severe deficiencies in cell growth and intracellular trafficking, whereas simultaneous deletion of roy1 alleviates the defects caused by deletion of vps21. However, additional disruption of ypt52 in roy1Δvps21Δ cells largely suppresses the cell growth and trafficking observed in roy1Δvps21Δ cells. We demonstrate that Roy1 interacts with guanosine 5′-diphosphate–bound and nucleotide-free Ypt52 and thereby inhibits the formation of guanosine 5′-triphosphate–bound, active Ypt52. These results thus indicate that Roy1 negatively modulates cell viability and intracellular transport by suppressing Ypt52.
The yeast type V myosin, Myo2, and the lethal giant larvae homologue, Sro7, are important players in polarized exocytosis. This paper article characterizes the role of Myo2 both in recruiting Sro7 to sites of polarized growth and in negatively regulating a Sec4-dependent vesicle-clustering activity of Sro7.
Lgl family members play an important role in the regulation of cell polarity in eukaryotic cells. The yeast homologues Sro7 and Sro77 are thought to act downstream of the Rab GTPase Sec4 to promote soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) function in post-Golgi transport. In this article, we characterize the interaction between Sro7 and the type V myosin Myo2 and show that this interaction is important for two distinct aspects of Sro7 function. First, we show that this interaction plays a positive role in promoting the polarized localization of Sro7 to sites of active growth. Second, we find evidence that Myo2 negatively regulates Sro7 function in vesicle clustering. Mutants in either Myo2 or Sro7 that are defective for this interaction show hypersensitivity to Sro7 overexpression, which results in Sec4-dependent accumulation of large groups of vesicles in the cytoplasm. This suggests that Myo2 serves a dual function, to both recruit Sro7 to secretory vesicles and inhibit its Rab-dependent tethering activity until vesicles reach the plasma membrane. Thus Sro7 appears to coordinate the spatial and temporal nature of both Rab-dependent tethering and SNARE-dependent membrane fusion of exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane.
Rho family GTPases are critical regulators in determining and maintaining cell polarity. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rho3 and Cdc42 play important but distinct roles in regulating polarized exocytosis and overall polarity. Cdc42 is highly polarized during bud emergence and is specifically required for exocytosis at this stage. In contrast, Rho3 appears to play an important role during the isotropic growth of larger buds. Using a novel monoclonal antibody against Rho3, we find that Rho3 localizes to the cell surface in a dispersed pattern which is clearly distinct from that of Cdc42. Using chimeric forms of these GTPases, we demonstrate that a small region at the N terminus is necessary and sufficient to confer Rho3 localization and function onto Cdc42. Analysis of this domain reveals two essential elements responsible for distinguishing function. First, palmitoylation of a cysteine residue by the Akr1 palmitoyltransferase is required both for the switch of function and the switch of localization properties of this domain. Second, two basic residues distal to the palmitoylation site are required for regulating binding affinity with the Exo70 and Sec3 effectors. This demonstrates the importance of localization and effector binding in determining how these GTPases evolved specific functions at distinct stages of polarized growth.
It is shown that Sec1p C-terminal tail is needed for proper Sec1p-SNARE complex interaction. Furthermore, evidence is provided that the Mso1p C terminus collaborates with the GTP-bound form of Sec4p in the bud. These results reveal a role for the Sec1p C-terminal tail in SNARE complex binding and suggest Mso1p as an effector for Sec4p.
The Sec1/Munc18 protein family members perform an essential, albeit poorly understood, function in association with soluble n-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) complexes in membrane fusion. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec1p has a C-terminal tail that is missing in its mammalian homologues. Here we show that deletion of the Sec1p tail (amino acids 658–724) renders cells temperature sensitive for growth, reduces sporulation efficiency, causes a secretion defect, and abolishes Sec1p-SNARE component coimmunoprecipitation. The results show that the Sec1p tail binds preferentially ternary Sso1p-Sec9p-Snc2p complexes and it enhances ternary SNARE complex formation in vitro. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay results suggest that, in the SNARE-deficient sso2–1 Δsso1 cells, Mso1p, a Sec1p binding protein, helps to target Sec1p(1–657) lacking the C-terminal tail to the sites of secretion. The results suggest that the Mso1p C terminus is important for Sec1p(1–657) targeting. We show that, in addition to Sec1p, Mso1p can bind the Rab-GTPase Sec4p in vitro. The BiFC results suggest that Mso1p acts in close association with Sec4p on intracellular membranes in the bud. This association depends on the Sec4p guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec2p. Our results reveal a novel binding mode between the Sec1p C-terminal tail and the SNARE complex, and suggest a role for Mso1p as an effector of Sec4p.
The meiosis II outer plaque (MOP) acts a vesicle tethering complex that is a site for de novo membrane formation. Novel mutants in a MOP protein reveal that interaction of vesicles with the MOP surface is required to recruit a second tethering complex, the exocyst, to the vesicles, suggesting a mechanism by which the MOP promotes vesicle fusion.
During meiosis II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the cytoplasmic face of the spindle pole body, referred to as the meiosis II outer plaque (MOP), is modified in both composition and structure to become the initiation site for de novo formation of a membrane called the prospore membrane. The MOP serves as a docking complex for precursor vesicles that are targeted to its surface. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, the orientation of coiled-coil proteins within the MOP has been determined. The N-termini of two proteins, Mpc54p and Spo21p, were oriented toward the outer surface of the structure. Mutations in the N-terminus of Mpc54p resulted in a unique phenotype: precursor vesicles loosely tethered to the MOP but did not contact its surface. Thus, these mpc54 mutants separate the steps of vesicle association and docking. Using these mpc54 mutants, we determined that recruitment of the Rab GTPase Sec4p, as well as the exocyst components Sec3p and Sec8p, to the precursor vesicles requires vesicle docking to the MOP. This suggests that the MOP promotes membrane formation both by localization of precursor vesicles to a particular site and by recruitment of a second tethering complex, the exocyst, that stimulates downstream events of fusion.
This study shows that Rab11 and its binding protein FIP1 are required for retrograde delivery of TGN38 and Shiga toxin from early/recycling endosomes to the TGN. We also demonstrate that Golgin-97 as a FIP1-binding protein and that this binding regulates the targeting of retrograde transport vesicles to the TGN.
Many proteins are retrieved to the trans-Golgi Network (TGN) from the endosomal system through several retrograde transport pathways to maintain the composition and function of the TGN. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these distinct retrograde pathways remain to be fully understood. Here we have used fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as various functional transport assays to show that Rab11a/b and its binding protein FIP1/RCP are both required for the retrograde delivery of TGN38 and Shiga toxin from early/recycling endosomes to the TGN, but not for the retrieval of mannose-6-phosphate receptor from late endosomes. Furthermore, by proteomic analysis we identified Golgin-97 as a FIP1/RCP-binding protein. The FIP1/RCP-binding domain maps to the C-terminus of Golgin-97, adjacent to its GRIP domain. Binding of FIP1/RCP to Golgin-97 does not affect Golgin-97 recruitment to the TGN, but appears to regulate the targeting of retrograde transport vesicles to the TGN. Thus, we propose that FIP1/RCP binding to Golgin-97 is required for tethering and fusion of recycling endosome-derived retrograde transport vesicles to the TGN.
At steady state, most Rho GTPases are bound in the cytosol to Rho Guanine nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitors (RhoGDI) 1. RhoGDIs have generally been considered to passively hold Rho proteins in an inactive state within the cytoplasm. Here we describe an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which RhoGDI1 controls the homeostasis of Rho proteins in eukaryotic cells. We found that depletion of RhoGDI1 promotes misfolding and degradation of the cytosolic geranylgeranylated pool of Rho GTPases while unexpectedly activating the remaining membrane-bound fraction. Since RhoGDI1 levels are limiting, and Rho proteins compete for binding to RhoGDI1, overexpression of an exogenous Rho GTPase displaces endogenous Rho proteins bound to RhoGDI1, inducing their degradation and inactivation. These results raise important questions about the conclusions drawn from studies that manipulate Rho protein levels. In many cases the response observed may arise not simply from the overexpression per se, but from additional effects on the levels and activity of other Rho GTPases due to competition for binding to RhoGDI1, and may require a re-evaluation of previously published studies that rely exclusively on these techniques.
Synaptotagmin isoforms and mutants altered fusion event frequency and fusion pore transitions. These effects showed a strong correlation with PS binding, but not with SNARE binding. Synaptotagmin-PS interaction thus function in two distinct kinetic steps in Ca2+ triggered exocytosis, and stabilize open fusion pores.
Synaptotagmin (syt) serves as a Ca2+ sensor in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones. This function depends on the ability of syt to interact with other molecules. Syt binds to phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing lipid bilayers as well as to soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor receptors (SNAREs) and promotes SNARE assembly. All these interactions are regulated by Ca2+, but their specific roles in distinct kinetic steps of exocytosis are not well understood. To explore these questions we used amperometry recording from PC12 cells to investigate the kinetics of exocytosis. Syt isoforms and syt I mutants were overexpressed to perturb syt-PS and syt-SNARE interactions to varying degrees and evaluate the effects on fusion event frequency and the rates of fusion pore transitions. Syt I produced more rapid dilation of fusion pores than syt VII or syt IX, consistent with its role in synchronous synaptic release. Stronger syt-PS interactions were accompanied by a higher frequency of fusion events and more stable fusion pores. By contrast, syt-SNARE interactions and syt-induced SNARE assembly were uncorrelated with rates of exocytosis. This associates the syt-PS interaction with two distinct kinetic steps in Ca2+ triggered exocytosis and supports a role for the syt-PS interaction in stabilizing open fusion pores.
Genetic and biochemical evidence is presented that the Exo70 subunit of the exocyst is a direct effector for both Rho3 and Cdc42 GTPases in yeast. Prenylation of these GTPases both promotes the interaction and affects the site of binding within Exo70. Thus, interaction of the Rho GTPases with Exo70 is a key event in spatial regulation of exocytosis.
The Rho3 and Cdc42 members of the Rho GTPase family are important regulators of exocytosis in yeast. However, the precise mechanism by which they regulate this process is controversial. Here, we present evidence that the Exo70 component of the exocyst complex is a direct effector of both Rho3 and Cdc42. We identify gain-of-function mutants in EXO70 that potently suppress mutants in RHO3 and CDC42 defective for exocytic function. We show that Exo70 has the biochemical properties expected of a direct effector for both Rho3 and Cdc42. Surprisingly, we find that C-terminal prenylation of these GTPases both promotes the interaction and influences the sites of binding within Exo70. Finally, we demonstrate that the phenotypes associated with novel loss-of-function mutants in EXO70, are entirely consistent with Exo70 as an effector for both Rho3 and Cdc42 function in secretion. These data suggest that interaction with the Exo70 component of the exocyst is a key event in spatial regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPases.
In epithelial cells, Sec3 associates with Exocyst complexes enriched at desmosomes and centrosomes, distinct from Sec6/8 complexes at the apical junctional complex. RNAi-mediated suppression of Sec3 alters trafficking of desmosomal cadherins and impairs desmosome morphology and function, without noticeable effect on adherens junctions.
The Exocyst is a conserved multisubunit complex involved in the docking of post-Golgi transport vesicles to sites of membrane remodeling during cellular processes such as polarization, migration, and division. In mammalian epithelial cells, Exocyst complexes are recruited to nascent sites of cell–cell contact in response to E-cadherin–mediated adhesive interactions, and this event is an important early step in the assembly of intercellular junctions. Sec3 has been hypothesized to function as a spatial landmark for the development of polarity in budding yeast, but its role in epithelial cells has not been investigated. Here, we provide evidence in support of a function for a Sec3-containing Exocyst complex in the assembly or maintenance of desmosomes, adhesive junctions that link intermediate filament networks to sites of strong intercellular adhesion. We show that Sec3 associates with a subset of Exocyst complexes that are enriched at desmosomes. Moreover, we found that membrane recruitment of Sec3 is dependent on cadherin-mediated adhesion but occurs later than that of the known Exocyst components Sec6 and Sec8 that are recruited to adherens junctions. RNA interference-mediated suppression of Sec3 expression led to specific impairment of both the morphology and function of desmosomes, without noticeable effect on adherens junctions. These results suggest that two different exocyst complexes may function in basal–lateral membrane trafficking and will enable us to better understand how exocytosis is spatially organized during development of epithelial plasma membrane domains.
The synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin I (Syt I) binds phosphatidylserine (PS) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. This interaction is thought to play a role in exocytosis, but its precise functions remain unclear. To determine potential roles for Syt I-PS binding, we varied the PS content in PC12 cells and liposomes and studied the effects on the kinetics of exocytosis and Syt I binding in parallel. Raising PS produced a steeply nonlinear, saturating increase in Ca2+-triggered fusion, and a graded slowing of the rate of fusion pore dilation. Ca2+-Syt I bound liposomes more tightly as PS content was raised, with a steep increase in binding at low PS, and a further gradual increase at higher PS. These two phases in the PS dependence of Ca2+-dependent Syt I binding to lipid may correspond to the two distinct and opposing kinetic effects of PS on exocytosis. PS influences exocytosis in two ways, enhancing an early step leading to fusion pore opening, and slowing a later step when fusion pores dilate. The possible relevance of these results to Ca2+-triggered Syt I binding is discussed along with other possible roles of PS.
Membrane tethering, the process of mediating the first contact between membranes destined for fusion, requires specialized multisubunit protein complexes and Rab GTPases. In the yeast endolysosomal system, the hexameric HOPS tethering complex cooperates with the Rab7 homolog Ypt7 to promote homotypic fusion at the vacuole, whereas the recently identified homologous CORVET complex acts at the level of late endosomes. Here, we have further functionally characterized the CORVET-specific subunit Vps8 and its relationship to the remaining subunits using an in vivo approach that allows the monitoring of late endosome biogenesis. In particular, our results indicate that Vps8 interacts and cooperates with the activated Rab5 homolog Vps21 to induce the clustering of late endosomal membranes, indicating that Vps8 is the effector subunit of the CORVET complex. This clustering, however, requires Vps3, Vps16, and Vps33 but not the remaining CORVET subunits. These data thus suggest that the CORVET complex is built of subunits with distinct activities and potentially, their sequential assembly could regulate tethering and successive fusion at the late endosomes.
Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins bind cognate soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes and stimulate vesicle membrane fusion. Before fusion, vesicles are docked to specific target membranes. Regulation of vesicle docking is attributed to some but not all SM proteins, suggesting specialization of this earlier function. Yeast Sec1p seems to function only after vesicles are docked and SNARE complexes are assembled. Here, we show that yeast Sec1p is required before and after SNARE complex assembly, in support of general requirements for SM proteins in both vesicle docking and fusion. Two classes of sec1 mutants were isolated. Class A mutants are tightly blocked in cell growth and secretion at a step before SNARE complex assembly. Class B mutants have a SNARE complex binding defect, with a range in severity of cell growth and secretion defects. Mapping the mutations onto an SM protein structure implicates a peripheral bundle of helices for the early, docking function and a deep groove, opposite the syntaxin-binding cleft on nSec1/Munc-18, for the interaction between Sec1p and the exocytic SNARE complex.