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1.  Early HLA-B*57-Restricted CD8+ T Lymphocyte Responses Predict HIV-1 Disease Progression 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(19):10505-10516.
Although HLA-B*57 (B57) is associated with slow progression to disease following HIV-1 infection, B57 heterozygotes display a wide spectrum of outcomes, including rapid progression, viremic slow progression, and elite control. Efforts to identify differences between B57-positive (B57+) slow progressors and B57+ rapid progressors have largely focused on cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) phenotypes and specificities during chronic stages of infection. Although CTL responses in the early months of infection are likely to be the most important for the long-term rate of HIV-1 disease progression, few data on the early CTL responses of eventual slow progressors have been available. Utilizing the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), we retrospectively examined the early HIV-1-specific CTL responses of 14 B57+ individuals whose time to development of disease ranged from 3.5 years to longer than 25 years after infection. In general, a greater breadth of targeting of epitopes from structural proteins, especially Gag, as well as of highly conserved epitopes from any HIV-1 protein, correlated with longer times until disease. The single elite controller in the cohort was an outlier on several correlations of CTL targeting and time until disease, consistent with reports that elite control is typically not achieved solely by protective HLA-mediated CTLs. When targeting of individual epitopes was analyzed, we found that early CTL responses to the IW9 (ISPRTLNAW) epitope of Gag, while generally subdominant, correlated with delayed progression to disease. This is the first study to identify early CTL responses to IW9 as a correlate of protection in persons with HLA-B*57.
PMCID: PMC3457253  PMID: 22811521
2.  HIV Testing in a High-Incidence Population: Is Antibody Testing Alone Good Enough? 
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently recommended the expansion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. However, antibody tests have longer “window periods” after HIV acquisition than do nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs).
Public Health–Seattle & King County offered HIV antibody testing to men who have sex with men (MSM) using the OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test (OraQuick; OraSure Technologies) on oral fluid or finger-stick blood specimens or using a first- or second-generation enzyme immunoassay. The enzyme immunoassay was also used to confirm reactive rapid test results and to screen specimens from OraQuick-negative MSM prior to pooling for HIV NAAT. Serum specimens obtained from subsets of HIV-infected persons were retrospectively evaluated by use of other HIV tests, including a fourth-generation antigen-antibody combination assay.
From September 2003 through June 2008, a total of 328 (2.3%) of 14,005 specimens were HIV antibody positive, and 36 (0.3%) of 13,677 antibody-negative specimens were NAAT positive (indicating acute HIV infection). Among 6811 specimens obtained from MSM who were initially screened by rapid testing, OraQuick detected only 153 (91%) of 169 antibody-positive MSM and 80% of the 192 HIV-infected MSM detected by the HIV NAAT program. HIV was detected in serum samples obtained from 15 of 16 MSM with acute HIV infection that were retrospectively tested using the antigen-antibody combination assay.
OraQuick may be less sensitive than enzyme immunoassays during early HIV infection. NAAT should be integrated into HIV testing programs that serve populations that undergo frequent testing and that have high rates of HIV acquisition, particularly if rapid HIV antibody testing is employed. Antigen-antibody combination assays may be a reasonably sensitive alternative to HIV NAAT.
PMCID: PMC3361648  PMID: 19538088
3.  Confirmation of Putative HIV-1 Group P in Cameroon▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;85(3):1403-1407.
We report the second human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belonging to the new HIV type 1 (HIV-1) group P lineage that is closely related to the simian immunodeficiency virus found in gorillas. This virus was identified in an HIV-seropositive male hospital patient in Cameroon, confirming that the group P virus is circulating in humans. Results from screening 1,736 HIV-seropositive specimens collected in Cameroon indicate that HIV-1 group P infections are rare, accounting for only 0.06% of HIV infections. Despite its rarity, group P shows evidence of adaptation to humans.
PMCID: PMC3020498  PMID: 21084486
4.  Performance of the Celera Diagnostics ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System for Sequence-Based Analysis of Diverse Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Strains 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(6):2711-2717.
The Celera Diagnostics ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System is a Food and Drug Administration-cleared, integrated system for sequence-based analysis of drug resistance mutations in subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease and reverse transcriptase (RT). We evaluated the performance of this system for the analysis of diverse HIV-1 strains. Plasma samples were obtained from 126 individuals from Uganda, Cameroon, South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, and Thailand with viral loads ranging from 2.92 to >6.0 log10 copies/ml. HIV-1 genotyping was performed with the ViroSeq system. HIV-1 subtyping was performed by using phylogenetic methods. PCR products suitable for sequencing were obtained for 125 (99%) of the 126 samples. Genotypes including protease (amino acids 1 to 99) and RT (amino acids 1 to 321) were obtained for 124 (98%) of the samples. Full bidirectional sequence data were obtained for 95 of those samples. The sequences were categorized into the following subtypes: A1/A2 (16 samples), B (12 samples), C (13 samples), D (11 samples), CRF01_AE (9 samples), F/F2 (9 samples), G (7 samples), CRF02_AG (32 samples), H (1 sample), and intersubtype recombinant (14 samples). The performances of the individual sequencing primers were examined. Genotyping of duplicate samples in a second laboratory was successful for 124 of the 126 samples. The identity level for the sequence data from two laboratories ranged from 98 to 100% (median, 99.8%). The ViroSeq system performs well for the analysis of plasma samples with diverse non-B subtypes. The availability of this genotyping system should facilitate studies of HIV-1 drug resistance in non-subtype B strains of HIV-1.
PMCID: PMC427844  PMID: 15184457
5.  Rapid Assay for Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Group M, HIV-1 Group O, and HIV-2 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1998;36(12):3657-3661.
A rapid immunodiagnostic test that detects and discriminates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections on the basis of viral type, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) group M, HIV-1 group O, or HIV-2, was developed. The rapid assay for the detection of HIV (HIV rapid assay) was designed as an instrument-free chromatographic immunoassay that detects immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to HIV. To assess the performance of the HIV rapid assay, 470 HIV-positive plasma samples were tested by PCR and/or Western blotting to confirm the genotype of the infecting virus. These samples were infected with strains that represented a wide variety of HIV strains including HIV-1 group M (subtypes A through G), HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2 (subtypes A and B). The results showed that the HIV genotype identity established by the rapid assay reliably (469 of 470 samples) correlates with the HIV genotype identity established by PCR or Western blotting. A total of 879 plasma samples were tested for IgG to HIV by a licensed enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (470 HIV-positive samples and 409 HIV-negative samples). When they were tested by the rapid assay, 469 samples were positive and 410 were negative (99.88% agreement). Twelve seroconversion panels were tested by both the rapid assay and a licensed EIA. For nine panels identical results were obtained by the two assays. For the remaining three panels, the rapid assay was positive one bleed later in comparison to the bleed at which the EIA was positive. One hundred three urine samples, including 93 urine samples from HIV-seropositive individuals and 10 urine samples from seronegative individuals, were tested by the rapid assay. Ninety-one of the ninety-three urine samples from HIV-seropositive individuals were found to be positive by the rapid assay. There were no false-positive results (98.05% agreement). Virus in all urine samples tested were typed as HIV-1 group M. These results suggest that a rapid assay based on the detection of IgG specific for selected transmembrane HIV antigens provides a simple and reliable test that is capable of distinguishing HIV infections on the basis of viral type.
PMCID: PMC105258  PMID: 9817891

Results 1-5 (5)