The in vivo efficacy of piperacillin in combination with the penem inhibitor BLI-489 was determined using acute lethal systemic infections in mice. On the basis of preliminary results with various ratios, a dosing ratio of 8:1 was found to be optimal for retention of enhanced efficacy. Piperacillin-BLI-489 dosed at an 8:1 ratio was efficacious against murine infections caused by class A (including extended-spectrum β-lactamases), class C (AmpC), and class D β-lactamase-expressing pathogens.
TEM- and SHV-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the most common ESBLs found in the United States and are prevalent throughout the world. Amino acid substitutions at a number of positions in TEM-1 lead to the ESBL phenotype, although substitutions at residues 104 (E to K), 164 (R to S or H), 238 (G to S), and 240 (E to K) appear to be particularly important in modifying the spectrum of activity of the enzyme. The SHV-1-derived ESBLs are a less diverse collection of enzymes; however, the majority of amino acid substitutions resulting in an ESBL mirror those seen in the TEM-1-derived enzymes. Pyrosequencing by use of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) protocol was applied to provide sequence data at positions critical for the ESBL phenotype spanning the blaTEM and blaSHV genes. Three novel β-lactamases are described: the ESBLs TEM-155 (Q39K, R164S, E240K) and SHV-105 (I8F, R43S, G156D, G238S, E240K) and a non-ESBL, SHV-48 (V119I). The ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and aztreonam MICs for an Escherichia coli isolate expressing blaSHV-105 were >128, 128, and >128 μg/ml, respectively. Likewise, the ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and aztreonam MICs for an E. coli isolate expressing blaTEM-155 were >128, 64, and > 128 μg/ml, respectively. Pyrosequence analysis determined the true identity of the β-lactamase on plasmid R1010 to be SHV-11 rather than SHV-1, as previously reported. Pyrosequencing is a real-time sequencing-by-synthesis approach that was applied to SNP detection for TEM- and SHV-type ESBL identification and represents a robust tool for rapid sequence determination that may have a place in the clinical setting.
The goal of this study was to determine if the interpretations of extended-spectrum and advanced-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs and ASCs, respectively) for isolates of Enterobacteriaceae would be impacted by the results of aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) testing. Fifty-three isolates of Escherichia coli, 21 Klebsiella species, and 6 Proteus species that were resistant to at least one ESC were tested by disk diffusion with ceftazidime and cefotetan disks with and without APBA. Ceftazidime disks with and without clavulanic acid (CLAV) were also tested to confirm extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage. Twenty-nine (36.3%) isolates were only APBA test positive, 27 were only CLAV test positive, 2 were positive with both substrates, and 22 were negative with both substrates. Thirteen (41.9%) of the 31 APBA-test-positive isolates (all E. coli) tested susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, or ceftazidime. Since clinical data suggest that AmpC-producing isolates should be reported as resistant to all ESCs, APBA testing can be helpful in identifying such organisms. Screening for AmpC-producing organisms using nonsusceptibility to cefoxitin and amoxicillin-clavulanate was less specific than APBA testing; it identified ESBL as well as AmpC-producing organisms. Only 18 of 31 APBA-positive isolates were positive by PCR for an AmpC β-lactamase gene. Thus, testing with APBA could improve the accuracy of reporting ESCs, especially for E. coli. However, results of APBA and CLAV testing did not correlate well for isolates containing both AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs. Thus, additional data are needed before formal recommendations can be made on changing the reporting of ASC test results.
In concert with the development of novel β-lactams and broad-spectrum cephalosporins, bacterially encoded β-lactamases have evolved to accommodate the new agents. This study was designed to identify, at the sequence level, the genes responsible for the extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypes of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected during the global tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials. PCR assays were developed to identify and clone the blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, and blaCTX genes from clinical strains. Isolates were also screened for AmpC genes of the blaCMY, blaACT, blaFOX, and blaDHA families as well as the blaKPC genes encoding class A carbapenemases. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis isolates with ceftazidime MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were designated possible ESBL-producing pathogens and were then subjected to a confirmatory test for ESBLs by use of Etest. Of 272 unique patient isolates, 239 were confirmed by PCR and sequencing to carry the genes for at least one ESBL, with 44% of the positive isolates harboring the genes for multiple ESBLs. In agreement with current trends for ESBL distribution, blaCTX-M-type β-lactamase genes were found in 83% and 71% of the ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively, whereas blaSHV genes were found in 41% and 28% of the ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates, respectively. Ninety-seven percent of the E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were tigecycline susceptible (MIC90 = 2 μg/ml), warranting further studies to define the therapeutic utility of tigecycline against strains producing ESBLs in a clinical setting.
The novel bicyclic penem inhibitor BLI-489 has demonstrated activity as an inhibitor of class A, C, and D β-lactamases. To determine the combination of piperacillin and BLI-489 to be used in susceptibility testing that would most accurately identify susceptible and resistant isolates, a predictor panel of β-lactamase-producing bacteria was utilized to determine the reliability of the combination of piperacillin-BLI-489 at a constant inhibitor concentration of 2 or 4 μg/ml and at ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1. There were a number of strains that would be falsely reported as susceptible or intermediate if tested with the ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, whereas the constant concentration of 2 μg/ml of BLI-489 and the ratio of 8:1 had a tendency to overpredict resistance. Similar MICs were obtained with piperacillin-BLI-489 in a 4:1 ratio and when BLI-489 was held constant at 4 μg/ml. Based on these results, an in vitro testing methodology employing a constant concentration of 4 μg/ml BLI-489 was used to evaluate the combination of piperacillin-BLI-489 against a larger panel of recently identified clinical isolates. Approximately 55% of all of the enteric bacilli tested were nonsusceptible to piperacillin alone (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml). However, 92% of these piperacillin nonsusceptible strains were inhibited by ≤16 μg/ml piperacillin-BLI-489; in contrast, only 66% were inhibited by ≤16 μg/ml piperacillin-tazobactam. The combination of piperacillin-BLI-489 also demonstrated improved activity compared to that of piperacillin-tazobactam against the problematic extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and AmpC-expressing strains.
Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were tested for a correlation between tigecycline MIC and expression of ramA by using real-time PCR. At MICs of 4 and 8 μg/ml, the expression of ramA was statistically significantly different from MICs of 2 μg/ml or less, supporting the tigecycline susceptibility breakpoint of ≤2 μg/ml for K. pneumoniae.
Tigecycline, a member of the glycylcycline class of antibiotics, was designed to maintain the antibacterial spectrum of the tetracyclines while overcoming the classic mechanisms of tetracycline resistance. The current study was designed to monitor the prevalence of the tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), and tet(M) resistance determinants in Escherichia coli isolates collected during the worldwide tigecycline phase 3 clinical trials. A subset of strains were also screened for the tet(G), tet(K), tet(L), and tet(Y) genes. Of the 1,680 E. coli clinical isolates screened for resistance to classical tetracyclines, 405 (24%) were minocycline resistant (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) and 248 (15%) were tetracycline resistant (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) but susceptible to minocycline (MIC ≤ 4 μg/ml). A total of 452 tetracycline-resistant, nonduplicate isolates were positive by PCR for at least one of the six tetracycline resistance determinants examined. Over half of the isolates encoding a single determinant were positive for tet(A) (26%) or tet(B) (32%) with tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), and tet(M), collectively, found in 4% of isolates. Approximately 33% of the isolates were positive for more than one resistance determinant, with the tet(B) plus tet(E) combination the most highly represented, found in 11% of isolates. The susceptibilities of the tetracycline-resistant strains to tigecycline (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), regardless of the encoded tet determinant(s), were comparable to the tigecycline susceptibility of tetracycline-susceptible strains (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml). The results provide a current (2002 to 2006) picture of the distribution of common tetracycline resistance determinants encoded in a globally sourced collection of clinical E. coli strains.
A multicenter study was conducted to validate Etest tigecycline compared to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute reference broth microdilution and agar dilution methodologies. A large collection of gram-negative (n = 266) and gram-positive (n = 162) aerobic bacteria, a collection of anaerobes (n = 385), and selected collections of nonpneumococcal streptococci (n = 369), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 372), and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 372) were tested. Strains with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline were used with all test methods. The Etest showed excellent inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility for all organism groups tested regardless of the test methodology. The essential agreement values with the reference method (±1 dilution) were >99% for the collection of gram-negative and gram-positive aerobes; >98% for the S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and anaerobe collections; and 100% for the group of nonpneumococcal streptococci. These results validate the performance accuracy and utility of Etest tigecycline and verify the reproducibility of this convenient predefined gradient methodology for tigecycline susceptibility determination.
The presence of the tetracycline resistance determinant tet(M) in human clinical isolates of Escherichia coli is described for the first time in this report. The homologue was >99% identical to the tet(M) genes reported to occur in Lactobacillus plantarum, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus agalactiae, and 3% of the residues in its deduced amino acid sequence diverge from tet(M) of Staphylococcus aureus. Sequence analysis of the regions immediately flanking the gene revealed that sequences upstream of tet(M) in E. coli have homology to Tn916; however, a complete IS26 insertion element was present immediately upstream of the promoter element. Downstream from the termination codon is an insertion sequence that was homologous to the ISVs1 element reported to occur in a plasmid from Vibrio salmonicida that has been associated with another tetracycline resistance determinant, tet(E). Results of mating experiments demonstrated that the E. coli tet(M) gene was on a mobile element so that resistance to tetracycline and minocycline could be transferred to a susceptible strain by conjugation. Expression of the cloned tet(M) gene, under the control of its own promoter, provided tetracycline and minocycline resistance to the E. coli host.
Tigecycline is a novel glycylcycline antibiotic that possesses broad-spectrum activity against many clinically relevant species of bacterial pathogens. The mechanism of action of tigecycline was delineated using functional, biophysical, and molecular modeling experiments in this study. Functional assays showed that tigecycline specifically inhibits bacterial protein synthesis with potency 3- and 20-fold greater than that of minocycline and tetracycline, respectively. Biophysical analyses demonstrated that isolated ribosomes bind tigecycline, minocycline, and tetracycline with dissociation constant values of 10−8, 10−7, and >10−6 M, respectively. A molecular model of tigecycline bound to the ribosome was generated with the aid of a 3.40-angstrom resolution X-ray diffraction structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. This model places tigecycline in the A site of the 30S subunit and involves substantial interactions with residues of H34 of the ribosomal subunit. These interactions were not observed in a model of tetracycline binding. Modeling data were consistent with the biochemical and biophysical data generated in this and other recent studies and suggested that tigecycline binds to bacterial ribosomes in a novel way that allows it to overcome tetracycline resistance due to ribosomal protection.
Diagnostic PCR assays were developed to track common genetic determinants of oxacillin resistance as well as resistance to classical tetracyclines in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the recently completed worldwide phase 3 clinical trials of tigecycline. A total of 503 unique S. aureus strains isolated from complicated skin and skin structure infections were analyzed. The mecA gene was amplified from 120 strains (23.9%) determined to be resistant to oxacillin (MICs ≥ 4 μg/ml). The prevalence of the mecA gene was found to vary regionally from 6.5% to 50.9% among isolates originating in Eastern Europe and North America, respectively. The presence of a tetracycline resistance determinant, tet(M) or tet(K), among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates also varied regionally, with a range of 11.9% to 46.2% among isolates tested from North America and Eastern Europe, respectively. The occurrence of a tetracycline resistance marker in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains varied from 2.5 to 16.1% among the isolates tested across the regions of study. The presence of tet(M) or tet(K) had no discernible effect on the tigecycline MICs for either MRSA or MSSA strains, which is consistent with the ability of the glycylcyclines to retain activity in the presence of both the ribosomal protection and efflux mechanisms of resistance to the tetracyclines.
A retrospective study was performed to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained from patients enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials for tigecycline that were genotypically similar to known community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains. The clinical trials were double-blind comparator studies for complicated skin and skin structure infections or complicated intra-abdominal infections. We obtained 85% of the MRSA isolates from patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections. Using ribotyping, MRSA isolates were compared with well-characterized North American CA-MRSA strains and negative-control hospital-associated (HA) MRSA strains by cluster analysis; 91 of the 173 isolates clustered with two groups of known CA-MRSA strains, 60% of which shared an indistinguishable ribotype. These isolates were subsequently tested for the presence of SCCmec type IV and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-encoding genes as well as susceptibility to clindamycin, characteristics that are typically associated with CA-MRSA; 89 of the 91 isolates carried the type IV SCCmec element and 76 were also positive for the PVL-encoding genes; 73 of these isolates were susceptible to clindamycin. A similar analysis performed on 26 nonclustering isolates identified only four with these characteristics; 89 of the 91 clustering isolates were inhibited by tigecycline at MICs of ≤0.5 μg/ml. On the basis of clustering information and preliminary genetic characterization, it appears that ribotyping is a useful tool in identifying potential CA-MRSA isolates and 76 MRSA isolates from patients enrolled in the tigecycline phase 3 trials have genetic markers typically associated with CA-MRSA.
In determining the quality control limits for the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute-recommended quality control organisms with tigecycline, a number of inconsistencies in the results were encountered that appeared to be related to the age of the Mueller-Hinton broth II. This study was performed to examine the effect of medium age and supplementation with Oxyrase on the activity of tigecycline using a large number of clinical isolates.
Tigecycline is a broad-spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic with activity against not only susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens but also strains that are resistant to many other antibiotics. In the process of determining quality control (QC) limits for the American Type Culture Collection reference strains for tigecycline, a number of inconsistencies in MICs were encountered which appeared to be related to the age of the Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) medium used in the MIC testing. The objective of this study was to determine the cause of the discrepant MIC results between fresh and aged MHB. The MICs of tigecycline were determined in MHB that was either prepared fresh (<12 h old), prepared and stored at 4°C, stored at room temperature, stored anaerobically, or supplemented with the biocatalytic oxygen-reducing reagent Oxyrase. When tested in fresh media, tigecycline was 2 to 3 dilutions more active against the CLSI-recommended QC strains compared to aged media (MICs of 0.03 to 0.25 and 0.12 to 0.5 μg/ml, respectively). Media aged under anaerobic conditions prior to testing or supplemented with Oxyrase resulted in MICs similar to those obtained in fresh medium (MICs of 0.03 to 0.12 and 0.03 to 0.25 μg/ml, respectively). Time-kill kinetics demonstrated a >3 log10 difference in viable growth when tigecycline was tested in fresh or Oxyrase-supplemented MHB compared to aged MHB. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis revealed the accumulation of an early peak (oxidative by-product of tigecycline) to be 3.5% in fresh media and 25.1% in aged media after 24 h and that addition of Oxyrase prevented the accumulation of this oxidized by-product. These results suggested that the activity of tigecycline was affected by the amount of dissolved oxygen in the media. The use of fresh MHB or supplementation with Oxyrase resulted in a more standardized test method for performing MIC tests with tigecycline.
Tigecycline, an expanded-broad-spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic is not affected by the classical tetracycline resistance determinants found in Staphylococcus aureus. The in vitro selection of mutants with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline was evaluated for two methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains by serial passage in increasing concentrations of tigecycline. Both strains showed a stepwise elevation in tigecycline MIC over a period of 16 days, resulting in an increase in tigecycline MIC of 16- and 32-fold for N315 and Mu3, respectively. Transcriptional profiling revealed that both mutants exhibited over 100-fold increased expression of a gene cluster, mepRAB (multidrug export protein), encoding a MarR-like transcriptional regulator (mepR), a novel MATE family efflux pump (mepA), and a hypothetical protein of unknown function (mepB). Sequencing of the mepR gene in the mutant strains identified changes that presumably inactivated the MepR protein, which suggested that MepR functions as a repressor of mepA. Overexpression of mepA in a wild-type background caused a decrease in susceptibility to tigecycline and other substrates for MATE-type efflux pumps, although it was not sufficient to confer high-level resistance to tigecycline. Complementation of the mepR defect by overexpressing a wild-type mepR gene reduced mepA transcription and lowered the tigecycline MIC in the mutants. Transcription of tet(M) also increased by over 40-fold in the Mu3 mutant. This was attributed to a deletion in the promoter region of the gene that removed a stem-loop responsible for transcriptional attenuation. However, overexpression of the tet(M) transcript in a tigecycline-susceptible strain was not enough to significantly increase the MIC of tigecycline. These results suggest that the overexpression of mepA but not tet(M) may contribute to decreased susceptibility of tigecycline in S. aureus.
Tigecycline is an expanded broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is active against many clinically relevant species of bacterial pathogens, including Klebsiella pneumoniae. The majority of K. pneumoniae isolates are fully susceptible to tigecycline; however, a few strains that have decreased susceptibility have been isolated. One isolate, G340 (for which the tigecycline MIC is 4 μg/ml and which displays a multidrug resistance [MDR] phenotype), was selected for analysis of the mechanism for this decreased susceptibility by use of transposon mutagenesis with IS903φkan. A tigecycline-susceptible mutant of G340, GC7535, was obtained (tigecycline MIC, 0.25 μg/ml). Analysis of the transposon insertion mapped it to ramA, a gene that was previously identified to be involved in MDR in K. pneumoniae. For GC7535, the disruption of ramA led to a 16-fold decrease in the MIC of tigecycline and also a suppression of MDR. Trans-complementation with plasmid-borne ramA restored the original parental phenotype of decreased susceptibility to tigecycline. Northern blot analysis revealed a constitutive overexpression of ramA that correlated with an increased expression of the AcrAB transporter in G340 compared to that in tigecycline-susceptible strains. Laboratory mutants of K. pneumoniae with decreased susceptibility to tigecycline could be selected at a frequency of approximately 4 × 10−8. These results suggest that ramA is associated with decreased tigecycline susceptibility in K. pneumoniae due to its role in the expression of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump.
Transposon mutagenesis of a clinical isolate of Morganella morganii, G1492 (tigecycline MIC of 4 μg/ml), yielded two insertion knockout mutants for which tigecycline MICs were 0.03 μg/ml. Transposon insertions mapped to acrA, which is constitutively overexpressed in G1492, suggesting a role of the AcrAB efflux pump in decreased susceptibility to tigecycline in M. morganii.
Novel penem molecules with heterocycle substitutions at the 6 position via a methylidene linkage were investigated for their activities and efficacy as β-lactamase inhibitors. The concentrations of these molecules that resulted in 50% inhibition of enzyme activity were 0.4 to 3.1 nM for the TEM-1 enzyme, 7.8 to 72 nM for Imi-1, 1.5 to 4.8 nM for AmpC, and 14 to 260 nM for a CcrA metalloenzyme. All the inhibitors were more stable than imipenem against hydrolysis by hog and human dehydropeptidases. Piperacillin was combined with a constant 4-μg/ml concentration of each inhibitor for MIC determinations. The combinations reduced piperacillin MICs by 2- to 32-fold for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. The MICs for piperacillin-resistant (MIC of piperacillin, >64 μg/ml) strains of Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., and Serratia spp. were reduced to the level of susceptibility (MIC of piperacillin, ≤16 μg/ml) when the drug was combined with 4, 2, or 1 μg of these penem inhibitors/ml. Protection against acute lethal bacterial infections with class A and C β-lactamase- and ESBL-producing organisms in mice was also demonstrated with piperacillin plus inhibitor. Median effective doses were reduced by approximately two- to eightfold compared to those of piperacillin alone when the drug was combined with the various inhibitors at a 4:1 ratio. Pharmacokinetic analysis after intravenous administration of the various inhibitors showed mean residence times of 0.1 to 0.5 h, clearance rates of 15 to 81 ml/min/kg, and volumes of distribution between 0.4 and 2.5 liters/kg. The novel methylidene penem molecules inhibit both class A and class C enzymes and warrant further investigation for potential as therapeutic agents when used in combination with a β-lactam antibiotic.
AC98-6446 is a novel semisynthetic cyclic glycopeptide antibiotic related to the natural product mannopeptimycin α (AC98-1). In the present study the activity of AC98-6446 was evaluated against a variety of recent clinical gram-positive pathogens including multiply resistant strains. AC98-6446 demonstrated similar potent activities against methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant staphylococci and glycopeptide-intermediate staphylococcal isolates (MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90s], 0.03 to 0.06 μg/ml). AC98-6446 also demonstrated good activities against both vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible strains of enterococci (MIC90s, 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively) as well as against streptococcal strains (MIC90s, ≤ 0.008 to 0.03 μg/ml). AC98-6446 demonstrated bactericidal activity in terms of the reduction in the viable counts (>3 log10 CFU/ml) of staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates and a marked decrease in the viable counts of most enterococcal strains (from 0.2 to 2.5 log10 CFU/ml). Unlike vancomycin, which demonstrates time-dependent killing, AC98-6446 demonstrated concentration-dependent killing. The potent activity, novel structure, and bactericidal activity demonstrated by AC98-6446 make it an attractive candidate for further development.
The naturally occurring mannopeptimycins (formerly AC98-1 through AC98-5) are a novel class of glycopeptide antibiotics that are active against a wide variety of gram-positive bacteria. The structures of the mannopeptimycins suggested that they might act by targeting cell wall biosynthesis, similar to other known glycopeptide antibiotics; but the fact that the mannopeptimycins retain activity against vancomycin-resistant organisms suggested that they might have a unique mode of action. By using a radioactive mannopeptimycin derivative bearing a photoactivation ligand, it was shown that mannopeptimycins interact with the membrane-bound cell wall precursor lipid II [C55-MurNAc-(peptide)-GlcNAc] and that this interaction is different from the binding of other lipid II-binding antibiotics such as vancomycin and mersacidin. The antimicrobial activities of several mannopeptimycin derivatives correlated with their affinities toward lipid II, suggesting that the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis was primarily through lipid II binding. In addition, it was shown that mannopeptimycins bind to lipoteichoic acid in a rather nonspecific interaction, which might facilitate the accumulation of antibiotic on the bacterial cell surface.
The activity of tigecycline against Staphylococcus epidermidis growing in an in vitro adherent-cell biofilm model was determined. Tigecycline minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranged from 1 to 8 μg/ml for S. epidermidis growing in a biofilm of adherent cells, compared to MBCs of 0.12 to >32 μg/ml for freely growing cells. The killing activity of tigecycline against the adherent bacteria was at least fourfold better than that of vancomycin and daptomycin.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains are less susceptible to tigecycline (previously GAR-936; MIC, 8 μg/ml) than many other bacteria (P. J. Petersen, N. V. Jacobus, W. J. Weiss, P. E. Sum, and R. T. Testa, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:738-744, 1999). To elucidate the mechanism of resistance to tigecycline, P. aeruginosa PAO1 strains defective in the MexAB-OprM and/or MexXY (OprM) efflux pumps were tested for susceptibility to tigecycline. Increased susceptibility to tigecycline (MIC, 0.5 to 1 μg/ml) was specifically associated with loss of MexXY. Transcription of mexX and mexY was also responsive to exposure of cells to tigecycline. To test for the emergence of compensatory efflux pumps in the absence of MexXY-OprM, mutants lacking MexXY-OprM were plated on medium containing tigecycline at 4 or 6 μg/ml. Resistant mutants were readily recovered, and these also had decreased susceptibility to several other antibiotics, suggesting efflux pump recruitment. One representative carbenicillin-resistant strain overexpressed OprM, the outer membrane channel component of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump. The mexAB-oprM repressor gene, mexR, from this strain contained a 15-bp in-frame deletion. Two representative chloramphenicol-resistant strains showed expression of an outer membrane protein slightly larger than OprM. The mexCD-OprJ repressor gene, nfxB, from these mutants contained a 327-bp in-frame deletion and an IS element insertion, respectively. Together, these data indicated drug efflux mediated by MexCD-OprJ. The MICs of the narrower-spectrum semisynthetic tetracyclines doxycycline and minocycline increased more substantially than did those of tigecycline and other glycylcyclines against the MexAB-OprM- and MexCD-OprJ-overexpressing mutant strains. This suggests that glycylcyclines, although they are subject to efflux from P. aeruginosa, are generally inferior substrates for P. aeruginosa efflux pumps than are narrower-spectrum tetracyclines.
Tigecycline has good broad-spectrum activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens with the notable exception of the Proteeae. A study was performed to identify the mechanism responsible for the reduced susceptibility to tigecycline in Proteus mirabilis. Two independent transposon insertion mutants of P. mirabilis that had 16-fold-increased susceptibility to tigecycline were mapped to the acrB gene homolog of the Escherichia coli AcrRAB efflux system. Wild-type levels of decreased susceptibility to tigecycline were restored to the insertion mutants by complementation with a clone containing a PCR-derived fragment from the parental wild-type acrRAB efflux gene cluster. The AcrAB transport system appears to be associated with the intrinsic reduced susceptibility to tigecycline in P. mirabilis.
Tigecycline (GAR-936) and daptomycin are potent antibacterial compounds in advanced stages of clinical trials. These novel agents target multiply resistant pathogenic bacteria. Daptomycin is principally active against gram-positive bacteria, while tigecycline has broad-spectrum activity. When tested by the standard protocols of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards in Mueller-Hinton broth II, tigecycline was more active than daptomycin (MICs at which 90% of isolates tested are inhibited, 0.12 to 1 and 0.5 to 16 μg/ml, respectively) against staphylococcal, enterococcal, and streptococcal pathogens. Daptomycin demonstrated a stepwise increase in activity corresponding to an increase in the supplemental concentration of calcium. When tested in base Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 50 mg of calcium per liter, daptomycin demonstrated improved activity (MIC90s, 0.015 to 4 μg/ml). The activity of daptomycin, however, equaled that of tigecycline against the glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (GISA) strains only when the test medium was supplemented with excess calcium (75 mg/liter). Tigecycline and daptomycin demonstrated in vivo efficacies against GISA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains in an intraperitoneal systemic murine infection model. These data suggest that tigecycline and daptomycin may offer therapeutic options against clinically relevant resistant pathogens for which current alternatives for treatment are limited.
Previous studies suggested that a Gly-containing branch of cell wall precursor [C55-MurNAc-(peptide)-GlcNAc], which is often referred to as lipid II, might serve as a nucleophilic acceptor in sortase-catalyzed anchoring of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus. To test this hypothesis, we first simplified the procedure for in vitro biosynthesis of Gly-containing lipid II by using branched UDP-MurNAc-hexapeptide isolated from the cytoplasm of Streptomyces spp. Second, we designed a thin-layer chromatography-based assay in which the mobility of branched but not linear lipid II is shifted in the presence of both sortase and LPSTG-containing peptide. These results and those of additional experiments presented in this study further suggest that lipid II indeed serves as a natural substrate in a sorting reaction.